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人类最深层最黑暗的恐惧 – 译学馆
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人类最深层最黑暗的恐惧

Humanity's Deepest, Darkest Fear

[片头音乐]
[♪ INTRO ]
先问你一个问题 你害怕什么东西?
Here’s a question for you: What’s somethingyou’re afraid of?
你脑海里浮现的第一个答案
The first answer that comes to mind
可能就是你特别害怕的东西
might be your typical boggart stuff.
像恐怖电影里的小孩子
Like, small children in horror movies,
参加整个学期没去过的课堂测试
taking a test in a class that you haven ’ t been to all semester,
诸如此类
that kind of thing.
但你之前跳上床时
But what about when you used to leap into bed,
会觉得有怪物会咬你的脚趾吗?
the monsters would nip at your toes?
或者当飞机太过颠簸时
Or when your flight was so bumpy,
会认为人生结束了吗?
you thought it was all over?
或者也许最糟的是
Or maybe worst of all,
当你摘掉帽子 脱掉外套
when you took off your cap and gown
想知道接下来会发生什么?
and wondered what was next?
抱歉 这些都是真的
Sorry, that just got real.
我们中的大多数在人生的某个节点
Most of us experience these common fears — of the dark,
普遍会经历对黑暗 死亡或未来的恐惧
of death, or of the future — at some point in our lives.
据心理学家说
And according to psychologists,
这是有原因的
there could be a reason for that.
一些研究员认为
Some researchers have argued
在这些恐惧的背后可能有一种恐惧根源
that there might be one fundamental fear underlying all of these things.
这是你所有担忧的根源 这种恐惧是:
One you can trace all of your worries to:
对未知的恐惧
the fear of the unknown.
因此当阿不思·邓布利多说
So when Albus Dumbledore said,
“我们对死亡和黑暗的恐惧 是对未知的恐惧
“ It is the unknown we fear when we look upon death and darkness,
仅此而已” 他可能说对了
nothing more” — he might have beenactually right.
J.K.罗琳再次停更
Jo Rowling strikes again.
很长时间内心理学家一直试图理解恐惧
Psychologists, maybe unsurprisingly,
大概是不足为奇的事
have been trying to understand fear for a long time.
早期就很明显的是
It was obvious early on that people have
人们的个体差异可能让他们或多或少的
individual differences that make them more or less likely
感到害怕和焦虑
to feel afraid and anxious.
但为什么一些恐惧比其他更普遍就不太清楚了
But what was less clear was why some fears are more common than others.
有观点认为某些刺激可能是所谓的
One idea was that certain stimuli might be quote-unquote
对激起恐惧的“生理准备”
“biologically prepared” to provoke fear,
更直白地说
which was basically a fancy way of saying
对某物恐惧是天生的
that being afraid of some stuff is innate,
因为是恐惧让我们活下去
because it helps keep us alive.
理论上来说 这能解释为什么
In theory, this could explain why so many
我们中的很多人怕像蜘蛛 蛇这类东西
of us are afraid of things like spiders and snakes.
问题是 虽然大多数蜘蛛并没有危险
The problem, though, is that most spidersaren’t really that dangerous.
一般而言 它们甚至没有蘑菇危险
Generally speaking, they’re not as nearlyas dangerous as like mushrooms,
但我们中的大多数感觉不到蘑菇特别危险
but most of us don’t find mushrooms especially terrifying.
另一个问题是 研究表明
Another problem is that research shows
大多六个月的婴儿并不怕蛇一类东西
that most six-month-old infants aren ’ t afraid of things like snakes,
这意味着 我们是后来才学会怕它们的
which seems to suggest that we learn to fear them later.
然而 四个月的孩子的确普遍表现出
Four-months-olds, however, do generally show fear
对陌生刺激的恐惧
in response to unfamiliar stimuli.
从进化上讲
And evolutionarily speaking,
未知是人们普遍天生都害怕的东西
the unknown makes a lot more sense as a universal,
这种说法更说得通
-innate thing to be afraid of.
如果你从没遭遇某事
If you’ve never encountered something before,
你不知如何处理
you don’t know how to deal with it,
这意味着要更谨慎
which means a little caution might be in order.
1991年一位临床心理学家提出
The idea of this kind of broad, fundamental fear,
对未知的恐惧是广泛的恐惧根源
rather than innate fears to specific stimuli
而不是对特定刺激的天生恐惧的观点
was proposed by a clinical psychologist in 1991.
他列出了判定恐惧根源的一些标准
He suggested a few criteria for this base fear:
必须是天生不喜欢的某事
it had to be of something inherently unpleasant,
要和其它恐惧根源有区别
it had to be distinct from other fundamental fears,
要能解释我们害怕普通事物的原因
and it had to explain other common things we’re afraid of.
他相信恐惧根源分三大类
He believed there were three of them:
焦虑恐惧 对物理伤害的恐惧
the fears of anxiety, of physical injury,
对否定评价的恐惧
and of negative evaluation.
这一观点也获得了支持
And there was some support for this idea.
1993年有一项研究调查了100个被试者
Like a 1993 study that surveyed 100 subjects
发现人们报告上的普遍恐惧 比如恐高
and found that the common fears people reported,
可以通过这些恐惧根源完美诠释
like being terrified of heights, were well explained by these fundamental fears.
这些类别似乎各不相同
And the categories also seemed to be distinct from each other.
但是更近期 心理学家开始提出
But more recently, psychologists have started to argue
为定义恐惧根源添加
that additional criteria are necessary
一个附加标准很有必要
to define a fundamental fear.
除了我们已提及的标准
In addition to the stuff we’ve already mentioned,
这些研究员建议的是
these researchers suggest that they should
也应该在整个人类范围内进行平均分布式调查
also be distributed evenly throughout the population
并以进化论的解释作为支撑
and be supported by an evolutionary explanation.
而且再没有比它们更根本的了
It also shouldn ’ t be possible to reduce them to anything more fundamental.
这意味着对焦虑 物理伤害 否定评价的恐惧
This means that the fears of anxiety, physical injury,
可能不会通过试验
and negative evaluation might not pass the test.
例如 不是每个人都有这些恐惧
For one, not everybody has them like
从寻求刺激的人到重度瘾君子
plenty of people, from thrill seekers to deadline junkies,
他们事实上是想获得焦虑
actually seek out anxiety.
虽然 更大的问题是 所有这些恐惧
The bigger problem, though,
都会被简化 归类于其他恐惧
is that all of these can be reduced or attributed to other fears
对未知的恐惧就是其中之一
one of which is the fear of the unknown.
这种恐惧的确符合所有标准
And this fear does meet all the criteria.
就像研究员写的那样
As the researchers writing about it point out,
对未知的恐惧可能是一切恐惧的源头
it very well could be the one fear to rule them all.
如果你想知道的话:是的
In case you were wondering: Yes,
论文中托尔金的参考文献也是经过深思熟虑的
the Tolkien reference is deliberate and heavy-handed in the paper, too.
因为有时 科学家们就是一群呆子
Because sometimes, scientists are a bunch of dorks.
当然 对未知的恐惧
Of course, a fear of the unknown
在实验室中很难证明
isn’t an easy thing to validate in the lab.
但是很多研究都表明
But there are plenty of studies to suggest
我们更喜欢熟悉和可靠的东西
that we prefer familiarity and the sure thing,
这些东西对我们的行为有非常强烈的影响
and that they can have a pretty wild effect on our behavior.
研究表明 我们更喜欢
Research shows that we ’ re more likely
去以前去过的旅游景点
to visit a travel destination that we ’ ve been to before,
如果我们相信自己队伍能赢
and we ’ re more likely to attend a baseball game if we feel confident
就更有可能参加棒球赛
that our team will win.
虽然没人想被电击
And although no one wants to be zapped,
但是知道电击的时间比不知道
knowing when electrical shocks are coming even makes
更能减轻压力和焦躁
the experience less stressful and anxiety-provoking than not knowing.
还有临床证据表明
There ’ s also clinical evidence to suggest
我们真的会接触对未知的恐惧
that the fear of the unknown really gets to us.
研究已经表明 如果你对不稳定感到不安
If you ’ re uncomfortable with uncertainty, studies have shown,
你可能会更恐惧和焦虑
you ’ re likely to have more fear and anxiety.
而那些有特定疾病的人
And those with certain disorders,
从恐惧 社交焦虑到强迫症和抑郁症
anything from panic and social anxiety disorders to OCD and depression,
看起来特别受这种恐惧的影响
seem to be especially affected by this fear.
虽然一些事物看起来的确在那
While it does seem like there ’ s something there,
但是很难准确说出恐惧根源是否存在
it ’ s hard to say for sure whether fundamental fears exist,
更不必说对未知的恐惧
let alone whether the fear
是不是人类恐惧的基础了
of the unknown is the base human fear.
然而 如果是 这会是一份满意的答卷
If it is, though, it would be a pretty satisfying answer
解答了我们关于自己或大或小的诸多问题
to a lot of questions we have about ourselves, big and small.
它能解释为什么 一旦你见过怪物
It could help explain why horror movies stop being
恐怖电影就没那么可怕的原因
as scary once you ’ ve seen the monster,
或者为什么没有比等着发现别人的想法
or why there ’ s literally nothing worse
或者纠结是否能获得工作更糟糕的事了
than waiting to find out what someone thinks or whether you got that job.
但目前来说 我们必须处理这个事实
For now, though, we’ve just got to deal with the fact that
那就是当涉及到对未知的恐惧
there ’ s still a lot of, well, unknowns
我们对此仍有许多未知
when it comes to our fear ofthe unknown.
感谢观看心理科学秀
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Psych!
如果你想了解为何有些东西使你抓狂
If you want to learn even more about why stuff freaks us out,
你可以观看
you can watch our episode about
“为什么科学家认为我们特别害怕黑暗”那期节目
why scientists think we’re specificallyafraid of the dark.
[片尾曲]
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

你最害怕的是什么?人类恐惧的源头是什么?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

岸雩

审核员

审核员YZ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cA_-x9TYyUE

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