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政府和社会资本,谁来引导科学发展 – 译学馆
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政府和社会资本,谁来引导科学发展

Humanity Relies on Two Kinds of Science — But Only One Gets the Big Bucks | Avideh Zakhor bigthink

大想法
big think
他们称之为“小科学对大科学”
They call it “Little Science versus Big Science.”
所以现在大科学的发展趋势是
So the trend in big science is now,
“好的 我们将建一个超级中心
“Okay, wow. We’re going to have a mega-center
每年有5亿美元经费 坐落于某大学
of $50 million a year, going to University of X,
你知道吗 一百名科学家
and you know, a hundred scientists are all going to
将要一同为这个大项目工作”
be working on this one gigantic project.”
这方面的典型例子就是粒子物理学实验
And you know, examples of those are particle physics experiments
你需要大量的资金
where you need a huge amount of capital.
政府资助越来越多的流向大科学
Government funding is more towards more and more big science,
而小科学似乎被遗忘了
and little science is kind of getting ignored. 
小科学就是 你知道的
Small science is, you know,
独立的投资人或者科学家单打独斗
individual investigators or scientists thinking about an idea
风险非常大
that is very risky.
你仍然不知道
You still don’t know
它未来的进一步研究成果
whether it warrants $50 million worth of investment
是否能值5亿美元投资
in terms of further scientific inquiry,
但一点钱就可能维持项目运行很久
but a little bit of money could go a long way.
所以当我去国会山时
So when I visited Capitol Hill,
我并没有感到
I didn’t feel that
许多科学方面的事项被忽视
there was a lot of scientific ignorance going on,
这更像是政治意识形态
but more like political ideology
例如政府要如何拨款
as to how government funding
以及政府的资金应该用于何处
and where government funding should be applied. 
因此 比如当我描述一个
So, for example, when I described the project
我们在加州大学伯克利分校搞的项目时
that we were working on at the time at UC Berkeley.
该项目被能源部商业化
And that was being commercialized by
成为了一个“真正的”公司
the Department of Energy into a “real” company.
我们在国会遇到的一些人就想
Some of the people that we met in Capitol Hill thought that
政府不应该为
government should not be in the business of
公司生产产品而拨款
funding companies to make products.
他们认为这是风投的事儿
They thought that venture capitalists should.
我的回答是
And my response to that was,
“好 如果你去拜访一般的
“Well, if you visit run-of-the-mill, you know,
海湾地区沙山路上的风投家们
Sandhill Road venture capitalists in the Bay area,
他们最感兴趣的可能是社交媒体一类的公司”
they’re mostly interested in social media kind of companies:
“谁能打败Facebook(脸书)”
“Who’s going to beat Facebook?
“谁将成为下一个Twitter(推特)”
Who’s going to be the next Twitter?
“谁将成为下一个Linked In(领英)”
Who’s going to be the next Linked In?
或“社会成为下一个Google(谷歌)”
Or who’s going to be the next Google,”
这些投资广告收益巨大
which has a huge advertising revenue.
那么就有两种情况:
And so there’s two things there:
一个就是小一些的项目
One is, smaller projects that
虽然拥有较大的社会影响却可能被忽略掉
that have bigger impact and societal impact kind of get ignored.
同样 有利可图的技术
Also, niche technologies that
那些我们在未来可应用的技术将不会繁荣发展
we can build on for future things will not thrive,
将会凋谢
will go away.
许多东西之所以现在能让我们获利
A lot of the things that we’re reaping the benefit of today
是基于60到80年代
was because of the basic scientific research
我们所投资科学研究的成果
that we funded in the 60s and the 70s and the 80s.
所以如果政府不再为这类研究提供资助
So if they stop doing that kind of funding by the government,
不久之后我们就将没有基础科技可用了
after a while we just won’t have anything to build on top of.
我们将只能在社交媒体上
We’ll just be advertising to each other,
互相打打广告聊聊天而已
and connecting with each other on social media.
就是这样
And that’s it.
这不是我们想要的结局
And that’s not where we want to end up. 
所以政府需要扮演特定的角色
So there is a role for government,
要促进科学研究
in terms of promoting scientific research,
既为了科学研究
for both the sake of scientific research
也为了科研的商业化
and also for commercializing the scientific research.
只有政府能够
The government is the only entity
具有更长远眼光
that can take a slightly longer point of view,
在技术发展方面来说是这样的
in terms of these developments.
但我认为这样很好
But I think it’s good for that to happen.
因为有时候一个好创意需要一点资助
Because sometimes good ideas need a little bit of funding,
才能够成长为大创意
before they can become bigger ideas.
bigthink.com
BIGTHINK.COM

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视频概述

好的创意需要一些资助才能够成长为大创意,这不只是风投的事儿

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

AF

审核员

审核团SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cNAIDN5FLaw

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