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史前101:人类起源

Human Origins 101 | National Geographic

在工业 农业和文明产生的数百万年前
Millions of years before industry, agriculture and civilization,
世界舞台为一个物种的空前崛起而存在
the world stage was set for one creature’s unprecedented rise.
史前101:人类起源
PREHISTORY 101: HUMAN ORIGINS
人类进化的历程大约开始于700万年前
The story of humanity’s evolution began about 7 million years ago,
那时人类谱系同黑猩猩分支开来
when the human lineage broke away from that of chimpanzees.
随着时间的推移 出现了20余种早期人种
Over time, an ensemble cast of over 20 early human species
或被称为类人生物
or hominins came to the fore.
他们其中的大部分都已经灭绝了
Most became extinct,
而幸存下来的那部分很有可能是现代人类的祖先
while others might have been ancestors to today’s humans.
每种早期人类都表现出不同程度的类人的身体和行为特征
Each species exhibited varying degrees of human-like physical and behavioral traits,
例如拥有硕大的大脑 小型的牙齿
such as large brains, small teeth,
双足直立行走 并会使用工具
bipedality, and tool use.
这些早期人类被分为三个主要类别
These hominins fell into three major groups:
早期原始人类
early hominins,
南方古猿
australopithecines,
以及人属
and homo genus.
人类的最早的近亲生活在
Humanity’s earliest relatives lived
440万年到700万年前的非洲
between 7 and 4.4 million years ago in Africa.
由于与黑猩猩拥有共同的祖先
Having most recently shared a common ancestor with chimpanzees,
他们具有许多类猿特征 例如较小的颅内容量
they had many ape-like traits such as a small cranial capacity.
然而 化石发现证明 许多早期原始人类
However, fossils show that some ancient hominins
也开始呈现出类人特征
were also beginning to show human-like characteristics,
例如可能更多的用于进食
such as small canines that were likely used more for eating
而非用于捕猎和战斗的小型犬齿
and not for hunting or fighting.
早期人类进化的下一个篇章
The next phase of hominin evolution
涉及到灵长类动物 被称为南方古猿
involved primates called australopithecines.
140万年到440万年前他们遍布整个非洲大陆
they lived between 4.4 and 1.4 million years ago across the African continent.
同他们古老的同胞一样
Like their ancient brethren,
南方古猿也具有一些猿类特征
australopithecines had some ape-like traits.
然而 他们的头骨 脊柱和双腿的改变
However, changes in the skull, spine and legs
预示了一个明显的转向类人特征的进化
indicate a notable shift toward a very human-like trait:
即完全的直立行走
consistent bipedal locomotion.
人类进化的第三个阶段 也是目前所处的阶段
The third and current phase of human evolution
属于人属
involves members of the genus homo.
最早的人属物种
The earliest homo species
大约能追溯到200余万年前
likely date to more than 2 million years ago,
和南方古猿处于同一个时代
making them a contemporary of some australopithecines.
但和之前的原始人类不同的是
But unlike earlier hominins,
原始人类具有介于人类和猿类之间的特征
who exhibited a mosaic of ape-and-human-like traits,
而人属物种明显逐渐变得更加人类化
homo species were becoming distinctly more human.
他们的颅容量变得比其他任何类人物种都更大
Their cranial capacity was growing larger than any other hominins.
他们拥有精致的石器制作技术
They developed sophisticated stone tool technology,
并且成为了最先掌握火的物种
and they became the first to control fire.
这些生理和行为上的适应
These physical and behavioral adaptations
和技术上的进步
along with advancements in technology
使得一些人属物种成为第一批离开非洲的物种
allowed some homo species to be the first to migrate out of Africa
探索广袤的世界
and explore the rest of the world.
虽然曾有20多种早期人类行走在地球上
While a cast of over 20 hominin species have walked this earth,
但如今只剩下了一种
only one remains.
智人 在经历了数百万年的进化后
Homo sapiens, shaped by millions of years of evolution,
走上了一条探索和发展的道路
embarked on a journey of exploration and Industry
这是智人的祖先们在梦中才会看到的
its ancestors could have only dreamed.

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视频概述

从原始人类到智人,人类进化历程简介。

听录译者

在濑

翻译译者

审核员

审核员 DL

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ehV-MmuvVMU

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