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人一生要吃掉28吨食物,我们的消化系统是怎么做到的? – 译学馆
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人一生要吃掉28吨食物,我们的消化系统是怎么做到的?

How your digestive system works - Emma Bryce

Across the whole planet,
纵观这个星球
humans eat on average between one and 2.7 kilograms of food a day.
人们平均每天要吃掉1到2.7千克食物
That’s over 365 kilograms a year per person,
相当于每人一年365千克还多
and more than 28,800 kilograms over the course of a lifetime.
一生28800千克以上
And every last scrap makes its way through the digestive system.
最后所有残渣都要通过消化系统
Comprised of ten organs covering nine meters,
消化系统由10个覆盖9米的器官组成
and containing over 20 specialized cell types,
并且包含20多种专门的细胞
this is one of the most diverse and complicated systems in the human body.
是人体中最复杂多样的系统之一
Its parts continuously work in unison to fulfill a singular task:
其各个部分持续协调运作来完成一项任务:
transforming the raw materials of your food
将你吃下的食物原料
into the nutrients and energy that keep you alive.
转化成维持生命的营养和能量
Spanning the entire length of your torso,
消化系统覆盖整个躯干
the digestive system has four main components. First,
有着四个主要的成分
there’s the gastrointestinal tract,
其一 胃肠道
a twisting channel that transports your food
即输送食物的弯曲的渠道
and has an internal surface area
胃肠道内表面积
of between 30 and 40 square meters,
约在30到40平方米之间
enough to cover half a badminton court. Second,
这个大小足够覆盖半个羽毛球场
there’s the pancreas, gallbladder, and liver,
其二 胰腺 胆囊和肝脏
a trio of organs that break down food using an array of special juices. Third,
即用大量特殊的消化液分解食物的器官三重组合
the body’s enzymes, hormones, nerves,
其三 身体中的酶 荷尔蒙 神经和血液
and blood all work together to break down food,
它们共同作用来分解食物
modulate the digestive process, and deliver its final products. Finally,
调节消化过程 输送最终产物
there’s the mesentery, a large stretch of tissue that supports
最后 肠系膜 很大的一片组织
and positions all your digestive organs in the abdomen,
支撑和安置腹部所有消化器官
enabling them to do their jobs.
使它们能够各尽其职
The digestive process begins before food even hits your tongue.
消化过程甚至在食物入口之前就开始了
Anticipating a tasty morsel,
(当你)期盼一口美食
glands in your mouth start to pump out saliva.
口中的腺体就开始产生大量的唾液
We produce about 1.5 liters of this liquid each day.
每天我们大约制造1.5公升唾液
Once inside your mouth, chewing combines with the sloshing saliva
食物一旦入口 酶就结合着被来回搅动的唾液
to turn food into a moist lump called the bolus,
将食物嚼成湿漉漉的一团 即食团
enzymes present in the saliva break down any starch. Then,
并分解所有淀粉
your food finds itself at the rim
然后 食物就会到达食道口边缘
of a 25-centimeter-long tube called the esophagus,
食道管长度有25厘米
down which it must plunge to reach the stomach.
顺着它 食物迅速下落到胃部
Nerves in the surrounding esophageal tissue
周围的食道组织神经
sense the bolus’s presence and trigger peristalsis,
感应到食团的存在 并触发肠胃蠕动
a series of defined muscular contractions.
即一系列的界限明确的肌肉收缩
That propels the food into the stomach,
这种收缩推动食物进入胃部
where it’s left at the mercy of the muscular stomach walls,
任肌肉发达的胃壁处置
which bound the bolus, breaking it into chunks. Hormones,
胃壁围住食团 把它分解成块
secreted by cells in the lining,
荷尔蒙由内壁膜分泌
trigger the release of acids and enzyme-rich juices from the stomach wall
引起胃壁中胃酸和富含酶的消化液的释放
that start to dissolve the food and break down its proteins.
这两者开始溶解食物 并分解蛋白质
These hormones also alert the pancreas, liver,
荷尔蒙也会提醒胰 肝和胆囊
and gallbladder to produce digestive juices and transfer bile,
制造消化液
a yellowish-green liquid that digests fat,
并输送能消化脂肪的黄绿色胆汁
in preparation for the next stage.
来为下一阶段做准备
After three hours inside the stomach,
在腹中三小时后
the once shapely bolus is now a frothy liquid called chyme,
曾经形状分明的食团现在变成了被称为“食糜”的泡沫液体
and it’s ready to move into the small intestine.
并做好了进入小肠的准备
The liver receives bile from the gallbladder
肝脏从胆囊接收胆汁
and secretes it into the first portion of the small intestine called the duodenum. Here,
并把胆汁分泌到小肠的第一个部分——十二指肠
it dissolves the fats floating in the slurry of chyme
十二指肠将食糜浆中浮动的脂肪溶解
so they can be easily digested by the pancreatic and intestinal juices that have leached onto the scene.
使它们能被过滤到十二指肠中的胰液和肠液毫不费力地消化掉
These enzyme-rich juices break the fat molecules down into fatty acids
这些富含酶的消化液将脂肪分子分解成
and glycerol for easier absorption into the body.
身体更容易吸收的脂肪酸和甘油
The enzymes also carry out the final deconstruction of
酶还会把最终的蛋白质分解物转化成
proteins into amino acids and carbonhydrates into glucose.
氨基酸和碳水化合物以合成葡萄糖
This happens in the small intestine’s lower regions,
这个过程发生在小肠下部
the jejunum and ileum,
即空肠和回肠
which are coated in millions of tiny projections called villi.
它们被大量的微小隆起物“绒毛”覆盖
These create a huge surface area to maximize molecule absorption
绒毛为分子的最大化吸收以及进入血流输送
and transference into the blood stream.
创造了很大的表面
The blood takes them on the final leg of their journey
血液将它们带上了最后一程
to feed the body’s organs and tissues.
来供养身体器官和组织
But it’s not over quite yet.
但(到这里)还没有完全结束
Leftover fiber, water, and dead cells sloughed off during digestion
残存的纤维 水分和死亡的细胞在消化期间蜕落
make it into the large intestine, also known as the colon.
进入大肠 也称为结肠
The body drains out most of the remaining fluid through the intestinal wall.
身体通过肠壁排出其余大部分液体
What’s left is a soft mass called stool.
剩下软软的一团 就是粪便
The colon squeezes this byproduct into a pouch called the rectum,
大肠把这个副产品挤入一个袋状体 即直肠
where nerves sense it expanding
直肠神经感测到扩张
and tell the body when it’s time to expel the waste.
并会在到了该排出废物的时候给身体发出信号
The byproducts of digestion exit through the anus
消化的副产物通过肛门排出身体时
and the food’s long journey,
通常持续30到40小时的
typically lasting between 30 and 40 hours,
食物的长长的旅程
is finally complete.
就最终完成了

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消化系统工作原理

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