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我们的大脑是如何被操纵的 – 译学馆
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我们的大脑是如何被操纵的

How Your Brain Is Getting Hacked: Facebook, Tinder, Slot Machines | Tristan Harris

有件我们不愿谈及的事情——
One thing we don’t talk about is that—it’s sort
有点儿难以谈及——我们的大脑存在这样的“后门”
of hard to talk about this—our minds have theses kind of back doors.
就像是 如果你是个人
There’s kind of—if you’re human and
当你一觉醒来 睁开眼睛(发现)
you wake up and you open your eyes
你的体验中有某些被操纵的部分
there is a certain set of dimensions to your experiencethat can be manipulated.
我年轻的时候 曾是个魔术师
When I was a kid I was a magician,
你学会所有这些限制
and you learn all about these limits,
短期的记忆就这么长 有不同的反应时间
that short-term memory is about this long and there’s different reaction times,
并且如果你以某种方式询问人们某些问题 就能够左右答案
and if you ask people certain questions in certain ways you can controlthe answer.
这正是人类的构造
And this is just the structure of being human.
生而为人意味着你在每一刻都可能被说服
To be human means that you are persuadable in every single moment.
我是说关于魔术这事儿 以此为例
I mean the thing about magic, as an example,
魔术欺骗了每个人 手上的把戏 不是吗
it’s that magic works on everybody, sleight of hand, right?
你用什么语言无关紧要
It doesn’t matter what language you speak,
你的智力如何也无伤大雅
it doesn’t matter how intelligent you are,
这无关于人们知道的事:
it’s not about what someone knows:
它跟你的大脑究竟如何运转有关
it’s about how your mind actually works.
那么知道这点
So knowing this,
这一整套说服性科技的蓝本
it turns out that there’s this whole playbook of persuasive techniques
实际上是我从
that actually I learned when I was
斯坦福大学“说服性科技实验室”学到的
at the Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab and that
而且硅谷技术产业方面的多数人也是把它当作
most people in Silicon Valley in the tech industry learned
吸引你注意力的方式来学习的
as ways of getting your attention.
有个例子是:对社会的认可 我们都没有免疫力
So one example is: we are all vulnerable tosocial approval.
我们确实很在意别人如何评价自己
We really care what other people think ofus.
比如 当你在Facebook上 上传一张自己新的头像时
So for example, when you upload a new profile photo of yourself on Facebook,
那是我们的大脑很容易被认知的时刻
that’s a moment where our mind is very vulnerable to knowing,
“别人会怎么评价我的新头像呢”
“ what do other people think of my new profile photo?”
而且 我们的头像得到新的“赞”时 Facebook——清楚这点——实际上会
And so when we get new likes on our profile photo, Facebook—knowing this—could actually
给我推送消息说
message me and say,
“噢 你的头像收到新的‘赞’啦”
“ oh, you have new likes on your profile photo. ”
Facebook知道 那一刻我们很敏感
And it knows that we’ll be vulnerable to that moment
因为当附着于照片或上传一张新的头像时
because we all really care about when
我们确实会很在意(别人的评价)
we’re tagged in a photo or when we have a new profile photo.
事实上 它们控制着操纵盘
And the thing is that they control the dial,
科技公司控制着表盘:
the technology companies control the dial
你的照片何时出现在别人的信息流中
for when and how long your profile photo shows up
出现多久 它们通过精心安排 这样其他人经常会
on other people’s newsfeeds, so they can orchestrate it so that other people more often
过一段时间才看到你的照片 例如
end up liking your profile photo over a delayed period of time, for example,
这样你就会更频繁地返回查看新的‘赞’是什么
so that you end up having to more frequently come back and see what the new likes are.
问题在于 因为这样很阴险他们会不这么做
And the problem is that they don’t do this
同样 因为要继续争相吸引我们的注意力
because they’re evil, they do it because, again,
他们也这样做了
they’re in this race for our attention.
我们也要问问
And we should also ask,
若它们精心策划此事就是想让别人喜欢我的照片
is that necessarily such a bad thing if they’re orchestrating
这件龌龊的事情有必要吗
it so that other people like my photo?
我的意思是这可能对我来说感觉良好
I mean that might feel good to me.
我们必须要重新谈谈
So we have to have a new conversation about,
这些科技公司利用这些技术
as these technology companies use these techniques,
(利用)这些大脑的缺陷
these vulnerabilities in our minds,
这些科技什么时候被调整 然后能对我们有利?
when is that actually aligned and good for us?
什么时候能做到守伦理 什么时候能够做到讲诚信?
When is that ethical? When is that honest?
什么时候做到公平 什么时候又会欺诈不公呢?
When is that fair? And when is that dishonest and unfair?
因为它们实际上
Because they’re actually manipulating our minds
以不增加我们在屏幕前花费的时间的方式来控制我们的大脑
in a way that doesn’t add up to our spending our time well on the screen. Well,
我们脑中另一弱点是被称作可变奖励的东西
so another vulnerability in our mind is something called a variable schedule reward,
就像是拉斯维加斯的老虎机
and that’s like a slot machine in Las Vegas.
结果表明 在美国 老虎机
It turns out that slot machines make more money
比棒球运动
in the United States than baseball,
电影和主题公园加一块儿都赚钱
movies and theme parks combined.
人们变得对老虎机上瘾了
People become addicted to slot machines,
我认为它比赌场里任何其他赌博
I think it’s two to three times faster than
(赚钱速度)都快上两三倍
any other kind of gambling in a casino.
这很疯狂 可为什么会这样呢
So it’s insane. And why is that?
因为它很简单:
Because it’s very simple:
你只需拉一下操纵杆 有时就会有收获
you just pull a lever, and sometimes you get a reward and
有时候不会
sometimes you don’t.
它越是随机的 变数就越大 也越会让人上瘾
And the more random it is and the more variable it is the more addictive it becomes.
事实上 那也把我们的手机也变成了老虎机 因为每次
And the thing is, that that turns our phone into a slot machine, because every time we
我们查看手机时 都像在玩老虎机 查看
check our phone we’re playing the slot machine to see
“我收到了什么”
“ what did I get? ”
每次我们查看自己的邮件时
Every time that we check our email,
都像在玩老虎机 “我收到了什么
we’re playing the slot machine to see, “ What did I get?
我接到《大想法》的采访邀请了吗
Did I get invited to an interview at Big Think
或是刚刚收到新的时事通讯了吗”
or did I just get another newsletter? ”
抑或你在诸如Tinder的交友网站 每次滑动都像
Or if you’re on a dating site like Tindr andwhen you’re swiping, each swipe is: you’re
在玩老虎机“我匹配上了吗”
playing the slot machine to see “ did I get a match? ”,
我正在玩老虎机“我匹配上了吗”
I’m playing the slot machine to see, “did I get a match?”
问题在于那种充满活力的
And the problem is that this dynamic,
这些可变奖励或老虎机
these variable schedule rewards or this slot machine mechanic,
充满了魔力 是让人上瘾并把人禁锢其中的
is so powerful that it’s the best thing
不二之选
at addicting people and putting you in the zone.
Facebook信息流的一位创始人告诉我
One of the original designers of the Facebook newsfeed told me that the thing that made
让信息流在2006年年初运作
the newsfeed work at the very, very,
是硬件开发的一部分
very beginning back in 2006 was in part a hardware innovation.
我看着她问道:“什么意思?”
And I looked at her and I said,”What do youmean?”
她说 这实际上就像鼠标上的滚轮
And she said it was actually the scroll wheel
因为鼠标有了滚轮
on a mouse, because with the scroll wheel
你的手再也不用离开原来的位置了
on a mouse your hand never had to leave
你只需滑一下就能接着往下看
its resting position—you just scroll to see the next thing.
因为此前 你必须点击
Because before that you had to click
向下按钮或移动鼠标并向下拖拽
on the down button or move your mouse and drag the
箭头并像那样滚动网页
arrow down and scroll the page that way.
或者 也可以用你的两根指头放在触摸板上来操作
When you don ’ t, you can take your two fingers on a track pad and do this
或只要滑动滚轮就行
or you can just scroll on a scroll wheel
这意味着你的手再也不用离开原来位置了
-it just means you hand never has to leave its resting position,
而且它更像一台老虎机:
and it’s more like a slot machine:
你只需像在维加斯那样查看并操作 按钮就在这儿
you can just keep swiping and playing just like in Vegas where there’s the button right there.
它们(科技公司)早就作了改进
They actually changed it.
事实上 它过去曾是拉杆 而现在是按钮 因为它们发现
In fact, it used to be a lever, and now it’s just a button in Vegas because they found
用这种方式更合适
it’s easier just to get people to see
更让人一目了然
if they get a match this way. So,
当我们运用这项技术时 有多少钱花在了手机上
how much on our phones, when we use our technology,
Instagram像老虎机吗
Instagram is like a slot machine?
信息流中下一个出来的会是什么
What’s going to come next on the feeds?
Snapchat是一种老虎机
Snapchat is a slot machine,
每次你看到红色的通知
each time you see the red notifications
你不会知道当你玩老虎机时 当你点击查看“我收到了什么”时
and you don’t know what’s behind it you’re playing the slot machine when you click
有什么东西正躲在后面
on it to see “ what did I get?”
它之所以遍布于这些科技产品 因为这是吸引别人注意力的
And so it’s sprinkled all throughout these products
非常瞩目的方式
because it’s a very compelling way of getting people’s attention.

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视频概述

现在科技日新月异,每个人都手握智能手机,每天花在各种应用上大把的时间,我们在使用软件,还是被各种应用操纵了呢?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

启点—飞雪群山

审核员

审核员 EY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JgkvTRz_Alo

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