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你的大脑如何幻想你的现实 – 译学馆
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你的大脑如何幻想你的现实

How Your Brain Hallucinates Your Reality

我们如何知道我们经历了真实的世界?
How do we know that we experience the real world?
事实上 我们很可能不知道
In fact, we probably don’t.
我们感知到的一切 我们经历的一切
Everything that we perceive, everything that we experience,
都是大脑编译的结果
is a result of the brain interpreting.
感知信息是通过特殊方式进入的
The sensory information that comes in in a particular way.
我是阿尼尔·赛斯
I’m Anil Seth.
是英国苏塞克斯大学的神经系统科学教授
I’m a professor of neuroscience at the University of Sussex in the UK.
现在可以这么说我们所有的经历都是幻觉
Now you could say that all of our experiences are all hallucinated.
只要我们认同了外部的信息
It’s just that whenever we agree about what’s out there,
那就是我们所谓的现实
that’s what we call reality.
大脑对现实提出了预先期望
Brain brings to bear its prior expectations about what’s out there
来解释这些不断出现的
in order to interpret this massive, noisy,
大量嘈杂和模糊的感觉信息
and ambiguous sensory information that it continually encounters.
感知 不仅仅是反映
Perception, instead of just being a reflection
世界上真实存在的东西
of what’s actually there in the world,
它总是这个主动的解释过程
is always this active process of interpretation.
这很容易认为那是通过眼睛看到的
It’s easy to assume that we see with our eyes.
事实上 我们是通过大脑“看”到的
In fact, we see with our brains.
眼睛当然是必须的
Our eyes are of course necessary,
但事实上 我们最终感知到的
but what we actually end up perceiving
更多的是大脑如何从眼睛中
is much more a product of how our brain interprets
解读所有这些信息
all this information from the eyes
而不是通过眼睛这扇窗户
than the eyes being this window
看到的外部现实事物
into an objective external reality.
当大脑编译感知信息的方式
And when the balance is disturbed
和实际感知到的信息
between how the brain interprets sensory information
之间的平衡发生干扰时
and what the sensory information actually is, well,
那就会开始出现一些人看到
that’s when people start to see things
另一些人没有看到的现象
that other people don’t,
那就是我们说的幻觉
and that’s what we call hallucination.
当你看着云
When you look at a cloud,
有时你能看到云里藏着脸
and sometimes you can see faces in clouds,
那是一种幻觉
now that’s a kind of hallucination.
看到东西的那些人实际上也没有看到
Other people who will see things that really other people don’t see,
那仅仅是因为他们预先期望
that’s just a different balance that they have
影响进入的感知数据的方式的
between how their prior expectations
不一样的平衡
influence the sensory data that comes in.
另一方面 当你吸食
Another aspect of this is when you take things
诸如能引起幻觉的毒品
like psychedelic drugs.
那同样也能让人们拥有不一样的体验
That also leads people to have unusual experiences,
看到一些不存在此的事物
to see things that aren’t there.
同样的 那不意味着这些东西真实存在
Again, it doesn’t mean that these things really exist.
它仅仅意味着你的大脑在用不同的方式工作
It just means that your brain is working in a different way
因此它的预先期望主导着这个感知信息
so that its prior expectations come to dominate this sensory information.
我们可以看到很多在大脑里发生的幻象
We can see a number of things that happen in the brain on psychedelics.
其中之一就是
One of the things
在大脑里发生的一般更倾向于紊乱无序的
that happens is the brain generally becomes a bit more disorganized.
通常在大脑里 其不同的部位会有相关的活动
Normally in the brain, different parts of the brain have activity that correlates.
因此我们能看到所有的这些网络
So we see all these networks in the brain
同时在大脑的不同区域活跃
with different areas active at the same time,
接着它们也会同时降低活跃度
and then they diminish their activity at the same time as well.
迷幻状态下视觉幻觉的发生方式
How visual hallucinations in the psychedelic state
可能是在迷幻状态下
might come about could be that in the psychedelic state,
你感觉到的更多依赖于大脑
what you perceive is dependent more on the brain
而不是通过眼睛和耳朵进入的感觉数据
than the sensory data that’s coming in through the eyes and the ears.
现在我们有机会尝试
And we have the opportunity now to try
精确描述这些是如何发生以及为什么发生
to characterize exactly how and why this happens.
但是我们所体验到的真实
But what we experience as being real
是大脑的编译
is a construction of the brain.
因此当我感受到一种特定的颜色时
So when I experience a particular color,
并不是说那种颜色存在于世界中
that doesn’t mean that color exists out there in the universe,
或者说红色杯子上的红色是
that a red mug is actually painted some color
独立于我的意识和大脑而存在的
that exists independently of my mind and brain.
不 红色是我的大脑为了解释视觉信息
No, red is something that my brain constructs
而构筑出来的
in order to interpret visual information.
这带来了一个问题 有什么东西是真实的吗?
This leads to the question, is anything real?
有真实的东西存在于世吗?
Is anything really there?

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