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你的血型如何保护你,伤害你

How Your Blood Type Protects and Hurts You

你应该已经知道血型对我们来说很重要
You already know that your blood type is important.
如果你失血过多 却输血错误的话 是很有可能致命的
If you’ve lost a lot of blood, getting a transfusion of the wrong stuff can be deadly.
但你知道吗 A B AB或者O型血都会让你陷入高风险疾病
But did you know that whether you’re A, B, AB, or O can also put you at higher risk
如疟疾 霍乱以及心脏病等
for things like malaria, cholera, and heart disease?
你的血型是由你体内特定的抗原决定的 就是
The blood type you have is the result of a specific kind of antigen — in this case,
一种在你血红细胞表层的糖类
a type of sugar — on the surface of your red blood cells.
如果你是A型抗原 你就是A型血 如果你是B型抗原 你就是B型血
If you have the A antigen, you’re type A; if you have the B antigen, you’re type B.
如果这两者抗原你都有 你就是AB血型 但如果你都没有 那你就是O型血
If you have both, you’re AB, and if you have neither, you’re O.
但还有件事:那就是人的血型可不仅仅只有这三个字母类型
But here’s the thing: There’s more to your blood’s alphabet soup than just those three letters.
你体内或许会有其他的抗原 比如一种你从未听说过的 H型抗原
You also have another kind of antigen — one you’ve probably never heard of: The H antigen.
你经常听到的A B型抗原其实是H型抗原上增加的额外的糖
The A and B that you always hear about are really extra sugars that get added to antigen H.
并且这些糖类不仅仅只在你的血红细胞上
And what’s more, all of these sugars aren’t just on your red blood cells.
它们也存在于你的内脏 在你血液的其他化合物中
They also appear in your guts, and in other compounds that are swimming around in your
与病原体 毒素甚至是你的免疫系统相互影响
blood, where they interact with pathogens and toxins and even parts of your own immune
让你对某类传染病的免疫力增强或减弱
system, to make you either more or less vulnerable to certain infectious diseases.
例如 如果你感染疟疾 O型血会有助于你
For example, it turns out that having type O blood can help you, if you contract malaria.
疟疾最大的危害之一就是你的血红细胞开始凝结在一起的时候
One of the big dangers of malaria is when your red blood cells begin to clump together,
然后形成花型 称之为玫瑰结
forming characteristic flower-shaped patterns known as rosettes.
当被感染的血红细胞黏住没有被感染的血红细胞时 他们就形成玫瑰结
They form when an infected red blood cell sticks to uninfected red blood cells — a
这一过程是通过A和B抗原帮助的
process that’s helped along by A and B antigens.
总的来说 拥有A B和AB型血的人感染疟疾 会更倾向于形成
As a result, people with A, B or AB blood tend to develop more and bigger rosettes if
又多又大的玫瑰结
they get malaria.
这些细胞簇可以寄住在微小的血管上面-通常是大脑
These cell clusters can get lodged in tiny blood vessels — often in your brain — and
阻塞血液流动
block blood flow.
危害非常大
Which is bad enough.
但是当形成这种玫瑰结时 它可以阻止传染细胞
But when rosettes get tucked away like this, it also prevents the infected cells from being
被你的防御系统清理
cleaned up by your body’s natural defenses.
所有这些就意味着拥有A B或AB型血的人承担着
All of this means that people with A or B or AB blood are at higher risk for a severe
比O型血得疟疾更大的风险
case of malaria than people with type O.
但是 O型血也有它不好的一面
But, type O blood has its downsides, too.
如果你是O型血的话 你可能疟疾得可能不是很大 但你
You may fare better with malaria if you’re an O, but you’ll probably do worse against
被细菌感染而得霍乱的可能性却更大
certain strains of the bacteria that cause cholera.
在90年代早期 秘鲁爆发了一场霍乱 O型血的人
During an outbreak of cholera in Peru in the early ‘90s, people with type O blood were
住院的可能是其他型的八倍之多
8 times more likely to be hospitalized.
结果是 在像三角洲恒河这种地方 O型血的公民是最少的
And it turns out that type O blood is least common in places like the Ganges River Delta,
造成这种局面的原因是持续几个世纪的霍乱
where cholera has been making people sick for centuries.
就在科学家们还没有完全了解发生了什么的时候 一个想法涌现了:
While scientists still don’t fully understand what’s going on here, one idea is that having
A和B抗原可以帮助人们阻止霍乱毒素捆绑你的一些
A or B antigens might help prevent the cholera toxin from binding as firmly to some of your
细胞
cells.
但这种保护不会在你的血液中发生
But this protection doesn’t take place in your blood.
而是在行肠道内细胞抗原作用的结果
Instead, it’s the result of antigens on the cells that line your intestines.
那是霍乱毒素作用的地方 它让你的细胞失去水
That’s where the cholera toxin does its work, making your cells pump out water and
和电解质 进而造成腹泻 从而造就了一个如此快的杀手——霍乱
electrolytes, and causing the diarrhea that makes cholera such a fast killer.
对于细胞中有A和B型抗原的人 霍乱毒素仍然可以捆绑它们
For people who have A’s and B’s on these cells, the cholera toxin can still bind to them.
但是对H型抗原来说 它的捆绑力度甚至更大
But it binds even more strongly to the H antigen.
又由于H型抗原是O型血的人拥有的 所以O型血的人存在
And since H is the antigen that Type O people have, O’s are at greater risk for a more
更高的风险得霍乱
severe case of cholera.
最后一个是:决定你血型的抗原也可以影响你得心脏病的几率
Finally, the antigens that determine your blood type can also affect your risk for heart disease.
这里 发号施令的 是在你血液中的抗原
Here, it is the antigens in your blood that call the shots.
但不是在你的血红细胞中的抗原
But not the ones on your red blood cells.
关键在于一种叫冯·维勒布兰德因子的抗原
Instead, the key is the antigens on something called your von Willebrand factor.
听起来像德国高科技舞曲乐队的名字
It sounds like the name of a German techno-pop band.
但冯·维勒布兰德因子是一种帮助你的血液凝结的蛋白质
But von Willebrand factor is a protein that helps your blood form clots.
很明显 你需要血液中有足够的冯·维勒布兰德因子来帮助你
Obviously, you want to have enough von Willebrand factor in your blood to stop bleeding in case
受伤的时候止血
of an injury.
但血液中循环了太多的这种物质会使得你并不想凝结的地方凝结…
But having too much of it in your circulation can create clots in places you don’t want…
引起心脏病发作或者中风
and trigger a heart attack, or a stroke.
你要庆幸你的身体能循环的清除这种因子
Thankfully, your body routinely sweeps out some of this factor.
科学家还没有完全琢磨出来 但出于一些理由 如果你的冯·维勒布兰德因子中
Scientists haven’t quite figured it out yet but for some reason if your von Willebrand
存在A抗原 或存在B抗原 那么就会很难清除这种因子了
factor has either the A or B antigens on them, that clearance is harder to do.
总结来说 A B和AB型血的人比其他血型的人多大概25%的
As a result, people with type A, B or AB blood have about 25 percent more of this clotting
凝固因子在他们的血液中
factor in their blood.
这也许可以解释为什么和O型血的人相比 研究人员发现在A B和AB型血中
This may explain why researchers have consistently found higher rates of heart disease, heart
的心脏病发作者和中风者几率更低
attack, and stroke in people with A, B, or AB blood, compared to those with O.
不过 宏观来说 血型的影响
Now, in the grand scheme of things, your blood type is only a bit player when it comes to
对你的疾病来说已无足轻重
what diseases you might get.
例如 吃太多汉堡包或不锻炼都会比你
Eating too many hamburgers and not working out, for instance, are almost certainly more
血细胞中A B型抗原造成的伤害更多
damaging to your heart than having A or B antigens on your blood cells.
但科学家希望弄清为什么血型能帮助你克服一些状况
But scientists hope to figure out why certain blood types help protect you from some conditions,
也会造成更糟的效果
while making others worse.
我们希望的是:有一天 不管你是A B AB还是O型血 都对你有好处
The hope is that, one day, everyone will be able benefit, whether you’re an A, B, AB, or an O.
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视频概述

早在研究之前,对于拥有A,B和AB型血的人来说,得疟疾的几率更大;而对于O,H型的人来说,得霍乱的可能性更大

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cEhUj_BKzGI

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