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怎样让果蝇变的只吃蔬菜 | DIY神经科学系列 – 译学馆
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怎样让果蝇变的只吃蔬菜 | DIY神经科学系列

How you can make a fruit fly eat veggies | DIY Neuroscience, a TED series

译者:Joseph Geni评论员:Krystian Aparta
Translator: Joseph GeniReviewer: Krystian Aparta
Greg Gage:这是由来已久的所有父母的追求
Greg Gage: It’s an age-old pursuit of all parents,
让他们的孩子吃蔬菜
getting their kids to eat their vegetables.
但让他们吃饼干和冰淇淋
But getting them to eat cookies or ice cream is relatively easy,
相对容易 那是因为我们的大脑更喜欢甜味
and that’s because our brains prefer sweetness.
现在有个新技术叫光遗传学
Now, there’s a new technology called optogenetics
这个技术也许能骗过我们的味蕾
which may be able to trick our taste buds,
例如让我们相对于甜品更喜欢蔬菜
for instance, preferring vegetables over sweets.
今天我们要用果蝇尝试下
We’re going to try this today using fruit flies.
[DIY神经系统科学]
[DIY Neuroscience]
我们用果蝇做试验的原因是
The reason why we experiment with fruit flies
它们的神经系统足够小 不是特别敏感
is they have a small enough nervous system
可以让我们更清楚地理解发生什么
that gives us a fighting chance to really understand what’s going on.
不管大家信不信 他们的味蕾和我们的非常相似
And believe it or not, their taste buds are very similar to ours.
但在我们操纵他们的偏爱的口味之前
But before we try to manipulate their taste preferences,
我们需要建立:
we need to establish:
果蝇的底线是什么?
What is the baseline of the fruit fly?
它更喜欢什么?
What does it prefer?
我们把这个称为控制实验
We call this a control experiment.
Spencer一直在努力做这项工作
Spencer’s been hard at work doing this.
好了Spencer我们开始实验的第一步吧
OK, Spencer, let’s do our first experiment.
我们想看下果蝇更喜欢香蕉还是西兰花
We want to test to see if fruit flies prefer bananas or broccoli.
我们需要什么呢?
So what do we need?
Spencer Brown:我们需要苍蝇平板
Spencer Brown: So we need the fly pad,
基本上就是为苍蝇准备的iPad
which is basically an iPad for flies.
可以测触觉
It measures the touch. GG:
每个房间放一只苍蝇?
You put a fly in each chamber? SB:
是的 在里面我们会提供给它们香蕉和西兰花
Yeah. In each chamber, we’re also gonna offer them banana and broccoli
看下它们更喜欢哪个
to see which one they prefer.
为了搞清楚果蝇吃了香蕉和西兰花
In order to count the number of times
的次数
the fruit fly eats a bananaversus the broccoli,
这些房间装备了小电极
these chambers have been outfitted with a small electrode
它会传送数据到电脑
that sends data to a computer.
你的关于香蕉和西兰花的调查结果是什么呢?
And so what were your findingson banana versus broccoli?
我发现苍蝇接触香蕉更多
I found that the flies visited banana the most.
尽管它们都放在那但就像大部分的孩子
Even though both were there, just like most kids,
他们选择不吃西兰花
they choose not to eat the broccoli,
他们更喜欢甜一点的东西
and they go switch to something sweeter.
味觉如何工作的一个简单介绍
Now a quick background on how taste works.
味蕾是由特殊的被叫做味觉感受器的神经元组成的
Our taste buds are made up of specialized neurons called taste receptors.
当我们吃一些特殊口味的东西时
When we eat something that triggers a particular taste,
那些味觉神经会向大脑传输一种信号
those taste neurons will firea signal to the brain.
这样大脑就会知道食物是甜的还是苦的
This allows our brain to knowwhat’s sweet and what’s bitter.
所以当果蝇吃香蕉时
So when a fruit fly eats a banana,
它的甜味神经就会被激活
its sweet taste neurons will fire.
但吃西兰花时那些相同的神经元却还是安静的
But when it eats broccoli,those same neurons stay pretty quiet.
但如果我们每次当果蝇吃西兰花时
But what if we could forcethose sweet-tasting neurons to fire
强迫激活甜味神经会怎么样呢?
every time the fruit fly eats broccoli?
我们可能会看到果蝇
We may be able to get the fruit fly
会像喜欢香蕉一样喜欢西兰花
to like broccoli as much as banana.
进入光遗传学
Enter optogenetics.
这是革命性的新工具也就是采用神经系统科学
This is the revolutionary new toolthat’s taking neuroscience by storm,
这种情况下”opto”意思是光
and in this case,”opto” means light
“genetic”指的是这些变异了的果蝇
and”genetic” refers to the factthat these fruit flies have been modified
身体里有一种特殊的基因能让特定的神经元对光做出反映
to contain a special gene that makes only certain neurons respond to light.
在我们这种情况下
In our case,
我们给味觉受体增加了特殊基因
we’ve added the special gene to the sweet taste receptors.
这是有趣的部分
Now here’s the fun part.
光遗传学意味着我们能控制这些特殊的受体
Optogenetics means that we can control these special neurons
每当它们受到亮颜色的光的影响时
whenever they’re exposed to a bright-colored light,
就会给大脑传递信号
causing them to send messages to the brain.
在这实验里我们要让这些基因已变的果蝇
In this experiment, we’re going to have these modified fruit flies
在香蕉和西兰花之间重新选择
choose between banana and broccoli again,
只是这次 果蝇每次吃西兰花时
only this time, every time the fruit fly eats the broccoli,
我们都会提供一个更大更明亮的红灯
we’re going to trigger a big bright red light.
当果蝇看到红光时
And when the channels see that red light,
传递信号的通道会打开
they’re going to open up,
然后激活神经元
and they’re going to cause that neuron to fire,
甜味信息会被发送给大脑
and the sweet taste message will be sent to the brain.
你怎么让它们出来呢?
How do you get them out?
我们要用一个口腔抽吸器
So, we’re going to be using a mouth aspirator,
所以只需把两个吸管放一起
so it’s just two straws put together.
对吸管来讲这是个很高级的名字
So it’s a fancy name for a straw.
基本上是
Basically.
所以我们要把那些吸出来
So, you’re going to suck those out.
之前吸过苍蝇吗?
Have you ever sucked up a fly before?
一两次
Once or twice.
开始吧一共四只 好了
There we go. You got all four of them.
完美
OK, perfect.
所以你要打开你的光刺激源
So you’re going to turn on your OptoStimmers here.
要把光放在房间的上部
You’re going to park the light right on top of the chambers.
我们现在在这坐着等着 它们来吃西兰花
So now we sit here and we wait for them to eat broccoli,
放光打开的时候
and then when the light fires,
它们会想正在吃甜的东西
they’re going to think they’re tasting something sweet.
快看 哦它靠近了
Come on. Oh, he’s getting closer.
快看很好吃的样子
Come on. It tastes good now.
好像是
It’s about to.
哦 它回来了 很好!
Oh, he’s back. All right!
好了 现在我们看到了一些苍蝇
All right, so, now we see that some of these flies
从香蕉转换成了吃西兰花
are switching over from the banana to the broccoli.
正是
Exactly, yeah.
每次灯光变亮
Every time this light goes up,
意味着它们在想自己正在吃甜东西
that means that they thinkthey’re tasting something sweet.
是的 所以苍蝇是跟着灯在改变
Yeah. So this guy’s really going after it.
所以我们看到我们能拯救西兰花
So we saw that we were able to rescue broccoli
能让它对果蝇来讲像香蕉一样有吸引力
and make it just as appealing as banana to our fruit flies.
我们能在所有的实验中
And we’re able to replicate these same results
复制出相同的结果
in all of our experiments.
所以问题是
So the question is:
我们能在人类身上得到同样的结果吗?
Can we do the same thing in humans?
这取决于许多条件
Well, that depends on a number of items.
首先 光遗传学工具会在人类身上起作用吗?
First, do optogenetic tools even work in humans?
看起来是可以做到的
And that looks like the answer is yes,
事实上 临床实验已经在计划中了
and in fact, clinical trials are already being planned
可以利用光遗传学治疗慢性疼痛和失明
that will treat chronic pain and blindness using optogenetics.
下一个问题是
And the next question is,
我们能容易地控制光源吗
can we easily trigger a light source
以便我们每次吃蔬菜都关闭光源?
so that every time we eat vegetables, it will go off?
对于这个我恐怕至少这次
For that, I’m afraid at least at this time,
答案仍是否定的
the answer is still no.
但今天我们目睹了光遗传学对味觉的控制
But today, we get to witness just a taste of optogenetics
存在着惊人的潜力
and its amazing potential.
(音乐)
(Music)

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视频概述

主要讲了光遗传学可以对味觉产生影响

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7PydoX_WNQ

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