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女性是怎样发起非暴力冲突的

How women wage conflict without violence | Julia Bacha

十二年前,我第一次拿起相机
Twelve years ago, I picked up a camera for the first time
去拍摄一个位于约旦河西岸的巴勒斯坦村庄的橄榄收割活动
to film the olive harvest in a Palestinian village in the West Bank.
我本打算去那里拍一个纪录片
I thought I was there to make a single documentary
然后就会离开去其他地方
and would then move on to some other part of the world.
但有些东西让我一直割舍不开
But something kept bringing me back.
现如今,当国际上的听众了解世界的那个部分后
Now, usually, when international audiences hear about that part of the world,
他们只希望冲突早点结束
they often just want that conflict to go away.
巴以冲突严重,我们只想它能消失
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is bad, and we wish it could just disappear.
我们对世界上的其他冲突也怀有同样的感受
We feel much the same way about other conflicts around the world.
但好像每次我们注意到新闻
But every time we turn our attention to the news,
都会有另一个国家陷入战火
it seems like one more country has gone up in flames.
所以我一直在想
So I’ve been wondering
我们是否应该从不同的角度看待冲突
whether we should not start looking at conflict in a different way —
是否应该聚焦于冲突是如何发动的
whether instead of simply wishing to end conflict,
而不是仅仅希望能结束冲突
we focus instead on how to wage conflict.
这对我而言一直是个大问题
This has been a big question for me,
一个我和我在非盈利组织Just Vision的团队一直在追寻的问题
one I’ve pursued together with my team at the nonprofit Just Vision.
在目睹了中东地区几种不同的尝试之后
After witnessing several different kinds of struggles in the Middle East,
我开始注意到那些更为成功的尝试所具有的方式
I started noticing some patterns on the more successful ones.
我想知道这些变量是否存在于其他情况,如果是的话
I wondered whether these variables held across cases, and if they did,
我们能从中学到哪些以在巴基斯坦、以色列等
what lessons we could glean for waging constructive conflict,
开展建设性冲突
in Palestine, Israel and elsewhere.
这背后有其科学道理
There is some science about this.
在一项关于1900年~2006年间的
In a study of 323 major political conflicts
323起政治冲突的研究中
from 1900 to 2006,
Maria Stephan 和 Erica Chenoweth发现非暴力运动
Maria Stephan and Erica Chenoweth found that nonviolent campaigns
相较于暴力运动高出接近一倍的成功率
were almost 100 percent more likely to lead to success than violent campaigns.
非暴力运动也更不易对运动发起人
Nonviolent campaigns are also less likely to cause physical harm
造成身体上的伤害
to those waging the campaign,
对其对手而言也是如此
as well as their opponents.
并且,严格说来,也通常会得到更和平和民主的社会
And, critically, they typically lead to more peaceful and democratic societies.
换句话说,非暴力抵抗是一个更高效和建设性的
In other words, nonviolent resistance is a more effective and constructive way
发起抗争的方法
of waging conflict.
但如果这是个显而易见的选择,为什么没有更多的团体运用它?
But if that’s such an easy choice, why don’t more groups use it?
政治学家 Victor Asal 和他的同事
Political scientist Victor Asal and colleagues
调查了影响政治团体策略选择的
have looked at several factors
几个因素
that shape a political group’s choice of tactics.
结果表明影响一个运动采取非暴力或是暴力的决定
And it turns out that the greatest predictor
的最大影响因素
of a movement’s decision to adopt nonviolence or violence
不是这个团体是更偏向左翼还是右翼
is not whether that group is more left-wing or right-wing,
也不是团体被宗教信仰影响的多少
not whether the group is more or less influenced by religious beliefs,
不是它反抗的是民主还是独裁
not whether it’s up against a democracy or a dictatorship,
甚至也不是这个团体遭受镇压迫的水平
and not even the levels of repression that that group is facing.
影响一个运动的采用非暴力的决定的最大因素是
The greatest predictor of a movement’s decision to adopt nonviolence
它关于女人在公共生活中角色的意识形态
is its ideology regarding the role of women in public life.
[掌声]
(Applause)
当一个运动在其议题中
When a movement includes in its discourse
包含性别平等时
language around gender equality,
它采取非暴力的几率戏剧性增长
it increases dramatically the chances it will adopt nonviolence,
如此一来,它成功的可能性也相应增长
and thus, the likelihood it will succeed.
这项研究和我自己对巴以政治组织的记录
The research squared up with my own documentation
结论不谋而合
of political organizing in Israel and Palestine.
我注意到那些欢迎女性进入领导层的运动
I’ve noticed that movements which welcome women into leadership positions,
比如我在一个叫做Budrus的村子记录的一个例子
such as the one I documented in a village called Budrus,
就非常容易实现他们的目标
were much more likely to achieve their goals.
当以色列开始修建隔离墙的时候
This village was under a real threat of being wiped off the map
这个村子面临这被从地图上抹去的切实危险
when Israel started building the separation barrier.
原定的(隔离墙)路线会
The proposed route would require
摧毁这个社区的橄榄园、他们的墓地
the destruction of this community’s olive groves, their cemeteries
还会将这个村子从各个方向上完全隔离开来
and would ultimately close the village from all sides.
通过富有灵感的当地领导
Through inspired local leadership,
他们发起了一项旨在组织毁灭发生的抵抗运动
they launched a nonviolent resistance campaign to stop that from happening.
形势对他们很不利
The odds were massively stacked against them.
但他们有一件秘密武器:
But they had a secret weapon:
一个15岁的女孩
a 15-year-old girl
她曾勇敢地跳到一辆推土机前
who courageously jumped in front of a bulldozer
阻止了它去推倒一颗橄榄树
which was about to uproot an olive tree, stopping it.
在那一刻,Budrus的居民们意识到是有可能的
In that moment, the community of Budrus realized what was possible
如果他们欢迎并鼓励女人参与到公共生活中去
if they welcomed and encouraged women to participate in public life.
也正是Budrus的女人们日复一日地到前线
And so it was that the women of Budrus went to the front lines day after day,
发挥她们的创造性和敏锐性
using their creativity and acumen to overcome multiple obstacles they faced
以克服她们在为期10个月的非武装斗争中面临的众多障碍
in a 10-month unarmed struggle.
正如你可以想见的那样
And as you can probably tell at this point,
她们最终赢了
they win at the end.
隔离墙被完全改道到
The separation barrier was changed completely
国际认可的绿线内
to the internationally recognized green line,
Budrus的女人们也因她们不屈不挠的活力
and the women of Budrus came to be known across the West Bank
名声响彻西岸地区
for their indomitable energy.
[掌声]
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
我想暂停片刻,你们也已经帮我实现了
I want to pause for a second, which you helped me do,
因为我想解决两个目前可能发生的
because I do want to tackle two very serious misunderstandings
两个很严重的误解
that could happen at this point.
第一个是我不认为
The first one is that I don’t believe
女人天生比男人更和平
women are inherently or essentially more peaceful than men.
但是我确实相信在当今世界
But I do believe that in today’s world,
女人执行权利与男人不同
women experience power differently.
在生活中的各个方面
Having had to navigate being in the less powerful position
都处于劣势地位的情况下艰难前行
in multiple aspects of their lives,
女人往往更善于
women are often more adept
面对强大的行动者时
at how to surreptitiously pressure for change
隐蔽地施压寻求改变
against large, powerful actors.
‘操纵’这个常被用来指责女人的词
The term “manipulative,” often charged against women in a derogatory way,
反应了这样一个现实,女人为了实现目标
reflects a reality in which women have often had to find ways
必须找到除直接对抗之外的方法
other than direct confrontation to achieve their goals.
而寻找直接对抗的另一种选择
And finding alternatives to direct confrontation
正是非暴力抵抗的核心
is at the core of nonviolent resistance.
至于第二个可能的误解
Now to the second potential misunderstanding.
我一直在谈论我在中东地区的经历
I’ve been talking a lot about my experiences in the Middle East,
你们有些人可能在想
and some of you might be thinking now
问题的解决方案在于教育穆斯林和阿拉伯社会
that the solution then is for us to educate Muslim and Arab societies
对女性更加包容
to be more inclusive of their women.
如果我们要那么做,她们可以更加成功
If we were to do that, they would be more successful.
她们不需要这种帮助
They do not need this kind of help.
女人参与了中东地区的
Women have been part of the most influential movements
最有影响力的运动
coming out of the Middle East,
但她们对于国际社会来说是隐形的
but they tend to be invisible to the international community.
我们的摄像头大部分都对准了
Our cameras are largely focused on the men
那些在让我们屏息的新闻场景中
who often end up involved in the more confrontational scenes
直接对抗的男人们
that we find so irresistible in our news cycle.
我们通常以一种不仅抹平了
And we end up with a narrative that not only erases women
地区斗争中的女人
from the struggles in the region
而且错误描述了运动本身的叙事方法
but often misrepresents the struggles themselves.
在20世纪80年代后期,一场起义发端于加沙
In the late 1980s, an uprising started in Gaza,
迅速传播到西岸地区和东耶路撒冷
and quickly spread to the West Bank and East Jerusalem.
这场起义后来被称为“巴勒斯坦大起义 ”
It came to be known as the First Intifada,
任何对这场起义仍有视觉记忆的人
and people who have any visual memory of it
一般会想起这样的场景:
generally conjure up something like this:
巴基斯坦男人向以色列坦克扔石块
Palestinian men throwing rocks at Israeli tanks.
当时的新闻报道
The news coverage at the time
让它看起来好像石头、燃烧弹和燃烧的轮胎
made it seem like stones, Molotov cocktails and burning tires
是在这场起义中出现的所有东西
were the only activities taking place in the Intifada.
然而,这个时期也同样充斥着非暴力的组织形式
This period, though, was also marked by widespread nonviolent organizing
罢工、静坐及平行组织的其他活动
in the forms of strikes, sit-ins and the creation of parallel institutions.
在大起义期间
During the First Intifada,
所有的巴基斯坦民族都动员起来
whole sectors of the Palestinian civilian population mobilized,
跨越了世代、派系和阶级的界限
cutting across generations, factions and class lines.
他们通过人民委员会网络实现这一切
They did this through networks of popular committees,
他们对直接行动和社区自助项目的运用
and their use of direct action and communal self-help projects
直接挑战了以色列持续统治西岸和加沙
challenged Israel’s very ability
的能力
to continue ruling the West Bank and Gaza.
根据以色列军队自己的说法
According to the Israeli Army itself,
大起义期间,百分之97的活动是没有武装的
97 percent of activities during the First Intifada were unarmed.
还有一件事情是谈论那个世代时没有提到的
And here’s another thing that is not part of our narrative about that time.
大起义间的18个月
For 18 months in the Intifada,
女人们在幕后发号施令
women were the ones calling the shots behind the scenes:
来自各个阶层的巴基斯坦女人
Palestinian women from all walks of life
负责动员成千上万的人
in charge of mobilizing hundreds of thousands of people
共同努力从占领撤回统一
in a concerted effort to withdraw consent from the occupation.
Naela Ayyash力求通过鼓励加沙的女人在后院种植蔬菜
Naela Ayyash, who strived to build a self-sufficient Palestinian economy
建立一个自足的巴基斯坦经济
by encouraging women in Gaza to grow vegetables in their backyards,
这项活动被当时的以色列政府视为非法
an activity deemed illegal by the Israeli authorities at that time;
Rabeha Diab
Rabeha Diab, who took over decision-making authority
在负责运行整个起义的男人
for the entire uprising
被驱逐后
when the men who had been running it
扛起了指定决策的大旗
were deported;
Fatima AL Jaafari吞下含有起义指令的传单
Fatima Al Jaafari, who swallowed leaflets containing the uprising’s directives
以免在穿越整个领土传递的时候
in order to spread them across the territories
被抓到
without getting caught;
还有Zahira kamal
and Zahira Kamal,
她通过领导一个
who ensured the longevity of the uprising
在仅仅一年间人数从25位女人增长到3000的组织
by leading an organization
保证了起义的长期进行
that went from 25 women to 3,000 in a single year.
尽管有这些非凡的成就
Despite their extraordinary achievements,
没有一个女人进入了我们关于大起义的描述中
none of these women have made it into our narrative of the First Intifada.
在世界上的其他地方,我们也是如此行事
We do this in other parts of the globe, too.
比如在我们的历史教科书和集体意识中
In our history books, for instance, and in our collective consciousness,
对于20世纪60年代的运动 对于美国的种族平等
men are the public faces and spokespersons
公众面孔和发言人的形象都是男人
for the 1960s struggle for racial justice in the United States.
但是女人也是动员、组织、上街的
But women were also a critical driving force,
一股关键力量
mobilizing, organizing, taking to the streets.
我们当中有多少人在想到美国民权运动年代时
How many of us think of Septima Clark
会想到Septima Clark?
when we think of the United States Civil Rights era?
很少有人
Remarkably few.
但她在运动的每一个阶段都起到了关键作用
But she played a crucial role in every phase of the struggle,
特别是她对读写教育的强调
particularly by emphasizing literacy and education.
她被省略,被忽略
She’s been omitted, ignored,
正如其他那些在美国民权运动中
like so many other women who played critical roles
起到关键角色的女人一样
in the United States Civil Rights Movement.
这不是关于得到功劳
This is not about getting credit.
这比那意义深远的多
It’s more profound than that.
我们讲述的故事对我们如何看待自己
The stories we tell matter deeply to how we see ourselves,
我们认为运动是如何进行的
and to how we believe movements are run
运动是怎样成功的至关重要
and how movements are won.
我们的关于运动的故事,比如大起义
The stories we tell about a movement like the First Intifada
或者美国民权运动世代
or the United States Civil Rights era
影响深远
matter deeply and have a critical influence
并且对巴基斯坦人
in the choices Palestinians,
美国人
Americans
以及第三世界国家的人民在
and people around the world will make
再次遇到不公待遇时采取的抉择
next time they encounter an injustice
以及获得对抗的勇气都有关键性的影响
and develop the courage to confront it.
如果我们不表彰那些在斗争中起到关键作用的女人们
If we do not lift up the women who played critical roles in these struggles,
我们就不能为后代树立榜样
we fail to offer up role models to future generations.
没有榜样,在公共生活中
Without role models, it becomes harder
女人要想取得自己合乎权利的空间
for women to take up their rightful space
会更加困难
in public life.
正如我们之前所见
And as we saw earlier,
决定一个运动成功与否的
one of the most critical variables
关键因素之一
in determining whether a movement will be successful or not
是这个运动关于女人在公共生活中角色的
is a movement’s ideology regarding the role of women
意识形态
in public life.
这是一个我们是否向向
This is a question of whether we’re moving
更加民主和和平社会转变的问题
towards more democratic and peaceful societies.
在一个如此多的变化正在发生的世界
In a world where so much change is happening,
变化本身注定要以更快的步伐继续下去
and where change is bound to continue at an increasingly faster pace,
这不是我们是否会面对冲突的问题
it is not a question of whether we will face conflict,
而是哪些故事
but rather a question
能影响我们如何选择
of which stories will shape
发起冲突的问题
how we choose to wage conflict.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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