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金字塔是如何建成的 – 译学馆
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金字塔是如何建成的

How Were the Pyramids Built?

我们去金字塔周围转转吧
Ok, so we are going for a ride around the pyramids.
大金字塔是近4000年来最高的人造建筑
The great pyramid was the tallest man-made structure for nearly 4000 years,
仅次于1889年建成的埃菲尔铁塔
only surpassed by a large margin by the Eiffel Tower in 1889.
塔高147米
147 metres high.
-你对攀登感兴趣是吗-是的
–You are interested by climbing?–Yeah!
我们爬上去吧
Let’s climb it!
-但不是免费的 -多少钱呢?
–But it is not free. –How much?
金字塔更令人印象深刻的地方是 它们建于4500年前
What makes the pyramids even more impressive is that these structures were built over 4500 years ago,
那时古埃及人还没有车轮或钢铁
when Egyptians didn’t have wheels or steel,
人们唯一能用的金属只有铜和铜合金
the only metal available was copper and copper alloys.
建造那个金字塔大概用了两百万块石头
It took about 2 million stones to build that pyramid.
我称它们为巨石
I call them stones—giant rocks,
每块巨石重量在1.5~3吨之间
somewhere between 1.5 – 3 tons each.
金字塔花了20~30年才建成
Pyramids took about 20 – 30 years to make.
那是相当长的时间
That’s a long time,
但如果你想一下石头的数量
but if you think about the number of stones,
每个金字塔由几百万块石头组成
a couple million stones in every pyramid,
你大概每隔3分钟就得放置一块石头
you’d have to be laying a stone roughly once every 3 minutes,
如果你是以日正常工时 10或12小时来计算的话
if you consider a regular workday, like a 10-hour, 12-hour workday.
没人知道他们是怎么建造金字塔的 这还是个谜
Nobody knows how they built it. Still secret.
但很多人仅是想尽他们最大的努力
But a lot of people just try to do the best
告诉你古埃及人是如何建造金字塔的
to give you some information about how they did it.
但是我们还是得说 它是个谜题
But we must say it’s secret.
今天 由于很多事情消匿了 还没人完成探索
Today, as the things secrete then,nobody knocks off.
没有存留的设计图可展示金字塔是如何建造的
No plans survived to show us how the pyramids were built,
因此 它成了外星人 时间旅行或遗失的技术等
so perhaps it’s not surprising that this is the subject of countless conspiracy theories
无数阴谋论的话题 也就不令人惊讶了
involving aliens, time travel, or lost technologies.
但有个不那么牵强的传说已被广泛认可
But there is a less far-fetched myth which has become widely accepted,
即金字塔是由奴隶建造的
that the pyramids were built by slaves.
但最近的发现表明金字塔的建造者根本不是奴隶
But recent discoveries suggest the pyramid builders were not slaves at all.
他们是熟练的工人
They were skilled workers.
金字塔附近保存完好的古墓表明
Well-preserved tombs near the pyramids suggest that
他们的辛勤劳动和付出得到了回报
their hard labour and sacrifice were rewarded.
如果这些工人是奴隶
If these workers had been slaves,
他们不会有如此体面的安葬
they would not have received such honourable burials.
但他们是如何建造金字塔的呢
But how did they actually manage to build the pyramids?
我发现一件很有意思的事情 古埃及人不知道车轮
One of the things I find really interesting is the Egyptians didn’t know about wheels,
即据我们所知 他们甚至不用滚轴
so they didn’t really even use rollers, as far as we can tell.
我想这些岩石是用雪橇运过沙漠的
I mean, these rocks would have been carted across the desert on sleds.
有一幅著名的图画的是 这个巨型雕像被172个人拉着
There is a famous diagram of this giant statue being pulled by 172 men
那座雕像大约有68吨的样子
and that that statue would weigh somewhere on the order of 68 tons, or something.
这通常会产生巨大的摩擦力
This would normally create a lot of friction,
但在移动雪橇前 路上的沙子都会被弄湿
but the sand was wetted in front of the sled.
实验表明 这会使所需的拉力降少一半
Experiments show this would reduce the pulling force required by half.
这座金字塔内部的石头都是石灰岩
The internal stones of this pyramid are all limestone,
石灰岩更为柔软且容易加工
which is a bit softer and easier to work.
你可以想象一下 他们用那些铜凿子来凿石灰岩
You can imagine them working it with those copper chisels that they had.
其中某些部分可能是用铜锯锯成的
Some of these blocks may have been actually sawed through using copper saws.
现在你不会认为铜能切掉岩石
Now you wouldn’t think that copper could really cut off the rock,
但如果你在里面放磨料 比如沙子
but if you put an abrasive in there, like a sand,
你就真的可以穿透石头
you could actually wear away the stone
这可能是份十分艰难的劳动密集型工作
probably be a very difficult and labour-intensive job.
当你建造金字塔时 你不会真的去想
Something that you don’t really think about is that
你需要在平地上建造它
when you build a pyramid you need to build it on level ground.
可以看到 他们如何把那边的地面弄平整
You can actually see there how they had to level out that ground.
据推测 当尼罗河泛滥时
Well, it’s speculated that when the Nile flooded,
他们把洪水排进水道中 并观察高的地方在哪
they put the flood water into a channel and see where the high parts were.
这座金字塔的内部由石灰岩组成
So the inside was made of this limestone,
外部则由更为坚硬的花岗岩组成
the outside of this pyramid was actually made of granite, much harder stone.
我现在在阿斯旺的花岗岩采石场
I’m at the granite quarry in Aswan
他们就在这开采用于建造吉萨金字塔的石头
where they would have quarried the stones that were used in the pyramids at Giza.
这是一个难以想象的壮举 因为这距吉萨有近1000公里远
Now that is an incredible feat because this is nearly 1000 km away from Giza,
当尼罗河泛滥时 洪水会从这经过
and when the Nile flooded, water would come right through here
这样他们就能把开采的全部石头都搬走了
so that they could move all the stones quarried here.
他们可以把这个花岗石搬回吉萨建造金字塔
This granite, they could move this back up to Giza and use it on the pyramids.
这些肯定是漂在木筏上的
These would of had to have been floated down on rafts.
现在开采这个真的很困难
Now quarrying this would have been really hard.
花岗岩是最坚硬的岩石之一 因为它含有石英
Granite is one of the hardest rocks because it contains quartz,
石英的硬度大约是7
and quartz on the hardness scale is about a 7,
金刚石是10
where diamond is a 10.
那如何能挖出这么大的沟渠呢
So how would you dig a massive trench like that?
基本上 这个技巧就是不断地用辉绿岩砸花岗岩
Basically the technique was just to smash the dolerite rock into the granite over and over and over again.
他们每小时能凿出5毫米的深度
They would make about 5 mm progress per hour.
关于金字塔是如何建造的 目前还无明确的说法
So there is no clear account of how the pyramids were actually built,
但最合理的猜想是使用斜坡
but the best guess is that ramps were used.
事实上 在未完工的金字塔上也可以看到斜坡
and in fact some ramps have been found on incomplete pyramids.
但你不能只修一条长直斜坡并不断地放上石头
But you can’t build just a straight ramp, a long straight ramp, and keep putting the rocks up.
我是想说上面的猜想有一个问题
I mean the problem with that is the
这个坡道用的物资比建造金字塔本身还多
the ramp actually ends up taking up more material than the pyramid itself.
我认为 斜坡环绕在金字塔周围可能是最可行的
I think a ramp which sort of wraps around the pyramids is probably the most likely thing.
金字塔顶部三分之一的高度
The top third of the height of the pyramid
用的材料实际只占了整个金字塔的4%
actually only accounts for about 4 % of all the material in the pyramid.
这就是为什么人们会怀疑
That’s why it’s suspected
杠杆实际上是用来完成金字塔的顶层的
the levers were actually used to finish off the pyramid to do the top levels.
现在这个金字塔显然已经风化了
Now the pyramids have clearly weathered.
但在过去 它们是更为明亮的白色
But in the past they would have been a brighter white
因为他们会用白色石灰石覆盖整个金字塔表面
because they would have used a white limestone to cover the whole face of that pyramid,
顶端可能会用金银的混合物(琥珀金色)覆盖
And then the very top may have been covered with electrum which is a mixture of gold and silver
你可以想象 那是多么壮观的景象
So you can imagine, that would be a pretty spectacular sight.
这些金字塔之所以被建成这样
The reason these pyramids are shaped this way
是因为金字塔代表着太阳光
is so they represent sun rays.
想象一下 它初建成时是什么样的
Imagine what that would have looked like when it was first built
顶部闪烁着金属光泽 柔和白色修饰着其表面
with a shiny metallic top and smooth white finish on all of the sides.
我想那会是个值得一看的风景
I think that would have been a sight to behold.
希望你们喜欢上面那个视频
Hey! I hope you enjoyed that video,
它是今年早些时候 我在埃及拍摄的
I filmed it earlier this year when I was in Egypt.
现在我在澳大利亚的墨尔本
Now I’m currently in Melbourne, Australia,
明天我将飞往美国
and tomorrow I am flying to the US.
事实上 下周我会在阿拉巴马和《Minute Physics》的作者Henry
In fact next week I’m actually doing a live show in Alabama with Henry from Minute Physics,
《Smarter Every Day》的作者Dustin
Dustin from Smarter Every Day,
《Numberphile》 《Periodic Video 》和《Sixty Symbols》的作者Brady Haran
Brady Haran from Numberphile, Periodic Videos and Sixty Symbols,
《CGP Grey》的作者CGP Grey一起直播
and CGP Grey from CGP Grey.
没错 他本人会到场
Yes, he will actually be there in person,
所以 如果你想加入我们的话
so if you want to come and join us,
稍后查看我们的链接
then checkout the link in the doobly doo.
你不能知晓所有长途飞行途中的事情
You don’t know all of these long flights
我总是需要某些东西帮我打发时间
I always need something to help me pass the time,
我知道明天我要做什么
and I know what I’m going to be doing tomorrow,
我会听Bill Nye的新书
I’ll be listening to the brand new audio book from Bill Nye.
这本书叫做《不可否认:进化与创造科学》
The book is called Undeniable: Evolution and the Science of Creation,
这本书是他自己写的
and he actually narrates this book himself,
我迫不及待想要听了
so I can’t wait to listen to it.
如果你想要这本书
And if you want,you can
你可以在网站免费下载
download this book for free by going to audible.com/Veritasium
你也可以选择其他书免费试用一个月
or you can pick any other book of your choosing for a 1 month free trial.
我非常感谢Audible的支持
So I really want to thank Audible for their support,
他们帮我去所有这些神奇地方
they’ve helped me go to all of these amazing places,
他们有成千上万的有声书
and they have hundreds of thousands of audio books,
如果你喜欢有声书 你一定要试试
so if you love audio books you should definitely try them out.
感谢大家收看 我们下周再见
So thank you for watching and hopefully I will see you next week.

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视频概述

金字塔的建造集结古埃及人的智慧结晶。岩石的搬运,杠杆的运用……这些无不令人惊叹,一起来了解一下吧

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lotbZQ55SgU

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