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浏览网页的最佳策略

How We Evolved To Browse The Web

Hi, this is Kate from MinuteEarth.
大家好 我是《分钟地球》的Kate
Let’s find some cat memes!
咱们来找点猫咪搞笑图片吧!
This site looks good – yeah,
这个网站看起来不错
there’s some funny kittehs and some great cattos on here!
有些好玩的猫猫和咪咪
But, well, hmm…the pickings are definitely getting slimmer.
好像也不咋样 重复的内容太多了
Maybe we should try another site?
换个网站试试?
But that means we have to FIND another site!
还得再找半天!
And we’re already here…
算了 既来之则安之
So, should we stay or should we go?
继续看呢还是换个呢?
Well, it turns out that online, we forage for information just as,
事实上 人类浏览网页搜索信息的行为
say, a chickadee forages for fruit.
和山雀觅食水果的行为模式很像
It has to choose which tree to visit
山雀首先得选择一棵树
and decide how long to nom there
看情况决定在这里吃多久
before abandoning it and finding another.
然后再去找下一棵
Ecologists already have all sorts of models to describe how animals forage.
生态学家总结出各种动物觅食行为的规律
And it turns out that one of these models,
他们发现 有一种觅食规律
which explains how animals move between patches of food,
揭示了动物如何选择觅食地
also predicts how humans move between websites
这规律同样适用人类
both you and the chickadee will forage in one place
你和山雀都会在同一地方觅食(浏览)
until the rate of reward you’re getting there drops below
直到对食物(内容)数量的预期低于
what you think you’re likely to get elsewhere.
对其他地方的预期
This calculation is subconscious, of course,
这当然都是潜意识里的计算
you’ll just notice the tree is getting bare
你只是注意到树开始变秃
and move on.
然后就换地方了
But you actually spending your time and energy in a way
合理使用时间和精力
that gets you as much reward as possible
最大化所得利益
and that’s something foraging animals, and humans, do all the time.
这是所有觅食的动物和人类的本能行为
For instance, we’ve found
比如说 我们发现
that chipmunks that take longer seed-gathering trips
跑更远的路去收集食物的花栗鼠
bring back bigger hauls than those that take short ones.
比跑得近的带回的食物更多
That makes sense,
听上去很合理
it’s only worth spending lots of resources if you can score big.
只有收获够大才值得投入更多资源
And a study of more than 400 robberies in the Netherlands
在荷兰 有一项针对400多起盗窃案的研究
found that the farther burglars travel to commit their crimes,
研究表明 小偷作案地点越远
the more expensive their loot tends to be.
偷到的东西就更值钱
Researchers have even found that the longer
研究者甚至发现 我们在寻找伴侣时
we search for a romantic partner,
花费的时间越长
the more likely that relationship is to last.
伴侣关系会更持久
Perhaps a bigger investment leads to a better payoff.
也许这就是投资越多收获越大的道理
We probably optimize like animals because we are animals,
我们都追求觅食最优化 因为人本质就是动物
and in fact, we share critical
事实上 我们和动物的关键决策回路
decision-making circuitry.
也是一样的
For instance, monkeys have special neurons that
比如说 猴子有特殊的神经元
seem to track the rate of reward the
可以追踪在一堆食物中
monkey is getting in a patch,
得到奖励的几率
when it drops too low,
当这个几率变的过低
the neurons send an electrical signal to the monkey,
神经元会传送电子信号
who switches to a new patch.
让猴子换一堆食物去选
We also have these neurons
人类也有这些神经元
and there’s evidence to suggest that lots of other animals do, too.
很多证据表明其他动物也有
They were likely so critical
从远古时期动物就会
to making good food-finding tradeoffs in the distant past
谨慎权衡觅食方法
that they were passed on over lots of generations.
并代代相传至今
This kind of shared machinery may help explain
这种共通的行为系统能很好的解释
why we behave like our non-human kin.
为什么人类和动物的行为如此相像
Of course, most of us humans now find ourselves evaluating
当然了 我们大多数人
how fruitful websites are much more often
更多时候是在纠结网站是不是有趣
than how fruitful fruit trees are,
而不是看树上的果子多不多
and the stakes of wasting your time on dumb cat memes
在无聊的猫咪梗上浪费时间的代价
are far lower than wasting your time searching for sustance.
要比寻找食物付出的时间代价低多了
But it’s not just web surfing.
也不仅仅是上网冲浪时纠结
At what point do you move on from a lame TV show,
你有没有纠结过什么时候放弃一部烂剧
or ditch the long line at the DMV,
纠结是不是继续在交管局排大队
or give up on a job,
纠结什么时候该辞职
or even a relationship that you’re not that into?
甚至纠结是否结束无感的恋爱关系
It turns out that the constraints, and the underlying machinery
这些潜意识行为 这些纠结
that guide us in these everyday scenarios
在我们的日常生活中随处可见
are likely the same as those that guide animals…
动物们也是被这些潜意识行为影响着
which means, that deep inside,
某种程度上来说
we’re all a little bird-brained.
我们都有点儿小鸟思维(头脑简单)
This video was sponsored by the University of Minnesota,
本视频由明尼苏达大学赞助
where students, faculty and staff across all fields of study
学校各学科的学生和教职员工
are working to solve the Grand Challenges facing society.
致力于解决社会面临的重大挑战
One of these challenges is Enhancing Individual
诸如帮助个人和社区提高适应力
and Community Capacity for a Changing World
能在快速改变的世界环境下
so that we can help people make good choices,
做出明智的选择
like staying healthy, in an ever-changing environment.
比如 如何在日益变化的环境中如何保持健康
Ben Hayden, in the Department of Neuroscience,
Ben Hayden 来自神经系统科学部
studies the biological mechanisms,
研究生物机制
like reward-tracking neurons,
例如奖励追踪神经元
that we use to evaluate choices.
就是用以评估抉择的神经元
And Dave Stephens, in the Department of Ecology,
Dave Stephens 来自生态学部
Evolution and Behavior, investigates behaviors
研究进化与行为
like foraging from an evolutionary standpoint
从进化角度研究觅食行为
to help us understand the broad forces that
以帮助我们理解选择决定机制
have shaped our decision-making process.
是如何形成的
Thanks, University of Minnesota!
对明尼苏达大学致谢!

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视频概述

浏览网页有固定行为模式吗?人类和动物在觅食和搜索网站的行为上有何相似之处?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IUJqot6fY-U

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