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我们如何用光看到身体与大脑深处 – 译学馆
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我们如何用光看到身体与大脑深处

How we can use light to see deep inside our bodies and brains | Mary Lou Jepsen

People don’t realize that red light and benign near-infrared light
人们不了解这个红光和这个温和的近红外光
go right through your hand, just like this.
可以穿透你的手 就像这样
This fact could enable better, faster and cheaper health care.
这个原理可以实现更好 更快 更便宜的医疗保健
Our translucence is key here.
我们的半透性是关键
I’m going to show you how we
我即将要向各位展示如何
use this key and a couple of other keys
利用这个以及其他的关键
to see deep inside our bodies and brains. OK,
来看透我们身体与大脑的深层 好
so first up…
首先
You see this laser pointer and the spot it makes on my hand?
各位看到的这支镭射笔与我手上的这个光点吗?
The light goes right through my hand —
这道光穿透了我的手——
if we could bring the lights down, please —
请把现场灯光转弱——
as I’ve already shown.
正如我已经展示的
But you can no longer see that laser spot.
但各位已经看不到那个镭射点了
You see my hand glow.
只看到我手上的光晕
That’s because the light spreads out, it scatters.
那是因为光线分开 分散了
I need you to understand what scattering is,
我需要各位先了解什么是光的分散现象
so I can show you how we get rid of it
这样才能让各位明白如何移除它
and see deep inside our bodies and brains. So,
并看到我们身体与大脑的深层内部
I’ve got a piece of chicken back here.
后面这里有一块鸡肉
(Laughter)
(笑声)
It’s raw.
它是生的
Putting on some gloves.
我戴上手套
It’s got the same optical properties as human flesh.
鸡肉与人肉有相同的光学特性
So, here’s the chicken… putting it on the light.
这是鸡肉……把它放到光上面
Can you see, the light goes right through?
各位有看到这道光穿过鸡肉了吗?
I also implanted a tumor in that chicken.
我在鸡肉里植入了一块肿瘤
Can you see it? Audience:
你没有看到吗?观众:
Yes.
有看到
Mary Lou Jepsen:
玛丽·卢·杰普森:
So this means, using red light and infrared light,
这意味着利用红光和红外线光
we can see tumors in human flesh.
我们可以看到人身上的肿瘤
But there’s a catch.
但是有一个问题
When I throw another piece of chicken on it,
如果我再放上另一块鸡肉
the light still goes through, but you can no longer see the tumor.
光仍然可以穿越 但你看不到肿瘤了
That’s because the light scatters.
那是因为光散射掉了
So we have to do something about the scatter
所以我们要想办法克服光散射的问题
so we can see the tumor.
这样我们才能看到肿瘤
We have to de-scatter the light.
我们要防止光散射
So…
所以……
A technology I spent the early part of my career on
我在职业生涯的早期阶段实现
enables de-scattering.
防散射的技术
It’s called holography.
它叫全息摄影术
And it won the Nobel Prize in physics in the 70s,
在70年代获得物理诺贝尔奖
because of the fantastic things it enables you to do with light.
因为这个神奇的技术可以帮你处理光的问题
This is a hologram.
这个就是全息影像
It captures all of the light, all of the rays,
它能捕捉所有光 镭射
all of the photons
所有光子的
at all of the positions and all of the angles, simultaneously.
入射位置与角度 在同一时间内全部捕捉到
It’s amazing.
很神奇
To see what we can do with holography…
为了理解这个全息图装置可以做些设么
You see these marbles?
各位看到这些弹珠吗?
Look at these marbles bouncing off of the barriers,
注意看这些正在障碍物上弹跳着的弹珠
as an analogy to light being scattered by our bodies.
这就是光在我们体内散射的现象
As the marbles get to the bottom of the scattering maze,
当这些弹珠在这迷宫似的弹珠柱上往下掉时
they’re chaotic, they’re scattering and bouncing everywhere.
它们会到处乱跑 散开 弹跳
If we record a hologram
如果我们在荧幕底部
at the bottom inside of the screen,
记录它们的全息图像
we can record the position and angle of each marble exiting the maze.
我们能记录到所有弹珠离开迷宫时各自的位置与角度
And then we can bring in marbles from below
然后我们把弹珠从下面带上来
and have the hologram direct each
透过全息图装置 引导每颗弹珠
marble to exactly the right position and angle,
以正确的位置与角度回弹
such as they emerge in a line at the top of the scatter matrix.
例如 它们出现在散射矩阵顶部 形成一道线
We’re going to do that with this.
我们要用这个来做
This is optically similar to human brain.
这个东西的光学特性跟我们人类的大脑很像
I’m going to switch to green light now,
我现在要换到绿光
because green light is brighter to your eyes
因为绿光对人类的肉眼而言
than red or infrared,
比红光或红外线光更明亮
and I really need you to see this.
我真的需要各位看清楚这个
So we’re going to put a hologram
我们要在这个类似人脑的物体上
in front of this brain
放一个全息影像装置
and make a stream of light come out of it.
然后从它后面打光
Seems impossible but it isn’t.
看起来不可思议 但真的可以
This is the setup you’re going to see.
这是你们将要看到的设置
Green light.
绿光
Hologram here, green light going in,
全系影像装置放这里 绿光打进去
that’s our brain.
这是我们的大脑
And a stream of light comes out of it.
然后一道绿光从里面出来了
We just made a brain lase of densely scattering tissue.
我们刚做了高密度散射组织的大脑镭射
Seems impossible, no one’s done this before,
看起来很不可思议 之前没有人这样做
you’re the first public audience to ever see this.
各位是第一次看我公开展示的观众
(Applause)
(掌声)
What this means is that we can focus deep into tissue.
也就是说 我们可以看到组织的深层内部
Our translucency is the first key.
我们的半透明性是第一个关键
Holography enabling de-scattering is the second key
第二个关键是全息摄影装置有抗散射的作用
to enable us to see deep inside of our bodies and brains.
如此我们就可以看到身体与大脑的深层内部
You’re probably thinking, “Sounds good, but what about skull and bones?
各位可能在想 “听起来不错 但头颅和骨头呢?
How are you going to see through the brain without seeing through bone?
不看穿骨头 怎么能看穿大脑呢?”
” Well,
是的
this is real human skull.
这是真的人头骨
We ordered it at skullsunlimited.com.
在skullsunlimited.com网站买的
(Laughter)
(笑声)
No kidding.
没开玩笑
But we treat this skull with great respect
我们很尊重这头骨
at our lab and here at TED.
不管是在实验室或TED演讲现场
And as you can see, the red light goes right through it.
就如各位所看到的 红光透过去了
Goes through our bones.
穿透了我们的头骨
So we can go through skull and bones and flesh with just red light.
所以只要用红光就可以穿透我们的头骨 骨头 肉体
Gamma rays and X-rays do that, too, but they cause tumors.
伽马射线和X光也可以 但会造成肿瘤
Red light is all around us. So,
我们的生活周遭都是红外线
using that, I’m going to come back here
用那个装置 我到这里向各位展示
and show you something more useful than making a brain lase.
比大脑镭射更有用的东西
We challenged ourselves to see how fine we could focus through brain tissue.
我们挑战自己到底能把脑组织看到多细微
Focusing through this brain,
要聚焦看大脑
it was such a fine focus,
它的聚焦是如此细微
we put a bare camera die in front of it.
我们在它前面放了一个裸芯片
And the bare camera die…
而这粒相机裸芯片……
Could you turn down the spotlight? OK,
可以把现场灯光调暗一点吗?好的
there it is.
看到它了
Do you see that?
你们看到了吗?
Each pixel is two-thousandths of a millimeter wide.
每个像素的宽度为千分之二毫米
Two microns.
也就是二微米大小
That means that spot focus — full width half max —
意思是 那一点焦距——半宽波长(FWHM)——
is six to eight microns.
是六到八微米
To give you an idea of what that means:
为了让各位更容易了解:
that’s the diameter of the smallest neuron in the human brain.
这大小相当于人类大脑里最小神经元的直径
So that means we can focus through skull and brain to a neuron.
意思是 我们能穿透头骨和大脑直接聚焦神经元
No one has seen this before,
之前没人看到过
we’re doing this for the first time here.
我们是第一次在此展示
It’s not impossible.
这是办得到的
(Applause)
(掌声)
We made it work with our system, so we’ve made a breakthrough.
用我们的系统办到的 是重大的突破
(Laughter)
(笑声)
Just to give an idea — like, that’s not just 50 marbles.
只是为了让你们知道——这可不是仅仅50颗弹珠而已
That’s billions, trillion of photons,
而是有上亿 上兆的光子
all falling in line as directed by the hologram,
全都依照全息装置的指挥排好了
to ricochet through densely scattering brain,
弹跳似的闪过密密麻麻的大脑组织
and emerge as a focus.
最后通通聚焦到一个点
It’s pretty cool.
很厉害
We’re excited about it.
我们很兴奋
This is an MRI machine.
这是核磁共振仪
It’s a few million dollars, it fills a room,
这一台要好几百万美金 有一个房间那么大
many people have probably been in one.
很多人可能用过
I’ve spent a lot of time in one.
我在一台里面待了很久
It has a focus of about a millimeter —
它的影像清晰度大约一毫米
kind of chunky, compared to what I just showed you.
比我刚展示给大家看的更大
A system based on our technology could enable dramatically lower cost,
用我们技术做的系统成本会大大降低
higher resolution and smaller medical imaging.
解析度增高和较小的医学成像
So that’s what we’ve started to do.
这是我们已经开始进行的事
My team and I have built a rig, a lab rig
我的团队和我建了个实验机台
to scan out tissue.
来扫描细胞组织
And here it is in action.
上面正是它运作的样子
We wanted to see how good we could do.
我们想知道能做到多好
We’ve built this over the last year.
我们去年建造这个
And the result is, we’re able to find tumors
成果就是 我们找得到肿瘤
in this sample —
例如——
70 millimeters deep, the light going in here,
在这个七公分厚的样本里找得到 光线从这里进去
half a millimeter resolution,
0.5毫米的解析度
and that’s the tumor it found.
那是它找到的肿瘤
You’re probably looking at this,
各位可能在想
like,”Sounds good, but that’s kind of a big system.
“这系统看起来是不错 但还是有点大
It’s smaller than a honking-big MRI machine,
是比超巨大核磁共振仪
monster MRI machine, but can you do something to shrink it down? ”
核磁共振怪物小 但是你能把它缩得更小吗? ”
And the answer is: of course.
答案是:当然没问题
We can replace each big element in that system
我们可以把这个系统里的每个大零件
with a smaller component —
用小零件取代——
a little integrated circuit, a display chip the size of a child’s fingernail.
小型的积体电路 像小朋友指甲一样大小的显示晶片
A bit about my background:
聊一下我的背景:
I’ve spent the last two decades inventing, prototype-developing
在过去的二十年里 我一直在发明 开发原型
and then shipping billions of dollars of consumer electronics —
运出了数十亿美元的消费性电子产品
with full custom chips —
完全定制芯片——
on the hairy edge of optical physics.
在光学物理的前沿
So my team and I built the big lab rig
我和团队建造这个大型的实验机台
to perfect our architecture and test the corner cases
来完善我们的作品 并在极端的条件下测试
and really fine-tune our chip designs,
在花好几百万大量制造生产前
before spending the millions of dollars to fabricate each chip.
小心翼翼的微调我们的晶片设计
Our new chip inventions slim down the system, speed it up
我们发明的新晶片把系统瘦身了 速度变快了
and enable rapid scanning and de-scattering of light
可以快速扫描及反散射光线
to see deep into our bodies.
好深入检视我们身体内部
This is the third key to enable better, faster and cheaper health care.
这是实现更好 更快 更便宜医疗保健的第三个关键
This is a mock-up of something that can replace the functionality
这是一个模拟的东西 它可取代价值好几百万美金的
of a multimillion-dollar MRI machine
核磁共振仪的功能性
into a consumer electronics price point,
且价位可以达到消费电子产品的等级
that you could wear as a bandage,
让你可以像绑绷带
line a ski hat, put inside a pillow.
戴滑雪帽 或放在枕头里
That’s what we’re building.
那时我们正在建造的产品
(Applause) Oh,
(掌声)噢
thanks!
谢谢大家!
(Applause)
(掌声)
So you’re probably thinking,
你可能会想
“I get the light going through our bodies.
“我把光打进了身体里
I even get the holography de-scattering the light.
甚至有了全息摄影装置来反分散光源
But how do we use these new chip inventions, exactly,
但我们到底是如何使用这个新的晶片产品
to do the scanning?” Well, we have a sound approach. No,
来进行扫描的?” 我们用声音 没错
literally — we use sound. Here,
——我们用声音 此处
these three discs represent the integrated circuits
这三小碟代表我们设计的
that we’ve designed,
集成电路
that massively reduce the size of our current bulky system.
会大规模缩小目前的大型系统
One of the spots,
其中一点
one of the chips, emits a sonic ping,
一个晶片 会发出声音
and it focuses down, and then we turn red light on.
声音会集中往下传达 然后我们把红灯打开
And the red light that goes through that sonic spot
红光经过那个声音点
changes color slightly,
会稍微改变颜色
much like the pitch of the police car siren changes
有点像是警笛快速经过你身旁时
as it speeds past you.
所产生的声音变化现象
So.
所以
There’s this other thing about holography I haven’t told you yet,
这就是我还没告诉各位全息摄影术的另一件事
that you need to know.
这个你需要知道
Only two beams of exactly the same color can make a hologram. So,
只有颜色完全相同的两道光才能产生全息影像 所以
that’s the orange light that’s coming off
从声音点出来的
of the sonic spot,
橘色光
that’s changed color slightly,
颜色稍微变了
and we create a glowing disc of orange light
我们在相邻晶片的下方
underneath a neighboring chip and then record a hologram on the camera chip.
建了个橙色的光盘 然后相机会记录全息影像
Like so.
就像这样
From that hologram,
我们可以从全息影像中
we can extract information just about that sonic spot,
抽取与那个声音点有关的讯息
because we filter out all of the red light. Then,
因为我们把所有的红色光滤掉了 然后
we can optionally focus
我们可以选择
the light back down into the brain
将光线聚焦到大脑中
to stimulate a neuron or part of the brain.
以刺激部分神经元或大脑
And then we move on to shift the sonic focus to another spot.
接下来转移声音焦点到另一个位置
And that way, spot by spot, we scan out the brain.
用这样的方式一点一点的扫描大脑
Our chips decode holograms
我们的晶片可以解读全息影像
a bit like Rosalind Franklin decoded
这有点像罗莎琳·富兰克林透过解码
this iconic image of X-ray diffraction
X光绕射现象
to reveal the structure of DNA for the first time.
第一次解构出DNA的结构时那样
We’re doing that electronically with our chips,
用我们的晶片以电子的方式
recording the image and decoding the information,
记录图像并解读咨讯
in a millionth of a second.
仅仅用了百万分之一秒
We scan fast.
我们的扫描速度很快
Our system may be extraordinary at finding blood.
我们的系统在寻找血液时可能非比寻常
And that’s because blood absorbs red light and infrared light.
因为血液会吸收红光及红外线光
Blood is red.
血是红色的
Here’s a beaker of blood.
这是一烧杯血液
I’m going to show you.
我将给大家展示
And here’s our laser, going right through it.
这是我们的镭射射过去
It really is a laser, you can see it on the —
这是真的镭射 你看
there it is.
射进去了
In comparison to my pound of flesh,
这跟肉相比
where you can see the light goes everywhere.
光散射到各处
So let’s see that again, blood.
我们再看一遍 血
This is really key: blood absorbs light,
这就是关键 血会吸光
flesh scatters light.
肉会把光散射掉
This is significant,
这很重要
because every tumor bigger than a cubic millimeter or two
因为每个大于一 二立方毫米的肿瘤
has five times the amount of blood as normal flesh.
围绕在它周围的血液是正常肉体的五倍
So with our system, you can imagine detecting cancers early,
所以可以想象用我们的系统 早点发现癌细胞
when intervention is easy,
早期侦测容易治疗
or tracking the size of your tumor as it grows or shrinks.
或追踪肿瘤的变大变小
Our system also should be extraordinary
我们的系统寻找缺血流的部位
at finding out where blood isn’t,
表现也应该不错
like a clogged artery, or the color change in blood
像是动脉阻塞方面的侦测
as it carries oxygen versus not carrying oxygen,
或者血液中颜色的变化 像是血液是否携带氧
which is a way to measure neural activity.
这是测量神经元活动的方法
There’s a saying that”sunlight” is the best disinfectant.
有人说“太阳光”是最好的消毒剂
It’s literally true.
真的是这样
Researchers are killing pneumonia in lungs by shining light deep inside of lungs.
研究人员发现 透过照射太阳光可以杀死肺深处的癌细胞
Our system could enable this noninvasively.
我们的系统能以非侵入式的方式来达成这样的效果
Let me give you three more examples of what this technology can do. One:
我再多举三个例子来说明 这项科技可以为我们做些什么 第一:
stroke.
中风
There’s two major kinds of stroke:
中风的原因主要有两个:
the one caused by clogs
一个是脑血管堵塞
and another caused by rupture.
另一个是脑血管破裂
If you can determine the type
如果你能在一到两个小时内判定
of stroke within an hour or two,
是哪一种类型的中风
you can give medication to massively reduce the damage to the brain.
就可以服用正确的药物 大大地减少脑部受损的危险
Get the drug wrong, and the patient dies. Today,
吃错药 病人就会完蛋
that means access to an MRI scanner
意思是现今中风后的一至二小时内
within an hour or two of a stroke. Tomorrow,
得用核磁共振仪进行扫描 未来
with compact, portable, inexpensive imaging,
有了这个小巧 可携带 又不贵的影像成型技术
every ambulance and every clinic can decode the type of stroke
每一台救护车及每家医院都能及时判断中风的种类
and get the right therapy on time.
并采取正确的医治方式
(Applause)
(掌声)
Thanks. Two:
谢谢 第二:
two-thirds of humanity lacks access to medical imaging. Compact,
这世上有三分之二的人无法取得医学显影的医疗服务 这小巧
portable, inexpensive medical imaging can save countless lives.
可携带 又不贵的医学影像成型技术能拯救无数的生命
And three: brain-computer communication.
第三:人脑与电脑沟通
I’ve shown here onstage our system focusing through skull and brain
我在台上已向各位展示我们的系统可以穿过头骨
to the diameter of the smallest neuron.
精准地观测到最小的神经元
Using light and sound, you can activate or inhibit neurons,
你可以利用光及声音来刺激或抑制神经元的活动
and simultaneously, we can match spec by spec
同时 我们的规格不输给
the resolution of an fMRI scanner,
功能磁共振成像扫描仪
which measures oxygen use in the brain.
可以用来测量脑部氧气消耗量
We do that
我们藉由
by looking at the color change in the blood,
观察血液的颜色变化
rather than using a two-ton magnet.
不用一台两吨重的磁铁仪器
So you can imagine that with fMRI scanners today,
现今用共振成像扫描仪
we can decode the imagined words, images and dreams of those being scanned.
想像我们的技术能解码扫描到的文字 图片 梦境
We’re working
我们正在
on a system that puts all three of these capabilities
把这三个功能结合
into the same system —
在同一个系统里——
neural read and write with light and sound,
利用光与声音来读写神经元
while simultaneously mapping oxygen use in the brain —
同时扫描脑中的含氧量——
all together in a noninvasive portable
全部集合在非侵入性的可携装置里
that can enable brain-computer communication,
可促成人与电脑的沟通
no implants, no surgery, no optional brain surgery required.
不需植入 不需手术 不用考虑脑部开刀这一项
This can do enormous good
这可以为全球二十亿深受
for the two billion people that suffer globally with brain disease.
脑部疾病的人带来很多益处
(Applause)
(掌声)
People ask me how deep we can go.
人们问我能看到多深
And the answer is: the whole body’s in reach.
答案是:全身
But here’s another way to look at it.
这里有另一个看待的方式
(Laughter)
(笑声)
My whole head just lit up,
刚刚我整个头亮了
you want to see it again? Audience:
想要再看一遍吗?观众:
Yes!
要!
(Laughter) MLJ:
(笑声)玛丽·卢·杰普森:
This looks scary, but it’s not.
这看起来很可怕 但并不可怕
What’s truly scary is not knowing about our bodies,
真正可怕的是不懂我们的身体
our brains and our diseases so we can effectively treat them.
我们的脑 我们的疾病 以致未能有效地治疗
This technology can help.
这项科技可以帮助我们
Thank you.
谢谢各位
(Applause)
(掌声)
Thank you.
谢谢
(Applause)
(掌声)

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译制信息
视频概述

在各种检测仪器里,新的、小巧的、便携的检测仪器帮我们提供更好的医疗照顾给患者。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awADEuv5vWY

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