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我们如何为共同的未来建造不朽的城市

How we can design timeless cities for our collective future | Vishaan Chakrabarti

跟我一起去全世界
Travel with me to some of the most beautiful spots
一些最美丽的地方旅行
in cities around the world:
罗马的西班牙阶梯
Rome’s Spanish steps;
巴黎和上海的历史气息浓郁的居民区
the historic neighborhoodsof Paris and Shanghai;
中央公园起伏的景观
the rolling landscape of Central Park;
东京或菲斯的紧密街道
the tight-knit blocks of Tokyo or Fez;
里约热内卢贫民窟里的大倾角街道
the wildly sloping streetsof the favelas of Rio de Janeiro;
斋蒲尔的眩晕阶井
the dizzying step wells of Jaipur;
威尼斯的拱形人行桥
the arched pedestrian bridges of Venice.
现在让我们去几个更新的城市
Now let’s go to some newer cities.
20世纪横跨六大洲上建造的六个市中心区
Six downtowns built acrosssix continents in the 20th century.
为什么在这之中没有一个地方
Why do none of these places have any
有任何一点老城
of the charming characteristics
的引人入胜的特质?
of our older cities?
或者让我们来到20世纪六大洲上的
Or let’s go to six suburbs built
六个郊外建筑看一看
on six continents in the 20th century.
它们为什么毫无诗情画意
Why do none of them haveany of the lyrical qualities
无法让我们联想到最怀念的地方呢?
that we associate with the placesthat we cherish the most?
可能你觉得我只是在怀古伤今
Now, maybe you thinkI’m just being nostalgic —
为什么这很重要呢?
why does it matter?
谁在意有没有这悄然而至的千篇一律蔓延着我们的星球呢?
Who cares if there is this creepingsameness besetting our planet? Well,
它很重要因为全世界大多数人
it matters becausemost people around the world
都被城市地区所吸引
are gravitating to urban areas globally.
我们如何设计那些城区 会充分决定
And how we design those urban areascould well determine
我们是否能作为一个物种繁衍生息
whether we thrive or not as a species. So,
我们已经了解到住在交通发达地区
we already know that peoplewho live in transit-rich areas,
公寓里的人们 其碳排放量
live in apartment buildings, have a far lower carbon footprint
比住在郊区里的人的要低得多
than their suburban counterparts.
所以 也许我们从中学到的是 如果你热爱大自然
So maybe one lesson from thatis if you love nature,
就不应住在大自然之中 去破坏它
you shouldn’t live in it.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
但是我认为这些所谓
But I think the dry statistics
以交通为导向发展的枯燥数据
of what’s known astransit-oriented development
仅仅能说明部分问题
only tells part of the story.
因为城市如果要吸引人们
Because cities, if they’regoing to attract people,
就必须非常出色
have to be great.
它们必须是有着独特吸引力的强力磁铁
They have to be powerful magnetswith distinctive appeal
来吸引那些崇尚环保的新都市人
to bring in all those new green urbanites.
提醒一下 这并不只是个审美问题
And this is not justan aesthetic issue, mind you.
这是个形成国际影响的问题
This is an issueof international consequence.
因为今天 每一天
Because today, every day,
不夸张地说 成百上千成千上万的人正在
literally hundreds of thousands of people are moving
移民进入某个城市
into a city somewhere,
主要在南半球
mainly in the Global South.
当你想到这事的时候 问问你自己
And when you thinkabout that, ask yourself:
难道他们注定要住在这些
Are they condemned to livein the same bland cities
我们建于20世纪 单调乏味的城市吗?
we built in the 20th century,
还是我们可以提供他们更好的住所呢?
or can we offer them something better?
要回答这个问题
And to answer that question,
就要先搞清楚 我们是如何到这地步的
you have to unpack how we got here in the first place.
首先是 大规模生产
First: mass production.
就像日用品和连锁店一样
Just like consumer goods and chain stores,
我们大规模生产玻璃 钢筋 水泥 沥青 石膏板
we mass-produce glass and steeland concrete and asphalt and drywall,
而且我们不假思索地在全世界开展大规模生产
and we deploy them in mind-numbinglysimilar ways across the planet.
第二 规章制度
Second: regulation.
例如汽车
So, take cars, for instance.
汽车行驶速度非常快
Cars travel at very high speeds.
它们极易被人类的失误影响
They’re susceptible to human error.
所以当我们作为建筑师被要求设计一条新的街道时
So when we’re asked, as architects,to design a new street,
我们必须得看一张类似这样的设计图
we have to look at drawings like this,
它告诉我们马路沿儿需要建多高
that tell us how high a curb needs to be,
行人得在这里 汽车得在那里
that pedestrians need to be over hereand vehicles over there,
装卸区在这儿 临时停靠在那儿
a loading zone here, a drop-off there.
汽车在20世纪真正做的事
What the car really didin the 20th century
是它创造了这种被瓜分隔离的景观
is it created this carved-up,segregated landscape.
或者例如云梯消防车
Or take the ladder fire truck —
你知道就是那种巨大的云梯车
you know, those big ladder trucks
用来从着火的楼里救人的?
that are used to rescue peoplefrom burning buildings?
那种车的转弯半径特别宽
Those have such a wide turning radius,
所以我们必须得配备
that we have to deploy an enormous amount
极宽的路面和大量沥青
of pavement, of asphalt,
与其相适
to accommodate them.
又例如极为重要的轮椅
Or take the criticallyimportant wheelchair.
轮椅需要最小坡度的地形设计
A wheelchair necessitatesa landscape of minimal slopes
和多余的垂直上下行空间
and redundant vertical circulation.
所以无论哪里只要有楼梯
So wherever there’s a stair,
就必须配有电梯或者斜坡
there has to be an elevator or a ramp.
请不要误解我
Now, don’t get me wrong, please —
我全是为了行人的安全
I am all for pedestrian safety,
消防 当然还有轮椅通道
firefighting and certainly, wheelchair access.
我的父母在晚年
Both of my parents were in wheelchairs
都使用轮椅
at the end of their lives,
所以我非常理解那种困难
so I understand very much that struggle.
但是我们也要明白
But we also have to acknowledge
所有这些出于好意的规则
that all of these well-intentioned rules,
会产生巨大的意想不到的后果
they had the tremendousunintended consequence
使我们过去建造城市的方法不再合法
of making illegal the ways in which we used to build cities.
同样违法 在19世纪末期
Similarly illegal: at the endof the 19th century,
就在电梯刚刚发明之后
right after the elevator was invented,
我们建造了这些迷人的城市建筑
we built these charming urban buildings,
这些漂亮的建筑遍及全世界
these lovely buildings,all over the world,
从意大利到印度
from Italy to India.
这些建筑里有大概10或12套公寓
And they had maybe10 or 12 apartments in them.
有一间小电梯 和封起来的盘旋楼梯
They had one small elevatorand a staircase that wrapped them
还有一个天井
and a light well.
它们不仅物美价廉
And not only were they charming buildingsthat were cost-effective,
而且是公共区域 你能在楼梯井碰到你的邻居
they were communal — you ran into your neighbor on that stairwell.
但现在你不能建造这样的建筑了
Well, you can’t build this, either.
相比之下 今天
By contrast, today,
当我们必须在某地建一栋大型新公寓楼时
when we have to build a major new apartment building somewhere,
我们不得不建造很多很多电梯
we have to buildlots and lots of elevators
和很多消防楼梯
and lots of fire stairs,
我们还得用冗长无味 沉闷枯燥的走廊把它们连起来
and we have to connect them with these long, anonymous, dreary corridors.
当开发商面对
Now developers –when they’re confronted with the cost
所有这些公共基础设施的成本的时候
of all of that common infrastructure,
他们不得不把成本分摊到更多的公寓
they have to spread that costover more apartments,
于是他们就想建更大的楼
so they want to build bigger buildings.
这导致的结果是砰砰的声音
What that results in is the thud,
那种建造同样的公寓大楼而发出的沉闷砰砰声
the dull thud of the sameapartment building being built
从全世界的城市里传来
in every city across the world.
这不只是在制造千篇一律的实物
And this is not only creatingphysical sameness,
它还在制造千篇一律的社会
it’s creating social sameness,
因为建造这些建筑物更加昂贵
because these buildingsare more expensive to build,
它在全球范围内 导致了
and it helped to createan affordability crisis
城市负担危机 包括像温哥华这样的地方
in cities all over the world,including places like Vancouver.
我说过还有第三个原因导致了这种千篇一律
Now I said there was a third reason for all this sameness,
而且 那其实是心理原因
and that’s really a psychological one.
就是对标新立异的恐惧
It’s a fear of difference,
建筑师常常从客户那里听到这样的话
and architects hear this all the time from their clients:
“如果我试试那个新点子 我会被人告吗?
“If I try that new idea, will I be sued?
我会不会被嘲笑啊?
Will I be mocked?
还是小心驶得万年船”
Better safe than sorry.”
所有这些事情共同作用
And all of these thingshave conspired together
用一种我认为是严重问题的同一性来覆盖我们的星球
to blanket our planet with a homogeneity that I think is deeply problematic.
那么我们能如何扭转局面呢?
So how can we do the opposite?
我们怎样才能重新开始建设那些
How can we go back to building cities
物质上文化上都丰富多彩的城市呢?
that are physicallyand culturally varied again?
我们怎样才能建设出不同的城市?
How can we build cities of difference?
我想说我们应该开始
I would argue that we should start
将地方特色注入全世界
by injecting into the global the local.
比如食品就已经发生了这样的现象
This is already happeningwith food, for instance.
看看
You just look at the way
精酿啤酒是怎么取代啤酒公司的就明白了
in which craft beer has taken on corporate beer.
或者你们还有人吃神奇面包吗?
Or how many of youstill eat Wonder Bread?
我打赌你们大多数人肯定不吃
I’d bet most of you don’t.
而且我打赌你们肯定是因为不想让加工食品
And I bet you don’t becauseyou don’t want processed food
充斥你的生活
in your life.
所以如果你不想要加工食品
So if you don’t want processed food,
你为什么会想要一个加工过的城市呢?
why would you want processed cities?
你为什么会想让这些批量生产的 已褪色的地方
Why would you want thesemass-produced, bleached places
成为我们所有人每日生活工作的地方呢?
where all of us have to liveand work every day?
(掌声)
(Applause)
科技是20世纪的问题的最大部分
So technology was a big part of the problem in the 20th century.
当我们发明汽车的时候所发生的事是
When we invented the automobile,what happened is,
全世界都向这个发明倾倒了
the world all bent towards the invention.
我们围绕它重建了我们的景观
And we recreated our landscape around it.
在21世纪
In the 21st century,
技术可以成为解决方案的一部分
technology can be part of the solution —
只要它能满足世界的需求
if it bends to the needs of the world.
那么我这话是什么意思呢?
So what do I mean by that?
拿自动驾驶车举个例子
Take the autonomous vehicle.
我不认为自动驾驶车令人兴奋
I don’t think the autonomous vehicle is exciting
因为那是无人驾驶的
because it’s a driverless car.
那在我看来就意味着
That to me only implies that
路上甚至会更堵 坦白说
there’s even more congestion on the roads, frankly.
我觉得自动驾驶车令人兴奋的是它的承诺
I think what’s exciting about the autonomous vehicle is the promise —
而且我想要强调一下“承诺”这个词
and I want to stress the word”promise,”
鉴于最近在亚利桑那发生的一起事故
given the recent accident in Arizona —
这是一种我们可以使这些小型城市汽车
the promise that we could have these small, urban vehicles
与行人和自行车安全地结合在一起的承诺
that could safely comminglewith pedestrians and bicycles.
这将使我们能够再次设计人性化的街道
That would enable usto design humane streets again,
比如没有马路牙子的街 可能像火烧岛上的木制走道
streets without curbs, maybe streets like the wooden walkways on Fire Island.
也可能我们会设计出
Or maybe we could design streets
21世纪的鹅卵石街道
with the cobblestone of the 21st century,
可以捕捉动能 可以化雪
something that captureskinetic energy, melts snow,
可以在你走路时 帮你健身的街道
helps you with your fitness when you walk.
还记得那些带巨大云梯的消防车吗?
Or remember those big ladder fire trucks?
如果我们能把它们
What if we could replace them
和所有那些与之捆绑的沥青
and all the asphalt that comes with them
换成能将人们从燃烧的建筑物中解救出来的无人机和机器人呢?
with drones and robots that couldrescue people from burning buildings?
如果你觉得那有点古怪 你会惊讶地发现
And if you think that’s outlandish,you’d be amazed to know
现在有多少技术已经在救援行动中
how much of that technologyis already being used today
被广泛使用了
in rescue activity.
但是现在我希望你们能跟我一起想象
But now I’d like youto really imagine with me.
想象一下如果我们可以设计出一种气垫船式的轮椅
Imagine if we could designthe hovercraft wheelchair.
对吗?
Right?
这一发明不仅能让我们获得平等的通行权
An invention that wouldnot only allow equal access,
而且还能让我们建造21世纪的意大利山城
but would enable us to build the Italian hill town of the 21st century.
我想你会惊讶地发现
I think you’d be amazed to know
只是这一点点迎合人类需求的发明
that just a few of these inventions,responsive to human need,
就会完全改变我们建造城市的方式
would completely transformthe way we could build our cities. Now,
我打赌你现在肯定也在想
I bet you’re also thinking:
“我们还没有什么动能鹅卵石和会飞的轮椅
“We don’t have kinetic cobblestonesor flying wheelchairs yet,
所以我们能运用目前的技术来做些什么才能解决这个问题?”
so what can we do about this problemwith today’s technology?”
我对这个问题的灵感来源于
And my inspiration for that question comes
一个非常特别的城市
from a very different city,
蒙古的乌兰巴托
the city of Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
我在那里的客户
I have clients there who have
让我们设计一个21世纪的露天村庄
asked us to design a 21st-century open-air village
用当今的技术实现可持续加热
that’s sustainably heatedusing today’s technology,
建在他们的市中心
in the heart of their downtown.
这是为了应付他们寒冷的冬天
And that’s to copewith their frigid winters.
这个项目既有诗歌 也有散文
And the project is both poetry and prose.
诗实际上是在于唤起当地人的共鸣:
The poetry is reallyabout evoking the local:
群山起伏的地形 用色彩捕捉灿烂之光
the mountainous terrain, using colors to pick upthe spectacular light,
理解如何诠释蒙古民族
understanding how to interpretthe nomadic traditions
的游牧传统
that animate the nation of Mongolia.
单调一直是建筑物发展的基本
The prose has been the developmentof a catalogue of buildings,
特别是价格实惠的小型建筑物
of small buildingsthat are fairly affordable,
用到当地的建筑材料和技术
using local constructionmaterials and technology
可以提供新形式的住房
that can still providenew forms of housing,
新的工作场所 新商店和文化建筑
new workspace, new shops and cultural buildings,
比如说剧院或者博物馆
like a theater or a museum —
甚至鬼屋
even a haunted house.
当我们正在办公室里进行这项工作的时候
While working on this in our office,
我们意识到我们是在同事的工作基础上进行建设的
we’ve realized that we’re building upon the work of our colleagues,
包括在墨西哥城工作的建筑师Tatiana Bilbao
including architect Tatiana Bilbao,working in Mexico City;
普利兹克奖得主Alejandro Aravena 在智利工作
Pritzker laureateAlejandro Aravena, working in Chile;
最近普利兹克奖得主Balkrishna Doshi 在印度工作
and recent Pritzker winnerBalkrishna Doshi, working in India.
他们所有人都在建造
And all of them are building
令人惊叹的新型经济适用房
spectacular new forms of affordable housing,
但是他们同样也在建造特色城市
but they’re also buildingcities of difference,
因为他们在建设呼应当地社区
because they’re building citiesthat respond to local communities,
气候 建筑方式的城市
local climates and local construction methods.
我们在这种想法上付出双倍努力
We’re doubling down on that idea,we’re researching a new model
为中产阶级压力正在增长的城市开发新模式
for our growing citieswith gentrification pressures,
这种模式可以建立在19世纪晚期
that could build uponthat late-19th-century model
那种以中产阶级为核心的模式之上
with that center core,
但是这种模式可以根据当地的需求
but a prototype that could shape-shift in response to local needs
和当地的建筑材料来进行变形
and local building materials.
所有这些想法对我来说不存在怀旧之情
All of these ideas,to me, are nostalgia-free.
它们都告诉我
They all tell me
我们能够建设出可以成长的城市
that we can build cities that can grow,
以反映住在其中的
but grow in a way that reflectsthe diverse residents
不同居民的方式成长
that live in those cities;
以一种能容纳所有收入群体的方式成长
grow in a way that can accommodate all income groups,
以及所有肤色 信仰 性别
all colors, creeds, genders.
我们可以建造如此壮观的城市 从而抑制单调的蔓延
We could build such spectacular citiesthat we could disincentivize sprawl
并且真正保护环境
and actually protect nature.
我们可以建设高科技的
We can grow cities that are high-tech,
而且呼应人文精神的无尽文化需求的城市
but also respond to the timeless cultural needs of the human spirit.
我认为我们可以建设出特色城市
I’m convinced that we can buildcities of difference
这有助于创造我们许多人所向往的全球格局
that help to create the global mosaic to which so many of us aspire.
谢谢大家
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

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视频概述

如今高楼大厦林立,城市建筑千篇一律。为什么我们再也建造不出别具一格的城市?建筑师应当如何跳出思维框架,实现人文精神的可持续发展?在这次演讲里寻找答案吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Stacey

审核员

审核员@XG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hItQZfVU6-g

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