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视频是如何制作的?

How Was Video Invented?

[Click]
[咔哒声]
[High-pitched CRT TV noise]
[高频CRT电视噪声]
Film is a very straightforward technology.
胶片是一种非常简单的技术
It just involves taking a two-dimensional image,
它只要拍一张二维图像
and focusing it on to a two-dimensional piece of film,
再将其对应到一张二维胶片上
and there you have a photo.
你就可以得到一张照片
But video, and by that, I mean moving electronic images,
但是视频 我指的是动态的电子图像
has a very different history with a lot of changes
有着非常独特的变革历史
that have really transformed the way it works.
这些变革彻底改变了它的工作原理
This video was sponsored by B&H Photo,
这个视频由B&H Photo赞助
which is kind of fitting because that’s where I get a lot of my gear to make these videos.
我在这里买过很多装备来制作这些视频 所以这非常合适
So I’ll tell you more about them later,
稍后我会介绍更多
but now it’s off to San Francisco.
但是现在该去旧金山了
I’m going to meet with a guy who knows a lot about old video gear
我要去见一个很了解旧视频设备的人
and he’s got some he’s gonna show me.
他要带一些装备给我看
– Richard, nice to meet you.
理查德 很高兴见到你
– Nice to meet you Derek. Come on in.
德雷克 我也是 请进
Welcome to LabGuy’s World.
欢迎来到科研人员的世界
– [Laughs.] That’s a cool spot you got here.
[笑声]你这里很酷
– Thank you.
谢谢
– The fundamental problem of video is taking this two-dimensional light image
视频的拍摄原理是将二维的感光图像
and turning it into a one-dimensional electrical signal.
转化为一维的电信号
So how do you do that?
那你是怎么做的呢?
Well, the solution actually comes from the first ever fax machine,
信不信由你 亚历山大·贝恩在1843年发明了传真机
which believe it or not, was invented in 1843 by Alexander Bain.
很好地解决了这个问题
Now he was a clock maker.
他是钟表匠
His invention involved a transmitter and receiver which each had a pendulum,
他的传真机由发射器和接收器组成 每个上面都有一个钟摆
and those pendulums were synchronized.
这些钟摆是同步的
So what would happen is, at the transmitter, there would be a metal sheet
一般来说 会使用绝缘油墨
on which something was written or drawn using a non-conducting ink.
在发射器的金属板上写写画画
– So a finger at the transmitter,
发射器上的一个电子指针
an electric finger, would stroke over the paper and wherever there was iron, it would conduct,
会划过纸面 只要有铁 就能导电
and that conducting signal was sent to the other end,
传导信号被发送到另一端的电敏纸上
which was applied to paper with a chemical that would turn dark when electricity flowed through it,
纸上的化学物质在电流通过时会变暗
and it would reproduce a very accurate image of the handwritten note you just made.
就可以准确地把你的手写笔记复制出来
– Now Alexander Bain only ever transmitted static images,
虽然亚历山大·贝恩只传输过静态图像
but some people have called him the real father of television,
但他被一些人称为真正的电视之父
because he invented scanning.
因为他发明了扫描技术
This idea of moving back and forth across an image,
这种在图像上来回移动的想法
breaking it down into lines.
是把图像分解成线条
But if you really want to get moving images,
但如果你真的想获得动态的图像
well, you need to be able to scan much faster.
你需要进行更快地扫描
So we have to jump forward to 1884,
所以我们必须快进到1884年
and a 23-year-old German University student named Paul Nipkow.
一位23岁名叫保罗·尼普科夫的德国大学学生
He patented what is called the Nipkow disk,
获得了被称为尼普科磁盘的专利
which is basically a big disc with a spiral of holes in it.
这实际上是一个有着螺旋孔的大磁盘
– The inner pinholes do the scanning,
内部的梢孔做扫描
and if I go fast enough you can see the scanning.
如果我转得足够快 你可以看到扫描结果
– You would put a light behind this Nipkow disk
假如你在这个尼普科磁盘后面放一盏灯
and so you’d have a spot of light which scans across your subject, say a person.
这样就会有一个光点来扫描你的物体 比如一个人
And then there would be a reflected light off that person which would be picked up by some light sensors.
那人身上的反射光会被一些光传感器捕捉到
That would create an electrical signal which you could transmit over distance to a receiver.
这将产生一个可以远距离传送到接收器的电信号
Now at the receiver you use that electrical signal to modulate the brightness of a light source,
你可以在接收器上使用那个电信号来调节光源的亮度
and then in front of that you place a synchronized Nipkow disk,
然后在它前面放置一个同步的尼普科夫圆盘
and so the result is a recreation of the image from the transmitter.
这就可以再现发射器的图像
– So it was just barely at the limits of the ability to make a viewable picture,
所以它只是在拍摄可视图片上能力有限
and it was actually broadcast for a couple of years in Britain,
它确实在英国播放过几年
and in America and other countries did experimental broadcasts using this technique.
也用这种技术在美国和其他国家进行过实验性播放
– This is arguably the first-ever broadcast television image.
这是有争议的第一次播放的电视图像
It was broadcast for a few hours a day for several years,
它在几年间每天播出几个小时
and it was used by engineers to perform experiments and try to improve the quality of the broadcast.
工程师们用它来进行实验 并试图提高播放的质量
– What it proved was that this wasn’t the way to do it. [Laughs.]
事实证明 这不是正确的方法[笑声]
– So by 1939 mechanical TV was all but phased out,
因此到1939年 机械电视几乎被全部淘汰
and it was replaced by all-electric TV.
取而代之的是完全用电的电视

[音乐声]
Specifically the cathode-ray tube.
特别是阴极射线管
So this is a glass vacuum tube with an electron gun at the back.
这是一个玻璃真空管 它后侧有一把电子枪
And the electron gun would fire a beam of electrons at the screen,
电子枪会在涂有一种化学物质的屏幕上
where it was coated in a chemical
发射一束电子
which produced light when it got hit by the electrons that’s called a phosphor.
当屏幕上的荧光粉被电子击中时 就会产生光
And using magnetic fields, this beam was scanned across the screen
利用磁场 电子束在屏幕上被
top-to-bottom, left-to-right,
从上到下 左到右地扫描
and you would vary the brightness of the beam
你可以通过改变控制电极上的电压
by varying the voltage on a control electrode,
来调节电子束的亮度
essentially determining how many electrons would get sent out
这实际上是决定了每个时刻发射的电子束中
in that beam at any instant to hit the screen.
有多少可以击中屏幕的电子
So, if you send out a lot of electrons you get a bright spot,
所以 如果你发送了很多电子 你就会得到一个亮点
if you don’t then you get a dark spot,
反之 你就会得到一个黑点
and in that way you can produce a nice black-and-white image.
这样你就可以制作一个漂亮的黑白图像
And if you’re wondering about color TV,
如果你想知道彩电的由来
well, there were a number of dead ends along the path
在标准的红-绿-蓝像素系统形成前
to the red-green-blue pixel system that became the standard.
有很多路都没走通
Like this TV with a spinning color wheel.
就比如这台带有转动彩轮的电视
– I named the project Goldmark I in honor of Dr. Goldmark.
为了纪念戈德马克博士 我将这个项目命名为戈德马克 I
The television part is a standard black-and-white picture tube.
电视部分是一个标准的黑白显像管
– It displayed 24 frames per second
它每秒显示24帧
but each frame required six scans: blue-green-red, blue-green-red.
每帧需要6次扫描:蓝-绿-红 蓝-绿-红
It worked really well, but it wasn’t backwards compatible with black-and-white TVs.
它工作得非常好 但它无法向后兼容黑白电视
And this is a mini triniscope,
这是一个迷你三枪显像管
so named for its three cathode ray tubes, one for each color.
以它的三个阴极射线管命名 每管代表一种颜色
And their images were combined with prisms.
他们的图像是与棱镜结合的
– The downside of a triniscope monitor
三枪显像管显示屏的缺点是
is that for every inch you add diagonally to your screen
你每增加屏幕对角线一寸
the volume of the cabinet increases by like the power of something like three and a half.
机柜的体积就像有某种力量般地增加约三倍半
They get huge fast.
它们迅速变得巨大
– So the ultimate solution was to have red, green, and blue phosphors for each pixel,
所以最终的解决方案是每个像素都有红 绿 蓝三色的荧光粉
and three electron guns to determine their relative brightness.
以及三个电子枪来确定它们的相对亮度
– Now, the number of lines those electron beams make across the screen is, in theory,
现在 电子束在屏幕上形成的线数
525 every thirtieth of a second.
理论上是每1/30秒就有525行
But this is achieved by scanning every other line each sixtieth of a second,
但这是通过每1/60秒隔行扫描来实现的
so it actually takes two scans to make one frame.
所以其实需要两次扫描才能完成一帧
This is called interlacing.
这被称为交错操作
And what you’ll notice watching this is that most of the time you’re actually staring at a blank screen.
你会注意到 事实上大多数时候你都在盯着空白屏幕
The illusion of a continuous moving image is made possible by our persistence of vision,
形成动态图像的错觉源于我们连续的视觉能力
that is, we don’t stop seeing something instantaneously after light stops entering our eyes.
也就是说 在光线停止进入我们眼睛后 我们不会立即停止看到某样东西
– So, initially I was thinking this wouldn’t be too hard to film
所以 最初我认为拍摄电影没有这么难
I mean, a thirtieth of a second or a sixtieth of a second, that’s not terribly fast.
我是说 1/30秒或1/60秒 那并不是很快
But then if you think about it,
但如果你仔细想想
262 and 1/2 lines being drawn every sixtieth of a second,
每1/60秒画262又1/2条线
that is 15,750 lines drawn per second.
也就是每秒画15750条线
That is fast,
那很快
so if you want to be able to see the lines being drawn on,
所以如果你想看到被画的线
you need to shoot faster than 15,000 frames per second,
你需要画得比每秒15000帧更快
a lot faster, really, to be able to see this clearly.
事实上要更快 才能看得更清楚
and so I am using the Phantom v2512.
因此我现在在用幻影v2512
That is the beast
这就是那个装备
that is allowing me to produce these images.
它使我能够制作这些图像
Now the actual resolution of these TVs turned out to be around 480 lines,
现在这些电视的实际分辨率约为480行
so when you select 480p on YouTube, that’s why this is an option.
所以这就是在油管上会有480p这个选项的原因
And I guess it’s worth pointing out that the “tube” in “YouTube”
我感觉值得一提的是 “YouTube”中的“tube”
is this thing, a cathode-ray tube.
指的就是阴极射线管
So in the time before light-sensitive chips like we all use in our cameras today,
如今我们的相机都使用光敏芯片 在这之前
how did you actually create the image to display on a television?
要如何制作显示在电视上的图像呢?
Well, there were many vacuum tube designs.
这里有很多真空管的设计
One of the most common was the image orthicon tube,
其中最常见的是图像正摄像管
sometimes called Emmy for short.
有时也简称艾美
In fact, that’s where the name Emmys comes from.
事实上 这就是艾美奖这个名字的来源
So the way it would work is you use the camera lens to focus an image
它的工作方式是用相机镜头将图像
onto the front of the image orthicon tube, and that was coated with a photoelectric substance,
聚焦到涂有光电物质的图像管前部
so it would release electrons in proportion to the light that hit them.
所以图像管将根据击中他们的电子束来部分释放电子
Now those electrons were collimated by magnetic fields and sent straight back.
这些电子会被磁场校准返回
So essentially you had an electron version of the image sent straight back to a target,
所以实际上电子版图像会被直接发到
which was a very, very thin glass plate.
一个非常非常薄的玻璃板上
And of course where there’s more electrons, that creates a more negative spot on this target.
当然 如果有更多的电子 就会在这个玻璃板上产生更强的负电荷
From the back of the tube you’d send forward an electron beam to scan across the target.
你要从管子后面向前发送一电子束来扫描玻璃板
And so these electrons as they came in,
因此当这些电子进入时
the more negative a spot that was on the target, the more that beam would get reflected.
玻璃板上的负电荷越强 光束反射的就越多
And so that reflected beam was amplified in the tube,
这样反射光束就会在图像管中被放大
and then used as the signal
然后作为信号
to essentially determine how bright that part of the image should be.
基本就可以确定这部分图像的亮度
So this is how television images were created and displayed for decades.
这就是几十年来电视图像创建和展示的方式
But here is the crazy thing:
但疯狂的是:
there was no way to record them.
没有办法去记录它们
I mean the purpose of video or the purpose of electronic images
我的意思是 视频或电子图像的目的
was really to transmit something from one place to another.
其实是把某物从一个地方传输到另一个地方
“Television” literally means “seeing at a distance.”
“电视”的字面意思是“从远处看”
It’s not about recording for replaying later as film was.
它的记录不像胶片那样可以后期回放
– The thing that blew me away was
让我震惊的是
realizing that video cameras existed for a couple decades before video tape.
摄像机比录像带的出现早了几十年
– That’s right. That was the the era of live broadcasting
没错 那是现场直播的时代
– But this introduced some problems.
但这也带来了一些问题
For example in North America, in the US, a lot of the TV programs were produced out in New York,
例如在北美 美国 很多电视节目都是在纽约制作的
and there was a coaxial cable which went across the whole of the US,
有一根同轴电缆横跨整个美国
and that could deliver programming to, say, Los Angeles.
它可以把节目传送到 比如说 洛杉矶
But it was at the wrong time.
但是时间会有延迟
I mean a news broadcast from New York at 6:00 or 7:00 p.m.
我是说下午6点或7点纽约播出的新闻
couldn’t just be broadcast live at 3:00 or 4:00 p.m. on the West Coast.
不能只在下午3点或4点的西海岸直播
It just didn’t make any sense,
这没有任何意义
So you needed to time-delay it.
所以你需要延长时间
So how did they do it?
那他们是怎么做到的呢?
Well the answer was to take a film camera,
答案是使用一个胶片相机
a cinema camera, and point it at a television screen,
一个电影相机 对准电视屏幕
and actually film the television screen.
然后拍摄电视屏幕
Then you would quickly develop the film
然后你要快速冲洗胶片
and bring it back three hours later to broadcast it live,
三小时后把它带回来进行现场直播
to scan it in and broadcast that film as though it were live.
扫描胶片并播放 好像是在现场直播
– But now when I bring it back to the TV studio and stick it into the telecine,
但现在 当我把它带回电视演播室 插入电视电影机时
[Laughs.]
[笑声]
the picture doesn’t look right.
画面看起来不对了
The lines aren’t lining up right,
线条排列不对
and besides you’re trying to sample two sets of lines back together and they don’t!
另外你试着把两组线条放在一起也不行
– This became such a prevalent method of doing business for the TV networks
这就变成了电视网络生意的一种普遍方式
that by 1954 the television networks, to time-delay their programming,
到1954年 电视网络为了把节目延时
were using more film than all the film studios in Hollywood combined.
使用的胶片比好莱坞所有电影制片厂加起来还多
This is absurd and expensive and wasteful,
这既荒谬又昂贵又浪费
so a different method was really needed.
所以真的需要一种不同的方法
And that came along in 1956
这种情况持续到1956年
with the invention of the first workable video tape recorder.
直到第一个可使用的录像带被发明出来
It was the size of a large desk and it cost a fortune.
它有一张大桌子那么大 并且价值不菲
It ran on this two-inch magnetic tape
它在这盘两英寸的磁带上运行
with little video heads spinning at 14,000 RPM.
小旋转转头每分钟转速14000
We’re talking as fast as a jet engine.
这个速度和喷气发动机一样快
That is the kind of technology it took
在视频成为我们
before video became what we kind of know it as today,
熟知的记录和存储图像的方法之前
a method of recording and storing images,
这种技术用来记录和存储图像
rather than a way of just transmitting vision from one place to another.
而不只是将画面从一个地方传输到另一个地方
But we’ve come a long way since then,
但那以后 我们花了很久
miniaturizing the tape stand into VHS and Beta,
将磁带架缩小成VHS和Beta
and eventually down to DV and mini DV,
最终发展出DV和迷你DV
and now we are on to solid state storage.
现在我们使用固态存储
And you know I’ve glossed over a lot of the history here,
你知道我这里把很多历史一笔带过了
but now we’re in a situation where video is better than film.
但现在我们处在视频比电影好的情况中
You can see that in 2012, that was the inflection point between
你可以看到2012年是高票房的电影使用胶片拍摄
people using film to shoot the top-grossing movies, changing over to people using digital.
转向使用数码拍摄的拐点
And what this has done for people like you and me,
这对于我们这类人的影响是
is it’s made it possible to make really good images.
它使拍出非常好的影象成为可能
And the question I have is, what does this do to a society?
我的问题是 这对社会有什么影响呢?
What might it do when people can share every part of their lives with video?
当人们能用视频分享生活里所有细节时 将会如何?

[音乐]
This part of this video was sponsored by B&H Photo,
视频的这部分由B&H Photo赞助
literally one of my favorite stores in the world.
B&H确实是世界上我最喜欢的商店之一
They have all the greatest and newest camera gear,
他们有所有最棒最新的相机设备
plus pro audio and lighting and computers,
外加专业的音响 照明和电脑
basically anything you could need to make high-quality video.
基本上 任何你可能需要用来制作高质量视频的东西都有
And every time I’m out in New York, I go and visit the store.
每次外出去纽约时 我都会去这家店
The last time I was there I asked them for a gimbal,
上次去的时候 我向他们要了一个万向架
because I’ve been seeing all these comments saying my videos were too shaky,
因为所有评论都在说我的视频太晃了
and so they recommend that this one right here,
所以他们推荐了商店里的这个
and I’ve really loved it. It’s so smooth. I can hold it with one hand.
我真的很喜欢 它太稳了 我可以一只手拿着
It is pretty lightweight and it’s just been great
它特别轻 这就很棒
and I think it’s really improved the quality of my videos.
我认为它确实提高了我的视频质量
And when I’m back here in LA, I still shop with them online,
当我回到洛杉矶 我会继续网购他们的东西
because there is no shop like that in LA.
因为洛杉矶没有这样的商店
In fact, this camera, the Sony a7R III, I’d highly recommend it,
事实上 我强烈推荐这款索尼7RIII
I bought it for my wife for Christmas the Christmas before last,
去年圣诞节 我把它买给我妻子
and it was backordered,
它那时缺货
but you can actually sign up through their website
但事实上你可以通过在他们网站上注册账号
to get notified when it’s in stock,
来收取到货通知
and I did that and managed to get it in time for Christmas,
我就是这么做的并按时在圣诞节拿到了它
so it’s a really great shopping experience.
所以这是一次非常棒的购物体验
The people are so knowledgeable,
这里的店员知识面很广
it’s a mom-and-pop shop,
这是一家小型零售商店
it’s got anything you could ever want.
你可以买到任何想要的东西
I highly recommend that you check out B&H Photo.
我强烈推荐你去B&H Photo看看
I’ll put a link to them in the description.
我会在视频简介中放上他们的链接
And thanks to B&H for sponsoring this video.
感谢B&H对本视频的赞助

[音乐]

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视频概述

生活处处可视频,那么视频究竟是如何被制作出来的呢?一起来看看吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

吕晨

审核员

审核员NEHC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjDX5ItsOnQ

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