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冷战与GPS – 译学馆
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冷战与GPS

How War Gave us GPS

它是20世纪最重要的科技之一
It’s one of the most important technologiesof the 20th century.
如果明天它不工作了 银行会崩溃 飞机会迷路
If it failed tomorrow, banks would crash,planes would get lost
而你很可能在城市里找不到路
and you’d probably struggle to findyour way around the city
这项技术就是当初为了打败苏联而设计的GPS
It’s called GPS and it was designed to defeat the Soviet Union.
这就是一项冷战期的技术如何
This is how a Cold War technology went
从指挥导弹变为导航Uber
from guiding bombs to guiding your Uber.
GPS是卫星网络
GPS is a network
能够让你打开手机就能知道你的位置
of satellites which allows you to open your phone and know where you
不管你在任何地方
are anywhere in the world.
数十亿人们每天都在使用它
Billions of people use it everyday.
但是它的根源可以追溯到世界第一个卫星
But its roots can be traced back to the world’s first satellite.
“今天一轮新月升上天空 一个23英寸的金属球由苏联火箭发射进入轨道”
“Today a new moon is in the sky. A 23 inchmetal sphere, place in orbit by a Russian
1957年10月苏联发射“斯普特尼克1号”人造卫星
rocket” In October 1957 The Soviet Union launchedSputnik.
苏联和美国之间的太空竞赛已经开始
The Space Race between the USSR and America
美国要输了
had begun and the U.S. was losing.
“全世界人们都在收听
“ All over the world people are tuning
这个卫星传来的哔哔声 这个卫星承载着
in to the bleep bleep of the satellite, which carries
传送宇宙奥秘必需的复杂机械装置”
aboard the complex mechanism necessary totransmit secrets of the universe”
当这个沙滩球大小的卫星升空时
As the beach ball sized satellite flew above,
美国科学家们注意到卫星传送的无线电
American scientists noticed that the radio
频率随着它靠近而增加 随着它远离而减少
frequency it was transmitting increased as it approached and decreased as it moved away.
这就是多普勒效应
It’s called the Doppler Effect,
可用来定位卫星
and it could be used to locate the satellite.
这是灵光一现
This was a Eureka moment.
如果卫星的位置可知 那地球上的接收器的位置
If a satellitesposition was known, the position of a receiver
也能确定
on earth could be determined
这就是GPS的基本理念
This is the basic idea of GPS.
1978年“斯普特尼克1号”发射20年后
In 1978, over twenty years after Sputnik,
美国发射了第一个“导航星”卫星
the U.S.A. launched its first Navstar satellite.
这就是我们现在说的GPS
This is the system we now call GPS.
“GPS会持续不断地提供全球范围的高度精确定位
“They will provide highly accurate and continuous global coverage
得到授权的用户可以全球定位直到20世纪80年代后期”
to authorised users by the late 1980’s”
和早期的导航卫星不同 “导航星”能够持续不断地定位
Unlike earlier navigation satellites, Navstarwould give a constant positioning service
而精确度也是闻所未闻
with unheard of accuracy.
每个卫星承载一个原子钟 每隔一段时间报一下位置
Each satellite carried an atomic clock which broadcasts its location with a time stamp.
通过至少四个卫星位置和时间数据
By using the location and time data from
GPS接收器能够
at least four satellites, a GPS receiver can
告知你的位置
tell you where you are,
并告知你的高度 速度 移动方向
your altitude and the speed and direction you’re moving in.
覆盖全球需要24个卫星共同工作
24 satellites are needed to cover the globe.
这是最前沿的技术
This was cutting edge technology,
由军方运作 为军方工作
run by the military, for the military
但是当悲剧来临 一切都变了
But that all changed when tragedy struck.
“美国同胞们 今夜我们共同面对韩国航空惨案”
“My fellow Americans, I’m coming beforeyou tonight about the Korean Airline massacre”
1983年9月1日这一天
On September 1, 1983,
一架苏联战斗机击落一架韩国航空公司的飞机
a Russian fighter jet shot down a Korean Airline’s plane on its
这飞机正从纽约飞往首尔
way from New York to Seoul.
飞机上269人全部死亡
All 269 people onboard were killed.
这架飞机已经偏离它原来的轨道 通过苏联领空
The plane had deviated from its original route and flown through Soviet airspace.
无线电技术因测距有限没办法追踪到这架飞机
Radio technology couldn’t track the planebecause of its limited range.
如果是GPS 问题就能解决
GPS would have solved this
这次空袭的短短两周后
Just two weeks after the attack,
里根总统就把GPS投入民用
President Reagan made GPS available for civilian use
把它列为一般商品
as a common good.
但是美国军方甚是烦恼
But the U.S. military was concerned.
他们不想放弃
They didn’t want to give away
他们的最新航空技术
their latest space technology
为了降低GPS的精确度
The decision was made to restrict GPS’s accuracy
他们决定有意
by purposefully messing with the
扰乱定位信号
location signal.
这需要又一个10年 再多几个GPS卫星
It would take another decade, several more GPS satellites,
和一场战争 才能让这项技术
and a war, for the technology
发展成今天我们认识的这样
to develop into what we recognise now.
1990年8月
In August 1990,
美国和同盟发动“沙漠风暴行动” 把伊拉克军队
the U.S. and it allies launched Operation Desert Storm to remove Iraqi forces
赶出临近的科威特
from neighbouring Kuwait.
这是GPS第一次纯军用尝试 大获全胜
This was GPS’s first full military test and it passed with flying colours.
它以前所未有的精确度为军队导航 指引开火
It allowed troops to navigate and direct firewith unprecedented accuracy.
并指引巡航导弹到准确的位置
While cruise missiles were guided to theirexact locations
国防部花费数百万
The Department of Defence paid million
从美国制造商手里为军方购置GPS系统
to U.S. manufacturers to provide troops with GPS units.
海湾战争后 制造商很快让这项新技术面世
After the war, manufacturers quickly found ways to market the new technology.
要不要买辆到哪儿都有地图和导航的车?
2000年不再限制GPS的精确度
Then in 2000 GPS’s accuracy restrictionswere lifted
再也挡不住GPS的发展
and the flood gates opened.
从那以后 这项技术就和现代生活紧密联系起来了
Since then the technology has become intertwinedwith our modern lives
GPS是全球计时员
GPS is the global time keeper.
它的原子钟能精确到40毫微秒
Its atomicclocks are accurate to within 40 nano seconds
即四十亿分之一秒
that’s four thousand-millionths of a second.
金融体系靠它来界定交易时间 包括从自动取款机取钱
Banking systems rely on it to timestamp transactions, including withdrawing money from ATMs.
它也能用来确保火车准点
It is used to keep our trains running
降低农业损耗
on time and reduce farm wastage
更不用说以GPS为基准的计算机应用程序
Not to mention all the apps that rely on GPS.
现今民用卫星导航市场
Today the civilian satellite navigation market
价值约350亿美元
is worth nearly thirty five billion dollars
并有望在2020年前达到830亿
And is expected to grow to more than eighty three billion by 2022.
与全球军用市场相比
Compare that with the global military
民用市场真是大巫见小巫
market and civilian uses now dwarfs it
可以说它因冷战而生
It may have been born out of the Cold War,
但是GPS服务业现今至关重要
but GPS services are now a critical part of
涉及到我们日常生活的方方面面
our everyday lives.

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GPS生于军事 兴于民间

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