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沃尔玛的成功之道| 美国制造 - 萨姆·沃尔顿

How Walmart was Made | Made In America - SAM WALTON | Animated Book Summary

Sam Walton建立了一个企业 如今在超过28个国家拥有1.1万多家商店
Sam Walton built a business which now has over 11,000 stores in more than 28 countries.
他是如何建立了世界上获利最大的公司呢?
How did he build the world’s largest company in terms of revenue, in the world?
50多年前创建的Walmart
Founded over 50 years ago,
因为Sam的许多个人特质
Sam had many personal traits that helped Walmart
从一个单独的商店变成如今最大的零售机构
grow from a single store to the largest retail outfit there is.
他没有思虑重重 在过去也没有任何住所
He was not reflective, there was no dwelling in the past.
他的动力并不是金钱 而是走到这个行业的顶峰
The motivation for him was not money, but he was motivated to be top of the heap.
让Walmart改头换面的首要因素就是他参与竞争的热情
The number one element that made a difference to Walmart was his passion to compete.
这种热情让他持续向前 在任何时候都向前看
This passion kept him constantly on the go and kept him looking ahead at all times…
经常期待着下一个商店的开业
usually looking ahead to the next store opening.
这就是Walmart独特的故事
This is the unique story of Walmart.
Sam提到的许多帮助他成功的个人品质
Many of the individual qualities Sam spoke about helped him to achieve
对于一些人来说似乎是不可能的
what may seem impossible to some people.
风险 企业家精神 兢兢业业 知道自己想干什么
Risk, entrepreneurship, hard work, knowing where you want to go
并很愿意去付出相应的代价
and being willing to do what it takes to get there.
即使其他人反对也要坚信自己的想法
Believing in your idea even when others don’t.
坚持到底
Sticking to your guns.
他相信如果有机会 有周围人的认可 去努力做到最好
He believed there is no limit to what ordinary people can achieve
即使是普通人 也没有什么能阻止他成功
if given the opportunity, encouragement and incentive to do their best.
那么Sam Walton又是怎样开始的呢?
So how did Sam Walton begin?
他生长在经济大萧条时期
He grew up during the great depression
在他七八岁的时候就开始卖报纸
and started selling magazine subscriptions at around 7 or 8 years old.
这让他知道了金钱的价值
It taught him the value of money:
要多么努力工作才能得到它
how much hard work it took to get it
当你努力完成工作之后你就值得拥有它
and that when you did it was worth something.
当谈到Walmart的时候他坦诚地说道 那时候的他很节约
When it came to Walmart he readily admits he was cheap.
他住在低级旅店 两个人一个房间 在家庭餐馆吃饭
He’d stay at lower end hotels, two to a room and eat at family restaurants.
为什么?
Why?
Walmart花费的每一美元都是来自顾客的口袋
Every time Walmart spends a dollar foolishly, it comes out of the customers’ pocket.
Walmart每节约一美元都能让他们在竞争路上多走一步
Every dollar saved puts Walmart one more step ahead of the competition.
他有很高的驱动力和极大的野心
He had high drive and ambition.
他的妈妈不断的告诉他
His mother instilled the belief in him
无论他做什么 都要努力做到最好
to try to be the best he could at whatever he did.
因此他给自己设定了一个很高的目标
Consequently he set high personal goals
并且付诸于实践
with a strong bias towards action.
在他还小的时候就学到了成为一个领导者的秘诀
At a young age he learnt an early secret to leadership:
在有人经过你的时候 比他们先打招呼
speak to people walking past you before they speak to you.
这个简单但有效的技巧被他用在之后
This simple but effective technique was used later
给来访者介绍他所有商店的时候
when he introduced greeters to all his stores.
从金融的观点来看
From a financial point of view,
有一个关于“沃尔玛是如何成功”的哲理
here’s a key story on ‘how Walmart did it’:
比如原价80美分的商品标价1美元
If you buy an item to sell in a store for 80 cents,
比标价1.2美元销量可以多出3倍
pricing it at $1 could sell three times more than pricing it at $1.20.
这就意味着每件商品你可以得到一半的利润
This means that you’ll get half the profit per item
而不是较大的全额利润
but a greater overall profit.
这是简单的经济学 折扣的本质就是
This is simple economics but the essence of discounting:
通过价格削减来促进销售
you cut your price to boost your sales to a point
通过低零售价而不是高价售卖商品
where you earn more at the cheaper retail price
这样你可以获益更多
than by selling the item at the higher price.
Sam的第一家商店做了许多次尝试
Sam’s first store had a lot of experimenting.
甚至在销售市场较为景气的时候他也不会停止研究
Even when business was good, he constantly fiddled and meddled.
这对于Walmart后来的成功有着深远影响
This contributed to Walmart’s later success.
每一件他尝试着做的疯狂的事情看起来都不容乐观
Every crazy thing tried didn’t turn out well
但是他没有犯过无法弥补的错误
but he didn’t make any mistakes that
也没有任何一个问题能威胁到他的企业
couldn’t be corrected quickly and none were big enough to threaten his business.
在经过了通宵巴士之旅去两个其他公司考察
After traveling on an all-night bus journey
了解他们怎样经营企业 以及他们高效的工作之后
to visit and observe two other storesand how they ran their business,
Sam在前台引进了付款登记簿
Sam’s next store introduced checkout registers at thefront after seeing them work effectively.
自助服务取代了在那之前很常见的
Self-service replaced the clerks and cash registers around the store
售货员和收银机
commonly seen up until then.
很快他开了第二家商店 并且继续创新 实践和探索
Soon he opened a second store and continued innovating, experimenting and expanding.
他在其他商店寻求好的人才
He nosed around other stores looking for good talent,
承诺给他们一定比例的利润
luring them over with an offer to earn a percentage of the profits
和成为合伙人的选择权
and the option of partnership
同事们都说他是最不害怕做错事的人
Colleagues have said that he’s less afraid of being wrong than anyone else they knew.
一旦他犯错误 他总能找到一个新的前进方向
Once he was wrong he just headed in a different direction.
他经常探求各种观点和想法来让他的商店脱颖而出
He was always looking for ideas and items to make his stores stand out.
Sam会驾车去寻找新的地方来建造更多的商店进行扩张
Sam would drive to check out new locations to build more stores to expand to.
然而他花了很多时间做这件事
Then when this started taking up too much of his time
而找的地方又太远了
and the places to see were further away,
他就买了一架飞机直接飞过去
he bought a plane and flew there.
一家商店赚的钱会马上投入到新的商店
Any money made in one store was put into another one
从而使得商店快速的扩张
which led to rapid expansion.
直到这时所有的商店都是特许经营的
Until this point all the stores or a variety of stores there are franchises
但是当考察了竞争者的商店情况之后
but after traveling and observing competitors,
Sam发现折扣是未来商店走势
Sam could see that discounting was the future
于是在1962年开了他的第一家大的折扣商店叫做Walmart
and opened his first larger discount store called Walmart in 1962.
很快便有了更多的折扣商店
This was quickly followed by a couple more.
这些商店并不是以好看的装修和高促销来吸引顾客
The stores were not attractive to look at and highly promotional
而是里面的商品比其他商店更加便宜
but sold merchandise cheaper than others.
Sam尝试了一下 看人们是否会完全因为价格差异到这里来购物
Sam was experimenting to see if people would shop there strictly because of price.
事实证明他们会
It turned out they would.
早些时候的焦点就在于低价和顾客满意度保证
In the early days the focus was on low price and satisfaction guaranteed.
顾客可以确信他们买的商品已经是最低价了
Customers could be sure the product they bought was the cheapest
而且如果他们不喜欢它的话 可以再退还回来
and if they didn’t like it, they could bring it back.
标价从来都不会超出一定的百分比
Mark up never went beyond a certain percentage.
至关重要的一点是 要保证Walmart和厂家的所有订单都被顾客消费掉
It was imperative any good deal Walmart got was passed onto the customer.
最开始他所缺失的经验和谋略都在竞争对手那学习到
What he initially lacked in experience and sophistication he made up for
为此他花费了很多时间
by spending as much time as possible checking out the competitors.
他会告诉他的商店经理不要把注意力集中于同行们的错误
He’d tell his store managers not to focus on what the competition were doing wrong
而是要借鉴他们做得正确的
but see what they were doing right.
任何他们从别处得到的想法他们都会努力的把它融合到自己的商店中
Any idea they got they must try to incorporate into their own stores.
所以在Sam看来 使Walmart成功最重要的因素是什么呢?
So in Sam’s eyes, what was the most important single ingredient of Walmart’s success?
就是服务好顾客
Taking care of the customers.
如果你想让你的员工服务好顾客
If you want the people working in your store to take care of the customers,
你就必须善待你的员工
you have to make sure you’re taking care of the people working in the store.
他加入了零售商网络培训课程
He enrolled in a computer class for retailers
利用所学知识来控制商品和物流
and utilised them to control merchandise and logistics.
他意识到 除非他有经营商店的所有记录
He realised that he couldn’t expand beyond the small amount of stores that he had
否则他就不能再扩张了
unless he had everything recorded to control his operation.
Walmart发展到今天 如果没有电脑是根本不可能的
The expansion of Walmart to what it is today would not have been possible without the computer.
由于他对于公司强烈的信念 为了壮大企业
Because of his strong belief in the company,
Sam背负了许多的私债
Sam had taken on a lot of personal debt to expand the business.
他想尽办法借了钱来持续增加连锁店
He’d borrowed as much as he could and to continue increasing the number of stores,
顺理成章的一步就是让公司上市 他也这么做了
the next logical step was to take the company public,which he did,
于是在1970年10月1日发行了股票
issuing stock on 1st October 1970.
他把自己的股份降到了61%
This reduced his family’s ownership of Walmart to 61%
但是他所有私债已经全部还清了
but all his personal debts were paid off
他再也不用为了Walmart借私债了
and he never had to borrow any money for Walmart personally again
他接着把折扣店引入小城镇
He continued with the strategy of putting discount stores in small towns
这是其他的折扣商所忽略的
that other discounters were ignoring.
他把员工们叫做合伙人 和他们分享公司利润
He called his employees, “associates” and shared the profit of the company with them.
他相信和员工分享得越多 公司获利就会越多
He believed the more you share with them, the more profit the company will make,
因为管理者对待合伙人的方式
due to the fact that the way management treated associates
就是合伙人对待顾客的方式
is the way associates would treat the customer.
如果顾客得到了好的服务 他们会成为回头客
If the customers are treated well, they will return again and again.
这也是保持员工动力的其中一个办法
This was one method of keeping associates motivated
这也能让他们更好的为你工作
and keeping them motivated will allow them to do the best job possible.
他在公司内部创造了一种合作式文化
He created a corporate culture within the company
包括“吹吹口哨愉快工作”原则
that encompassed a “whistle while you work” philosophy.
他相信用愉悦的心情工作 就算工作很多也没关系
He believed in doing lots of work but having a good time doing it
同时还要创造一种环境让人们保持热情
and building spirit and excitement to keep people interested
让他们觉得自己是这个大家庭的一份子
made them feel part of family
没有人永远不会出丑
No one was too big to be the butt of the joke.
事实上 Sam曾在华尔街跳过草裙舞 因为他打赌输了
In fact, Sam himself once danced the hula in a grass skirt on Wall Street after losing a bet.
在1979年Walmart实现了一次大的突破
In 1979 Walmart achieved a big milestone.
232家分店一共赚了十亿美金
With 232 stores they had made $1billion in sales.
在这段时间 Walmart参与收购了其他连锁店
Around this time, Walmart participated in acquisitions of other discount chains
为了将来扩大它们的服务范围 尤其是在美国的南部
to further expand their territory – in particular the south of the USA.
到1984年 商店总数增加到了640家 一共获利45亿
By 1984, there were 640 stores with sales of over $4.5billion.
现在Walmart是世界上最大的零售企业
Walmart is now the biggest retailer in the world.
然而 在Sam看来 Walmart越强大 越要注重细节
However, in Sam’s view the bigger Walmart got the more essential it was to think small.
他们已经变成了一个巨大的公司 再也不是单独的一家小商店了
They have become a huge corporation by not acting like one.
在每家商店他们仍然不会忘记真心对待顾客 向每一个顾客问好
In a store they still don’t forget to look a customer in the eye,
礼貌地问他们是否需要帮助
greet them and ask politely if they can help.
这儿还有Sam实施的看起来并不起眼的其他一些方法
Here are some other ways to think small which Sam implemented:
在一段时间内集中于一家商店
Focus on one store at a time.
每一家商店都没有完全一样的商品
Each store does not contain the same merchandise
商店里面的存货是由商店的员工管理
and the stock is managed by the people there at the store,
而不受总部的人们的决定所影响
not by decisions driven by the Headquarters.
交流
Communicate.
一笔大生意中 善于交流是至关重要的
Good communication is necessary in a big business.
这让你可以更快速的传递有竞争性的优势信息
It allows you to spread information that could lead to a competitive advantage more quickly.
时刻收集信息
Keep your ear to the ground.
电脑不能取代与外界的信息交流
A computer is no substitute for getting out in the stores and finding out what’s going on.
它可以告诉你都卖了些什么 但是它不能告诉你本可以卖出多少
It could tell you what you’ve sold but it can’t tell you how much you could have sold.
向下分配职责和权力
Push responsibility and authority down.
这让人们感到骄傲 让他们重新用走上公司之巅的雄心点燃热血
It gives people pride and fires them up with ambition to move on up in the company.
促使新的想法产生
Force ideas to bubble up.
征求其他同事的想法
Invite ideas from all colleagues.
通常来说 当人们自命清高时
Often they are common sense ideas that could save money
就会忽视很多的小问题
that nobody picks up on when they’re thinking about how big they are.
保持精干 抵制官僚主义
Stay lean, fight bureaucracy.
当公司快速发展时 涉及的领域也在成倍增加
When you grow fast, duplication builds up
就会有不再需要的业务领域
and there will be areas of the business you no longer need.
最高管理者们需要不停地思考这些问题
Top management need to be constantly thinking about this
来确保公司有一个良好发展的未来
to ensure a sound future for the company.
这个思想让Walmart业绩年增长率
This way of thinking has allowed Walmart to grow between annual rates
在它开业以来的前30年保持在30%到70%之间
of 30%-70% for the first 30 years of its existence
之后也持续增长 留下了改变零售业运营模式的宝贵财富
and then continue to grow leaving a legacy that changed the way retail worked.

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沃尔玛是如何成功的?一个成功的企业家又需要哪些宝贵的品质呢?

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