未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

火山闪电与世界“和平”

How Volcanic Lightning Is Making the World a Safer Place

– It’s hard to imagine the mountains around us exploding,
很难想像 我们周围的火山会喷发
sending molten rock into the sky,
岩浆漫天喷射
and climate-altering smoke high into the atmosphere,
烟雾会进入大气深层并改变气候
but it’s definitely a thing, maybe even close to you.
但这很可能发生 甚至就发生在你身边
There are over 160 potentially active volcanoes in the US,
美国有超过160座休眠的活火山
and 1500 worldwide.
全世界有1500多座
On average, one of those volcanoes erupts every week.
平均每个星期就有一座火山喷发
And if you’re wondering why we’re talking about this
如果你在想 我们的节目叫《历经风霜》
on a show called “Weathered”,
为什么要聊这些
here’s Volcanologist, Alexa Van Eaton, to explain.
让火山学家亚莉克莎•范•伊顿来解释吧
Well, the most widespread hazard of volcanic eruptions is volcanic ash,
火山喷发影响最深远的危害物就是火山灰
and so when that cloud,
所以当那朵云雾
buoyant plume of volcanic ash gets into the atmosphere,
也就是飘浮的火山灰雾进入大气层时
it becomes its own weather phenomenon,
就造成了独有的天气现象
and it can travel downwind, hundreds to thousands of miles.
它可以顺着风传播数百到数千英里
These plumes can pose a serious threat to communities in their path,
这些烟雾会对沿途的社区造成严重威胁
clogging streets, collapsing buildings,
堵塞街道 破坏建筑物
even suffocating humans and animals.
甚至让人和动物窒息
They can also be very sudden,
火山也可能突然喷发
shooting high into the atmosphere,
高高地喷向大气层
and the more remote and less studied the volcano,
而且火山位置越偏远 研究的越少
the less likely there is to be an immediate or advanced warning.
就越不可能有即时警报或预警
And that impacts aircraft.
这还会影响飞机航行
In fact, it can even cause them to crash.
事实上 甚至可能导致飞机坠毁
Predicting an eruption is not very accurate,
火山喷发的预测并不是很准确
so creating instant warning systems is crucial,
因此建立即时预警系统至关重要
and one of those involves the lightning created by an eruption.
途径之一就是研究火山喷发引起的闪电
As recently as 2010, volcanic lightning was not well understood,
直到2010年 火山闪电都还没被研究透彻
but now it’s becoming part of early warning systems all over the world.
但现在 它逐渐成为全球预警系统的一部分
Stay with us to learn how Alexa and her colleagues at USGS
跟我们一起看看亚莉克莎和她的美国地勘局同事
are using this beautiful and menacing weather phenomenon
是如何利用这美丽而危险的天气现象
to make us safer.
让我们变得更安全的
《历经风霜》
PBS《大地》
We’re in Vancouver, Washington,
我们在华盛顿州的温哥华市
where the United States Geological Survey has a volcano observatory
美国地质勘查局在这里有个火山观测站
just miles from Mount St. Helens, which erupted in 1980,
离1980年喷发的圣海伦斯山就几英里
and may erupt again in our lifetimes.
而且我们有生之年可能会看到它再次喷发
It was the most destructive eruption in US history,
这是美国历史上最具破坏力的一次火山喷发
killing 57 people
造成57人死亡
and leveling hundreds of miles of forest and homes
数百英里的森林和房屋被夷为平地
and depositing 540 million tons of ash downwind.
5.4亿吨火山灰顺着风沉积下来
Less than 50 miles south is the Portland Airport,
火山往南不到50英里就是波特兰机场
and 85 miles north, the Seattle Tacoma airport,
往北85英里是西雅图塔科马机场
so that means a lot of air traffic.
也就是说 这儿有大量的空中航运
And that ash is very different
而且那里的火山灰很特别
than what we’re used to in the Northwest.
和我们在西北部见到的很不一样
This is an example of volcanic ash
这是一份火山灰样本
from Mount St. Helens, 1980.
来自1980年喷发的圣海伦斯火山
As you can see, it’s made out of tiny rock particles,
你能看到 它由微小的岩粒组成
and these rock particles are a lot heavier and denser than wildfire ash,
这些岩粒比野火灰重得多 也密实得多
which is made out of burned biological material,
野火灰是动植物燃烧后产生的灰烬
and, you do not want to fly through this.
你肯定不想坐飞机穿过这些火山灰的
What happens is that the glass particles in ash
因为火山灰中的晶状颗粒
melts in the jet engine
会在喷气发动机中熔化
and can cause flameout of the engine.
并导致引擎熄火
And there’s just too many volcanoes
有太多火山需要密切监测
to monitor as closely as Mount St. Helens.
就像圣海伦斯火山那样
So on a cloudy day, for example,
比如说 在某个多云天
pilots may not know exactly where a plume could be.
飞行员可能不知道灰雾的确切位置
A frightening example of this happened in 1989,
1989年就发生过这样的飞行事件
when a Boeing 747 jet was flying over Redoubt Volcano,
一架波音747喷气式飞机飞过棱堡火山
didn’t realize it was erupting
飞行员没有发现火山正在喷发
and flew directly into the ash cloud.
直接飞进了火山灰云里
[飞行员] 我们现在必须向左飞 驾驶舱进烟了
[飞行员]KLM867 所有引擎都熄火了 我们正在下降
[飞行员]KLM867 我们正在下降 我们正在下坠中
这架喷气客机下坠了14000英尺
Luckily, they ended up recovering their engines
幸运的是 他们最终恢复了引擎
and landing safely, but that was a real wake up call
并安全着陆 但对航空业和火山学界来说
to the airline community, to the volcanological community,
该事件真正的给他们敲响了警钟
that we need to have early warning and a coherent strategy
我们需要有提前预警和明确的策略
for warning jet aircraft of when volcanoes are erupting.
在火山爆发时向喷气飞机发出警报
Every year, dozens of planes come in contact with volcanic ash,
每年都有很多飞机遭遇火山灰
and since 1980,
1980年以来
the number of airline passengers has increased over fivefold,
乘飞机的人 数量增长了超过五倍
meaning more flights over active volcanoes.
这表示更多航线会经过活火山上空
So it’s something you want to avoid,
这是你想要躲避的事情
and to be able to avoid it,
而且为了避开其上空
you need scientists on the ground monitoring the volcanoes,
就需要有科学家在地面监测火山
trying to figure out how high, how fast,
搞清楚火山灰的高度 速度
how much ash is getting into the atmosphere.
以及到底有多少火山灰进入大气层
But sometimes, you can’t get scientists on the ground,
但有时 科学家没法实地勘测
so you need a spider.
所以需要探测器
This is the US Geological Survey Spider,
这个是美国的地质探测器
which is a temporary sensor package,
由一整套临时传感器组成
and the whole point of this
所有这些部件
is to be airlifted by a sling load, by a helicopter
都要用直升机吊索吊起来
and dropped into a crater of a volcano
放进火山口
or a place where we otherwise need data
或放到其它要收集数据的地方
but don’t wanna send people, because it’s too unsafe,
但我们不想派人进去勘查 太危险了
and the first thing to land is the seismometer.
地震仪是最先运送进去的
The point of this is to measure ground motion
目的是勘测地质活动情况
that might be associated with magma movement
这和火山口里的岩浆活动
or rockfall or eruptions inside the crater.
或火山口内的岩崩或喷发相关
Okay, so I’m gonna go over the data logger.
好的 现在我演示一下数据记录
How about your crew come over here,
不如让你们的人过来这里
make some ground motion for the seismometer,
给地震仪制造一点地质活动
make some infrasound for the infrasound sensor,
给次声波传感器制造点次声波
and make some sparks for the lightning detector,
再给光传感器制造点火光
and we can see what the data look like on the display.
然后我们能在显示器上看到数据长什么样
Okay, good to go?
可以开始了吗?
– Yeah. – Okay.
– 是的 – 好
Okay, we can see your jumps, There they are.
好的 我们能看到你在跳 在那里有显示
Do two more.
再跳两下
But it’s not possible to get a station or spider on every volcano,
但不可能在每座火山都建监测站或放探测器
and that’s where lightning comes in.
那是火山闪电出现的地方
So volcanic lightning is a very new tool
火山闪电是一个很新的
that we’re starting to use for volcanic hazards.
研究火山喷发灾害的途径
Initially, it was something that took us by surprise,
刚开始 火山闪电让我们很吃惊
that it happens during explosive eruptions.
它在火山爆炸性喷发时出现
Why do volcanic plumes become electrified?
为什么火山灰雾会带电呢?
At first it was really a scientific question and something that was intriguing,
一开始这是一个有趣的科学问题
but now it’s becoming fundamentally useful.
但现在变得非常有实用价值
It peaked scientists’ interests because,
让科学家非常感兴趣的地方是
in the leading theory explaining meteorologic lightening,
在气象学上 前沿理论是这样解释闪电的:
ice particles bump into each other,
云里的冰颗粒相互碰撞摩擦
causing some parts of the cloud to become positively charged
使一部分云带正电
and other parts to become negatively charged.
另一部分云带负电
Lightening happens when the charge equalizes,
正负电荷相等时就会出现闪电
but volcanoes are hot, so where does the charge come from?
但火山这么热 电荷是从哪来的呢?
Well first, remember the ash.
首先 想想火山灰
Volcanic ash is made of pulverized pieces of rock.
火山灰是由粉碎的岩石组成的
And so if those ash particles are able to scrape together,
如果这些火山灰颗粒相互摩擦
they can create a static charge, very close to the vent
就能产生静电荷 正负电荷靠近
and start creating discharges of electricity.
然后就开始放电
Then if the plume rises high enough
接下来 如果火山灰云升的足够高
into the cold upper atmosphere,
就能进入寒冷的大气上层
that the water carried inside the plume freezes, it forms ice,
火山灰云内部携带的水会结冰
and the ice formation help to trigger another phase of lightening activity.
然后形成的冰粒引发又一轮闪电活动
Lightning produces a broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy,
闪电时会产生电磁能量广谱
some of which is in the radio band
其中有一些处在无线电波段
and can be picked up by AM radio and specialized antennas.
就能被调频收音机和专业的天线接收到
So there’s a global network of radio antennas
现在有一个全球无线电接收网
that help us remotely sense large lightning
帮助我们远程监测全球范围内
from any eruption in the world.
由火山喷发引发的大规模闪电
And that can help us develop a general sense
这能帮助我们随时了解
of which volcanoes erupting around the world,
全球火山的喷发情况
how significant is it,
包括喷发的影响程度
and how high the ash cloud might be traveling.
以及火山灰可能的飘浮高度
It’s amazing how many people around the world live
很难说 全球范围内究竟有多少人类居住的区域
within range of being affected by a volcanic eruption,
会受到火山喷发的影响
so of course,
正因如此
we asked Alexa for some tips on how to stay safe
我们请亚莉克莎谈谈如何在火山喷发时保证安全
and who should be focused on this kind of disaster.
以及哪些人要尤其警惕火山喷发
Now there are two major distinct hazards from volcanoes.
目前火山喷发有两种主要危害物
There’s volcanic ash that travels downwind
一种是随风飘动的火山灰
and then there are the flow hazards like lahars,
另一种是流动的危害物
which are volcanic mudflows,
也就是火山泥流
and it can take out bridges and houses.
火山泥流能摧毁房屋桥梁
It’s basically a muddy flood,
它的本质是泥流
and that’s not something that you want to be in the path of.
你一定不想待在火山泥流的必经之路上
The best way to be prepared for a volcanic eruption
应对火山喷发最好的方式是
is to know your local hazards.
了解附近火山的危害区域
So check the maps, know where you live
查看地图 看看自己的位置
with respect to the hazard zones for each volcano.
观察周围每座火山的危险范围
Do you live in an area with volcanic activity?
你住在火山活动区域附近吗?
How do you think about the risk?
你怎么看待火山的风险?
Let us know in the comments,
在评论里告诉我们
and we’ll see you next time on “Weathered.”
下期《历经风霜》再见
By the way, did you know that the world’s newest glacier
对了 你知道吗?全球最新的冰川
is growing inside of Mount St. Helens?
就在圣海伦斯火山里形成
To learn why, be sure to check out “Overview”.
想知道原因 别忘了去看看“概述”

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

火山爆发太可怕,看看科学家如何通过研究火山闪电来造福人类吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

L

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yc-2lfNNmWk

相关推荐