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Vera Rubin是如何找到暗物质的第一个直接证据的?

How Vera Rubin Found the First Direct Evidence for Dark Matter | Great Minds

在19世纪70年代
It’s the 1970s.
肖恩·康纳利还是詹姆斯·邦德 时尚还很辣眼睛
Sean Connery is still James Bond, fashion is blindingly ugly, and astronomers are working
天文学家们还不知疲倦地解决着银河旋转的问题
tirelessly to solve the galactic rotation problem.
实际上这是个令人误解的名字 因为这个问题实质在于
Which is actually a very misleading name, because the problem was
银河系运转的太好了
that galaxies rotated too well.
在银河系边缘的行星实际上比天文学家们预料的轨道运行速度要快的多
The stars on the outskirts of galaxies were orbiting much faster than astronomers expected,
他们开始思考他们关于物理学的知识
and they were starting to question what they thought they knew about the laws of physics.
最后 他们意识到他们是在寻找关于暗物质的直接证据
Eventually, they realized that they were looking at the first direct evidence for dark matter.
它是由一位名叫Vera Rubin的天文学家找到的
And it was an astronomer named Vera Rubin who found it.
Rubin出生于1928年宾夕法尼亚州的费城 她从小就喜欢眺望星辰
Rubin was born in 1928 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and she loved to stargaze as a kid, she was
她十分着迷于夜晚星星是如何划过天空的
especially fascinated by how the stars would move through the sky overnight.
她的父亲 是个电工 在她14岁时 帮她造了个望远镜
Her father, who was an electrical engineer, helped her make a telescope when she was 14,
她开始接触到一些业余的天文爱好者
and she started going to meetings for amateur astronomers.
在采访中 她习惯地说自己的高中是混过去的
In interviews, she used to claim that she faked her way through high school, since she
她把所有做作业的时间都拿来做为借口来学天文学
turned every assignment into an excuse to write about astronomy.
她对星星的狂热使她进入纽约的瓦萨大学学习
That passion for the stars carried her to Vassar College in New York, which she chose
她选择这所学校的原因之一是她喜欢的天文学前辈 Maria Mitchell在这里任教
because one of her awesome astronomer forebears, Maria Mitchell, had taught there.
从那里 她从康纳那里得到了天文学的硕士学位 和来自乔治州的博士学位
From there, she got a master’s degree in astronomy from Cornell, and a PhD from Georgetown.
她的硕士论文分析了不下一百个银河系的运动
Her master’s thesis involved analyzing the movements of more than a hundred galaxies,
她的博士学位深入研究了银河系在宇宙中是如何分布的
and her PhD looked into how galaxies are distributed through the universe.
或许你开始有种想法:她是真的对银河系感兴趣
Maybe you’re starting to sense a theme here: she was really interested in galaxies.
在几个不同教授职位间转换后
After bouncing around between a few different professorships,
1965年 Rubin来到了华盛顿特区的卡耐基机构
Rubin landed at the Carnegie Institution in Washington, DC in 1965.
就是在那儿 她和天文学同事Kent Ford
It was there that she and fellow astronomer, Kent Ford,
将注意力放在了研究行星是如何绕银河系中心旋转的
turned their attention to how stars orbited the centers of galaxies.
Ford发明了一个更精敏的分光仪 可以
Ford had invented a more sensitive kind of spectrometer, a tool that splits up the light
根据波长来分离被望远镜检测到的光
detected by a telescope based on its wavelength.
Rubin和Ford用这个去计算银河系的不同位置移动的有多快
Rubin and Ford used it to calculate how fast different parts of galaxies were moving.
当他们计算出行星跨越银河系的轨道速度时 他们期望看到
When they plotted the stars’ orbital velocities across a galaxy, they expected to see that
离中心近的行星速度很快 随着速度越来越慢
the stars close to the center orbited really fast, with orbits getting slower and slower
行星离中心也就越来越远
the farther the stars were from the center.
就像我们的太阳系一样 水星比火星在围绕太阳的轨道上
Like how in our solar system, Mercury moves much more quickly in its orbit
运转的更快
around the Sun than Neptune does.
但那并不是他们所看到的
But that’s not what they saw.
他们发现银河系边缘的行星
They found that stars on the edges of galaxies
跟离中心近的行星运转的一样快
were orbiting just as quickly as the stars closer in.
这没道理呀
It made no sense.
在银河系边缘的行星运转的如此快以至于
The stars on the outskirts of these galaxies were orbiting so fast that the galaxies should
银河系基本上被分流开 大量在每个银河系可见的物质
have basically flown apart, the mass of all the matter that they could see in each galaxy
不足以把他们聚集到一起
shouldn’t have been enough to hold them together.
现在 Rubin和Ford不是第一个注意到银河系的一些奇怪现象的人了
Now, Rubin and Ford weren’t the first people to notice some odd galactic motions.
早些世纪曾有一些被忽视的发现
There had been a few isolated observations earlier in the century.
比如 在19世纪30年代 美国天文学家Horace Babcock曾观察到
For example, in the 1930s, American astronomer Horace Babcock observed that
在仙女座的附近旋转的太快
the nearby Andromeda galaxy was spinning way too fast.
奥尔特 奥尔特云就是以他的名字命名的 荷兰天文学家 看到了
Jan Oort, the Dutch astronomer who the Oort Cloud is named after, saw something similar
在六分仪星群中观测到了与纺锤星系相似的东西 一位名叫
with the Spindle Galaxy in the constellation Sextans, and so did a Swiss astronomer named
Fritz Zwicky的瑞士的天文学家在慧发星团中的一些星系中也看到了同样的现象
Fritz Zwicky, in some of the galaxies in the Coma galaxy cluster.
他们为这种现象想了好几种不同的解释
They came up with a few different explanations for this behavior.
Babcock认为这可能与光的吸收有关 或者在银河系边缘的物质
Babcock thought it might have to do with light absorption, or maybe that objects on the outskirts
有着我们用数学无法形容的不同的力学
of galaxies had some different dynamics that we didn’t have the math yet to describe.
Oort和Zwicky都独自提出有围绕银河系的无光物质的晕
Oort and Zwicky both independently suggested that there were halos of non-luminous matter
别称暗物质
around the galaxies, aka dark matter.
Rubin和Ford发现的现象不止存在于
What Rubin and Ford discovered was that this problem didn’t just exist
出现于一两个星系一次
for one or two galaxies at a time.
他存在于整个宇宙
It showed up all across the sky.
Babcock Oort和Zwicky没有发现一些奇怪的不寻常的事
Babcock, Oort, and Zwicky hadn’t found some weird anomalies;
他们看到了非常广泛的现象中的一个特殊情况
they saw specific examples of a widespread phenomenon.
Rubin描绘出这些银河系的旋转曲线 计算出物质的速度
Rubin graphed the motions of these galaxies in rotation curves, plotting the velocities
从中心到边缘
of objects from their centers out to their edges.
在19世纪70年代 她收集 发表了一大堆数据 清楚无争议地说明了
In the 1970s, she gathered and published a huge amount of data, showing clearly and incontrovertibly
银河系旋转的问题是银河系典型的行为
that the galactic rotation problem was typical galactic behavior,
有一些无法解释的物理现象在起作用
and that there was some kind of unexplained physics at work.
她也意识到暗物质的假说是存在的
She also realized that the dark matter hypothesis was consistent
在基于她对所有银河系的观察之下
with her observations for all these galaxies.
如果在他们之间有我们无法探测到的物质 这或许能解释
If there was a bunch of matter in them that we couldn’t detect, that would explain why
为什么银河系运转的如此之快
the galaxies were rotating so fast.
在这之后 天文学家们找到了越来越多暗物质存在的证据
After that, astronomers started finding more and more evidence for dark matter, and these
目前 大多数的天文学家认为宇宙间84%是暗物质
days, most astronomers think that 84% of the matter in the universe is dark matter.
Rubin逝于2016年12月 享年88岁
Rubin died in December 2016 at the age of 88.
在她研究银河系和暗物质的数十年的工作中
Through her decades of work on galaxies and dark matter,
为如今的巨大研究领域奠定了基础
she laid the foundation for what’s now a huge field of research.
天文学家们仍然不知道暗物质是什么 全世界
Astronomers still have no idea what dark matter is, and there are thousands of researchers
有很多研究者尝试弄明白它
all over the world trying to figure it out.
所以 在很多方面 Vera Rubin仍为我们对宇宙的知识而奉献
So, in a lot of ways, Vera Rubin is still contributing to our knowledge of the universe.
感谢观看这一期的 科学秀时空
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space.
更多关于暗物质的知识 请看我们的视频“我们不知道的暗物质”
And for more on dark matter, check out our video “What we don’t know about dark matter,”
它探讨了这些年天文学家们思考的一些可能性
which explores some of the possibilities astronomers have considered over the years.

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视频概述

科普视频。关于一个女天文学家的故事。十分励志感人,令人倾佩。正应了那句话,妇女能顶半边天!加油!广大妇女同志们!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Sallyzhe

审核员

审核团H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ywppy_2M03I

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