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紫外线如何摧毁我们的皮肤 – 译学馆
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紫外线如何摧毁我们的皮肤

How UV Causes Cancer and Aging

最近 我做了一期视频
Recently, I made a video about
讲的是紫外线下的世界
what the world looks like in the ultraviolet.
有些东西没有变化
Some things look the same,
但总的来说更加模糊
but generally it’s hazier.
有时候光和暗是相反的
Sometimes light and dark are flipped.
皮肤上都是斑点
Skin looks blotchier,
假牙也更明显
and fake teeth stand out.
来 笑一个
Whoa, smile for me.
– 我的天- 我牙齿黑吗
– Oh, my goodness!- Are my teeth black?
[笑]
[Laughter]
你戴假牙了吗宝贝
– Do you have fake teeth, baby?
– 戴了- 哪颗?
– Yes.- Which one?
很久以前我就有做这期视频的想法了
But the idea for this video started a long time ago,
我一直有一个疑问
with a question I had which is
像紫外线这样的非离子辐射
how does non-ionizing radiation, like ultraviolet light,
是如何损伤皮肤并引发癌症的?
damage skin and lead to cancer?
我喜欢告诉人们 如果你想看看
I do like to tell people that if you wanna see
你皮肤的最佳状态
how good your skin could look,
就看你的屁股吧
look at your butt,
因为那是阳光照射不了的地方
cause that’s an area that doesn’t get the sun
就算年纪大的人也有完美的臀部
and even old people have perfect butts.
这就是没有阳光 皮肤自然老化的样子
It’s how your skin would age without the sun.
当我在想紫外线
When I thought about what UV light
对我们的细胞和DNA做了些什么的时候
must be doing to our cells and our DNA,
我想到的是它射入我们的DNA
I imagined it would be getting in there
破坏化学键 这就是问题所在
and breaking all these bonds, and that would be the problem.
但事实可能正好相反
But in fact, it’s kinda the opposite.
紫外线实际上促进了DNA中共价键的形成
UV actually facilitates the formation of covalent bonds
而这是不应该发生的事情
in our DNA that shouldn’t be there.
它进入我们的DNA 在嘧啶二聚体的基础上
It comes in and it kinda creates these unauthorized bonds
创造出不该存在的键
between the basis called pyrimidine dimers.
它并不使它们正常排列
Instead of having them bonded across,
而是把它们串联在一起 能理解吗
it bonds the one next to each other, if that makes sense.
– 哦- 嗯
– Oh.- Yeah.
事情是这样的 两个胸腺嘧啶并排存在
So what happens is two thymines which are side by side
并形成共价键
can actually get covalently bonded together.
导致DNA机能障碍
And that creates a lesion on the DNA.
你可以想象为DNA上的一个肿块
You can think of it like a little bump that makes the DNA
使信息难以读取并正常工作
hard to read and work with.
这一点本身不足以导致癌症
That’s not enough itself to cause skin cancer.
不然的话我们全身都是皮肤癌了
If that were the case, we would just be covered in skin cancers.
下一步 我们的身体会去修复这一问题
Then the next step is that we have to repair it.
在修复的过程中容易引发突变
And in the repair, that’s when you form mutations
这才是会导致各种癌症的原因
that could eventually lead to cancer through bunch of different pathways.
那些有特殊基因问题
And there’s actually people who have specific genetic issues
无法修复DNA的人群
that they can’t repair these issues.
全身都会得皮肤癌
And they are covered in skin cancer.
紫外线对身体还有着别的影响
UV has other effects on the body,
比如它能抑制免疫系统
like it suppresses the immune system.
正如海莉说的 这是一种双重打击
So, as Hayley says, it’s a double whammy.
紫外线对人类而言是一种双重打击
There’s also kind of a double whammy,
因为它不仅引发不应存在的键的产生
because UV not only induces these unauthorized bonds,
它还会抑制我们天然的免疫系统
it actually tamps down our natural immune system.
所以依靠免疫系统抵抗癌症的最好方法之一
So one of the best ways we fight cancers through our immune system –
就是对皮肤进行不间断的免疫监督
we have constantly immune surveillance through our skin.
所以太阳不仅能导致这些问题
So not only a sun like creating these problems,
事实上它还降低了我们修复这些问题的能力
– it’s actually kinda… that’s reducing our ability to fix them. – Reducing our ability to fix them.
所以 太不公平了
So, so unfair.
紫外线还能导致明显的衰老
UV light also causes us to visibly age.
这被称为光老化
It’s called photoaging.
在这里我要澄清一个错误的观念
I should clear up a misconception here that I had which was
我以为玻璃能阻挡所有的紫外线
I thought glass blocks all ultraviolet light.
所以假如你在车里的话
So I thought if you’re inside a car, for example,
就不用再涂防晒霜了
you really don’t need to put on sunscreen,
因为你并没有暴露在紫外线下
because you’re not being exposed to UV light.
汽车不能阻挡紫UVA 玻璃可以
The car does not block UVA, it’s glass.
它可以阻挡大部分UVB
It does block most UVB.
但是尽管有玻璃
But you’re still susceptible to
你还是容易长雀斑和皱纹
those sunspots, those wrinkles through the glass.
你可以观察我很多的病人
And a lot of my patients, if you look,
比较一下他们的手
and you compare their hands,
左手往往皱纹更多 看起来更老 有更多雀斑
the left is more wrinkled, older, has more sunspots on it,
因为他们开车
because they’re driving.
把手放在外面 因为他们都是货车司机
– So they stick their hand.- Sticking their hand out. They’re truckers.
你一定能看到
Absolutely you can see it the worst.
有一张非常著名的照片
And there’s a really famous picture of
他的左半边脸
someone whose left side of the face
看起来特别老 我们称为光老化
is significantly more, we would call it, like photoaged, old looking
更甚于另半边脸
than the other side of their face.
主要就是因为UVA
So that’s mostly UVA.
UVA 即长波紫外线
And UVA, as they set to longer wavelength,
穿透力更强
penetrates a little bit deeper.
所以皱纹的产生主要是因为胶原和弹性蛋白的破坏
So wrinkles mostly come from destruction of our collagen and elastin,
这两者是支撑我们皮肤的天然纤维
which is natural fibers that hold up the scaffolding of our skin.
随着年龄的增长 那些分泌胶原质的细胞 即纤维原细胞
So with age, the cells that secrete collagen, they’re called fibroblasts,
不像以前分泌那么多了
they stop producing as much.
而太阳破坏了
And what the sun does is it breaks down
我们现有的胶原质和弹性蛋白
the existing collagen and elastin we have.
纤维原细胞是伸展的 它们喜欢被拉伸的状态
So fibroblasts really like to be stretched, they like to be pulled.
胶原质能够产生胶原蛋白基质
And collagen does that collagen matrix.
所以太阳破坏了胶原纤维
So the sun damages the collagen fibers,
导致纤维原细胞未能充分伸展
leading to less stretch on fibroblasts
于是减少了胶原质的生产
and less production of collagen,
这意味着我们看起来更松弛
which means that we look a little more saggy.
我知道这令人沮丧
I know it’s very depressing.
所以防晒能帮助我们
So sun protection helps…
减少胶原质和弹性蛋白纤维的降解
the degradation of those collagen and elastin fibers.
你知道 超市里有很多的护肤品
You know, there are a lot of creams on the market
都声称能够延缓衰老
that claim to be anti-aging,
但真正有用的是防晒霜
but the one that really works is sunscreen.
隔离紫外线的侵袭
Preventing ultraviolet light from hitting your skin
是避免皮肤癌
is the best thing you can do to avoid skin cancer
和光老化的最佳方式
and to avoid photoaging.
所以 建议大家使用防晒霜
So yeah, it’s good advice. Use sunscreen.
嘿 我在侏罗纪公园的现场
Hey, I’m on set for Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom.
准备科幻小说实验室的拍摄
And I’m here filming Sci-Fi Test Lab,
在这里我们能尝试复刻一些恐龙的零部件
where we try to recreate some dinosaur parts
纯手工制作并进行测试
out of machinery and test them out.
如果你想看看的话 就点击这里吧
So if you wanna see that, then click here.

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视频概述

如题

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

赵大诗

审核员

审核员 W

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cf7Ar3nEUmw

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