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倒立水母

How Upside-Down Jellies Sting You Without Touching You

[♩INTRO]
[主题曲]
I don’t think you’re ready for this jelly.
我觉得你还没准备好迎接这种水母
Sure, it looks kind of unassuming,
确实 它看起来不起眼
what with its strange habit of hanging out, wrong-way up on the seafloor.
因为它有个奇怪的游荡习惯 总是错误地倒立在水底
But it can sting you without actually touching you.
但实际上 它没碰到你就能蛰到你
That’s all thanks to the stinging snot rockets it launches into the water above.
这都归功于它喷射到水上的带刺的鼻涕火箭
Yes, I said stinging snot rockets.
没错 就是带刺的鼻涕火箭
I told you you weren’t ready.
我说过你还没准备好
Cassiopea xamachana, better known as the upside-down jelly,
Cassiopea xamachana 俗称倒立水母
spends its life in still, coastal waters
它依偎在红树的根部
nestled in near the roots of mangrove trees.
在平静的沿海水域中度过一生
It uses its bell like a suction cup to anchor itself to the bottom.
它用伞盖像吸盘一样把自己固定在水底
So in a way, it acts more like its distant cousin the sea anemone
所以某种程度上 它表现得更像它的远亲海葵
than a proper jelly.
而不是水母本身
It does this because its tentacles contain symbiotic algae called zooxanthellae
这是因为 它的触手含有名为虫黄藻的共生藻类
which use light and carbon dioxide to make food for the jelly.
这种藻类利用光和二氧化碳为水母制造食物
And in return for providing these yums,
作为提供这些美味的回报
the algae get a cozy home with one heck of a security system.
海藻得到一个舒适而有着安全保障的家
Upside-down jellies are still jellies, after all,
倒立水母毕竟还是水母
and they have potent stinging cells called nematocysts.
它们有着名为“刺丝囊”的强大的刺细胞
In addition to warding off threats,
除了能避免威胁
these stingers allow the jellies to add some variety to their diet,
这些刺状物还能使水母的饮食多样化
in the form of small critters like brine shrimp
它们能够捕捉像卤虫那样
that swim about in the waters above them.
在其上方游动的小生物
The jellies don’t saunter up to grab their meals, though.
然而 这种水母不会游荡着去捕获食物
They send stingers to them.
它们会向猎物射出毒刺
For decades, people swimming in areas with these jellies have reported
几十年来 在水母出现地游泳的人们声称
inexplicable patches of “stinging water”,
那里有一块莫名其妙的“会刺人的水域”
and scientists have long noted clouds of mucus hovering above the jellies,
科学家早就注意到悬浮在水母上方的黏液团
but they hadn’t taken a close look at what was going on.
但他们没有仔细观察到底发生了什么
Not until 2016 anyway,
直到2016年
when aquarists with the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History
史密森自然历史博物馆的水族馆管理者
collected some of the mucus that upside-down jellies
才收集了一些在他们照看喂食下分泌的
in their care released during feedings and stuck it under a microscope.
倒立水母黏液 并将其放在显微镜下观察
To their surprise, they saw tiny specks racing around in it.
让他们吃惊的是 有很多小斑点在里面窜来窜去
And when they added brine shrimp,
当他们放入卤虫时
the specks kept bumping into them like mini go-karts.
斑点像小型卡丁车一样不停撞击它们
Lethal go karts, that is, because the shrimp were killed on contact.
这是致命卡丁车 因为斑点会在接触卤虫时将其杀死
Upon closer examination, the team discovered these specks had an outer layer
进一步研究后 该团队发现这些斑点的外层
composed of stinging cells and wiggling, hair-like projections called cilia
由刺细胞和名为纤毛的摆动突起毛发构成
which help them move around in the mucus.
这种表层结构帮助它们在黏液中移动
And inside were living zooxanthellae—basically, a solar-powered energy pack!
它们里面是活体虫黄藻——可以说是太阳能能源包
They dubbed these swimming structures cassiosomes,
他们将这些游动结构称为cassiosomes
and the team believes they’re used as a long-range weapon.
研究小组还认为 它们被当成远程武器使用
Basically, the jellies can ooze a cloud of cassiosome-filled mucus
基本上 这种水母能将一团充满cassiosome的黏液
up to 20 centimeters high into the water above them.
释放到身体上方20厘米的水中
That, presumably, kills lots of tasty little morsels.
这可能会杀死很多小小的美味佳肴
Then, they can then slowly suck the dead into their mouths.
然后 它们可以慢慢把尸体吸进嘴里
The researchers also discovered that the cassisomes themselves can survive up to 10 days
研究者还发现 cassisomes本身能生存10天之久
which could explain those mysterious patches of stinging water.
这就能解释那些神秘的 使人刺痛的水了
If some of this mucus gets churned up into the water column
如果一些黏液被搅成水柱
say, by the kicks of a snorkeler’s fins
比如说 通过浮潜者脚蹼的踢打
then there could be little stinging snot rockets zooming around
在水母游走很久后
long after the actual jelly has moved on.
还可能有小刺鼻涕火箭在周围移动
And, it turns out, it’s not just this one species.
而且事实证明 不仅仅是这个物种
The team discovered similar cassiosomes
该团队在它的四个亲缘物种身上
in four of its relatives
发现了类似的cassiosomes
including ones that don’t chill on the bottom.
包括那些不会静止在海底的物种
They believe cassiosomes evolved in this lineage of jellies, the Rhizostomeae,
他们认为 cassiosomes是在水母的根口目谱系中进化而来的
to give them a bit of extra firepower.
这给了它们一些额外的火力
And it’s clearly served them well, as they’re the most diverse order of true jellies.
这明显有益于它们 毕竟它们是水母中最多样化的
Is it me, or do jellies just get more amazing the more we learn about them?!
是我 还是水母 我们了解的越多越觉得神奇?
Thanks for watching SciShow!
感谢收看《科学秀》
If you enjoyed learning about these weirdly wonderful cnidarians,
若你喜欢了解这些古怪而奇妙的刺胞动物
you’ll probably enjoy our episode on their cousins, hydras,
你可能喜欢关于它们表亲水螅那一集
and how they can live forever.
它们是如何永生的
We also put out a new science video every day!
我们每天会上传一期新的科学视频!
And you catch every episode by clicking that subscribe button
你可以通过点击订阅来观看每一集
and ringing the notification bell.
然后按下通知
[♩OUTRO]
[结尾曲]

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视频概述

你可能听说过水母蛰人,但神奇的是水母可以隔空蛰人。那么,水母是怎样做到隔空蛰人的呢?这其中的原理又是什么?跟着我一起观看视频寻找答案吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

洛少诗

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83V5aa5E8Kw

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