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海啸如何发生 – 译学馆
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海啸如何发生

How tsunamis work - Alex Gendler

公元前479年 在波斯士兵
In 479 BC, when Persian soldiers besieged
围攻希腊城市普拉提亚时
to the Greek city of Potidaea,
潮水退得比平时远得多
the tide retreated much farther than usual,
留下了一条方便的入侵路线
leaving a convenient invasion route.
但这却并不是一件好事
But this wasn’t a stroke of luck.
在他们走到一半时
Before they had crossed halfway,
海水涨得比
the water returned in a wave higher
任何人见过的都高
than anyone had ever seen,
淹死了袭击者
drowning the attackers.
普拉提亚人相信他们是被
The Potiidaeans believedthey had been saved
波塞冬的愤怒所拯救
by the wrath of Poseidon.
但是真正拯救他们的可能是
But what really saved them was likely the
毁灭了无数人的同一种现象
same phenomenon that has destroyed countless others:
海啸
a tsunami.
虽然海啸一般被认为是潮汐
Although tsunamis are commonlyknown as tidal waves,
它们实际上与太阳和月亮引力造成的
they’re actually unrelatedto the tidal activity caused
潮汐活动无关
by the gravitational forcesof the Sun and Moon.
在许多方面 海啸只是普通海浪的加强版
In many ways, tsunamis are justlarger versions of regular waves.
它们有波谷和波峰
They have a trough and a crest,
且不是运动的水
and consist not of moving water,
而是通过水运动的能量
but the movement of energy through water.
两者的不同在于能量的来源
The difference isin where this energy comes from.
正常的海浪的能量来自风
For normal ocean waves,it comes from wind.
因为这只会影响表面
Because this only affects the surface,
波浪的大小和速度是有限的
the waves are limited in size and speed.
但是海啸是由水下产生的能量引起的
But tsunamis are caused by energyoriginating underwater,
比如火山爆发 海底滑坡
from a volcanic eruption, a submarine landslide,
或者最常见的是由于板块位移
or most commonly, an earthquake on the ocean floor
造成的海底地震
caused when the tectonic platesof the Earth’s surface slip,
这都会在水中释放大量的能量
releasing a massive amountof energy into the water.
这种能量一直穿越到表面
This energy travels up to the surface,
并推动海水 使之高出正常海平面
displacing water and raising it abovethe normal sea level,
但是重力又把它拉下来 使能量像波浪状水平散开
but gravity pulls it back down, which makes the energy ripple outwards horizontally. Thus,
海啸就这样诞生了
the tsunami is born,
并以每小时500英里以上的速度移动
moving at over 500 miles per hour.
当海啸远离海岸时 它几乎无法被察觉
When it’s far from shore,a tsunami can be barely detectable
因为海水整体都在动
since it moves throughthe entire depth of the water.
但到浅水时 就产生了所谓的波浪浅水效应
But when it reaches shallow water,something called wave shoaling occurs.
因为只有少量的水可以通过
Because there is less waterto move through,
这股仍然巨大的能量被压缩
this still massive amountof energy is compressed.
波速减慢
The wave’s speed slows down,
而它的高度则上升到多达100英尺
while its height rises to as much as 100 feet.
“海啸”这个词 日语意为 港湾波
The word tsunami,Japanese for”harbor wave,”
来自于它似乎只出现在海岸附近这一事实
comes from the fact that it only seems to appear near the coast.
如果海啸的波谷首先到达岸边
If the trough of a tsunamireaches shore first,
水浪就会在袭击前退得比平时还远
the water will withdrawfarther than normal
导致了难以察觉的危机
before the wave hits, which can be misleadingly dangerous.
海啸不仅会淹没海岸附近的人
A tsunami will not only drownpeople near the coast,
一英里乃至更远处的建筑和树木也不能幸免
but level buildings and treesfor a mile inland or more,
尤其是在低洼地区
especially in low-lying areas.
似乎觉得这还不够 海水随后下降
As if that weren’t enough,the water then retreats,
裹挟着它造成的残骸与碎片
dragging with it the newly created debris,
以及它途经的任何不幸的人和事物离去
and anything, or anyone,unfortunate enough to be caught in its path.
2004次印度洋海啸
The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
是历史上最严重的自然灾害之一
was one of the deadliestnatural disasters in history,
造成超过200,000的南亚人民受灾
killing over 200,000 peoplethroughout South Asia.
那么我们怎样才能保护自己免受这种破坏性的自然力的影响呢
So how can we protect ourselves against this destructive force of nature?
一些地区的人们曾试图
People in some areas have attempted to stop tsunamis
用海堤 防洪门
with sea walls, flood gates,
和疏导海水的渠道来阻止海啸
and channels to divert the water.
但这些并不总是有效
But these are not always effective.
2011年海啸越过保护
In 2011, a tsunamisurpassed the flood wall
日本的福岛发电厂的防洪墙
protecting Japan’s Fukushima Power Plant,
导致核灾难
causing a nuclear disaster
除此之外还夺去了超过18,000人的生命
in addition to claiming over 18,000 lives.
许多科学家和政策制定者把重点放在早期发现上
Many scientists and policy makersare instead focusing on early detection,
如 监测水下压力与地震活动
monitoring underwater pressureand seismic activity,
以及建立全球通信网络
and establishing globalcommunication networks
来快速发布警报
for quickly distributing alerts.
当大自然强大到无法停止
When nature is too powerful to stop,
最安全的方法是避开它
the safest courseis to get out of its way.

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海啸是如何产生的呢?快来看看吧

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