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树木之间其实可以相互交流

How trees talk to each other | Suzanne Simard

想象你正穿行在森林中
Imagine you’re walking through a forest.
我猜你会想到一大片树林
I’m guessing you’re thinking of a collection of trees,
我们林业工作者称之为“林分”
what we foresters call a stand,
它们有着遒劲的枝干 和美丽的树冠
with their rugged stems and their beautiful crowns.
是的 树木是森林的基础
Yes, trees are the foundation of forests,
但是森林可比你看到的复杂多了
but a forest is much more than what you see,
而且今天我来是想改变一下你们对森林的看法
and today I want to change the way you think about forests.
你们知道吗 森林的地下是另外一个世界
You see, underground there is this other world,
一个拥有无限的生物通路的世界
a world of infinite biological pathways
这些通路把树木连接起来 使得它们可以彼此沟通
that connect trees and allow them to communicate
也使森林表现得好像一个单独的有机体
and allow the forest to behave as though it’s a single organism.
这可能会让你想到某种类型的智慧
It might remind you of a sort of intelligence.
那么我是怎么知道这些的呢?
How do I know this?
来听听我的故事吧
Here’s my story.
我是在加拿大British Columbia省的森林中长大的
I grew up in the forests of British Columbia.
那时我总喜欢躺在森林的地面上 向上望着那些树冠
I used to lay on the forest floor and stare up at the tree crowns.
它们都是巨人
They were giants.
我的祖父也是个巨人
My grandfather was a giant, too.
他是一名伐木工
He was a horse logger,
他以前曾在内陆雨林 有选择性地砍伐杉木
and he used to selectively cut cedar poles from the inland rainforest.
爷爷教会我了解树木间 安静而紧密连接的沟通方式
Grandpa taught me about the quiet and cohesive ways of the woods,
以及我们家族是如何融入其中的
and how my family was knit into it.
所以我也追随了爷爷的脚步
So I followed in grandpa’s footsteps.
他和我都对森林很好奇
He and I had this curiosity about forests,
我的第一次“顿悟”时刻
and my first big “aha” moment
是在我们湖边的外屋发生的
was at the outhouse by our lake.
我们可怜的狗吉格斯 摔跤跌进了一个坑里
Our poor dog Jigs had slipped and fallen into the pit.
爷爷匆忙抄起一把铁铲 跑过去救那只可怜的狗
So grandpa ran up with his shovel to rescue the poor dog.
那狗掉进了深处 在淤泥里挣扎
He was down there, swimming in the muck.
但在爷爷挖开森林的地面的时候
But as grandpa dug through that forest floor,
我却被那些露出的树根深深地吸引了
I became fascinated with the roots,
我后来知道了 在树根下面的是白色菌丝
and under that, what I learned later was the white mycelium
再下面是红色和黄色的矿质土层
and under that the red and yellow mineral horizons.
当然最终 我和爷爷救出了那只可怜的狗
Eventually, grandpa and I rescued the poor dog,
但也就是在那时我意识到
but it was at that moment that I realized
正是树根和土壤的混合
that that palette of roots and soil
构成了森林的基础
was really the foundation of the forest.
于是我就想了解更多
And I wanted to know more.
所以我开始学习林业学
So I studied forestry.
但很快我发现 我的工作 是和那些负责商业化采集的
But soon I found myself working alongside the powerful people
有权有势的人差不多的
in charge of the commercial harvest.
他们草木皆伐 达到了令人惊心的
The extent of the clear-cutting
程度
was alarming,
我很快意识到我所处位置的矛盾性
and I soon found myself conflicted by my part in it.
不仅如此 为了种植更具有商业价值的松树和冷杉
Not only that, the spraying and hacking of the aspens and birches
从而毒死或者砍伐掉山杨和桦树的规模
to make way for the more commercially valuable planted pines and firs
也非常让人震惊
was astounding.
看上去好像没什么能阻止 这些无情的工业机器了
It seemed that nothing could stop this relentless industrial machine.
所以我回到了学校
So I went back to school,
转而研究我的“新世界”
and I studied my other world.
你知道 科学家们那时已经在实验室的试管中发现了
You see, scientists had just discovered in the laboratory in vitro
一棵松树的幼苗根系
that one pine seedling root
可以将碳转移到另一颗松树幼苗的根系上
could transmit carbon to another pine seedling root.
但这仅仅是在实验室里
But this was in the laboratory,
所以我想: 这也会发生在真正的森林里吗?
and I wondered, could this happen in real forests?
我觉得是的
I thought yes.
在真正的森林中 树木也可能在地下交流信息
Trees in real forests might also share information below ground.
但这个想法其实挺有争议的
But this was really controversial,
一些人觉得我疯了
and some people thought I was crazy,
所以我筹集科研经费的那段日子 真的很艰难
and I had a really hard time getting research funding.
但我坚持了下来
But I persevered,
而且我最终在森林的深处 成功做了一些实验
and I eventually conducted some experiments deep in the forest,
那是在25年前
25 years ago.
那时我种了三种树 一共80棵:
I grew 80 replicates of three species:
有纸皮桦 花旗松和西部红杉
paper birch, Douglas fir, and western red cedar.
我认为纸皮桦和花旗松 在地下的网络中应该是能交流的
I figured the birch and the fir would be connected in a belowground web,
但是西部红杉应该是不行的
but not the cedar.
西部红杉比较“与世隔绝”
It was in its own other world.
我收拾起我的设备仪器
And I gathered my apparatus,
我那时没钱啊 所以我决定得省着点
and I had no money, so I had to do it on the cheap.
于是我去了加拿大轮胎公司
So I went to Canadian Tire —
[笑声]
(Laughter)
买了一些塑料袋 一些布基胶带 遮光布
and I bought some plastic bags and duct tape and shade cloth,
一个计时器 一件纸套装和一个呼吸器
a timer, a paper suit, a respirator.
然后我又从我的大学借了一些高科技的东西:
And then I borrowed some high-tech stuff from my university:
一个盖革计数器 一个闪烁计数器 一个质谱仪和几个显微镜
a Geiger counter, a scintillation counter, a mass spectrometer, microscopes.
然后我又拿了一些非常危险的东西:
And then I got some really dangerous stuff:
几支充满了放射性碳14 的二氧化碳气体的注射器
syringes full of radioactive carbon-14 carbon dioxide gas
和几个高压气瓶
and some high pressure bottles
里面充满了稳定性同位素 碳13的二氧化碳气体
of the stable isotope carbon-13 carbon dioxide gas.
不过我这么做是合法的哦
But I was legally permitted.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
哦对了 我还忘说了几样东西
Oh, and I forgot some stuff,
很重要的东西:喷雾杀虫剂
important stuff: the bug spray,
防熊喷雾剂和我呼吸器的过滤网
the bear spray, the filters for my respirator.
好了
Oh well.
实验的第一天 我们来到了实验地点
The first day of the experiment, we got out to our plot
突然一头灰熊和她的熊宝宝出现 把我们赶跑了
and a grizzly bear and her cub chased us off.
然后我还没带防熊喷雾剂
And I had no bear spray.
但你知道吗 在加拿大 做森林研究其实就是这样的
But you know, this is how forest research in Canada goes.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
所以第二天我又回来了
So I came back the next day,
灰熊妈妈和熊宝宝没在
and mama grizzly and her cub were gone.
这一次我们可以真正开始实验了
So this time, we really got started,
我穿上我的白纸套装工作服
and I pulled on my white paper suit,
带上呼吸器
I put on my respirator,
然后
and then
给我的树都罩上了塑料袋
I put the plastic bags over my trees.
我拿出我那些大注射器
I got my giant syringes,
往袋子里面注入了
and I injected the bags
含有示踪同位素的 二氧化碳气体
with my tracer isotope carbon dioxide gases,
首先是纸皮桦
first the birch.
我往罩纸皮桦的袋子里面打入了
I injected carbon-14, the radioactive gas,
有放射性碳14的气体
into the bag of birch.
然后是花旗松
And then for fir,
我往他们的袋子中注射了 含有稳定性同位素碳13的二氧化碳
I injected the stable isotope carbon-13 carbon dioxide gas.
我用了两种同位素
I used two isotopes,
因为我不知道
because I was wondering
这两种树之间的交流是否是双向的
whether there was two-way communication going on between these species.
当我走向最后一个袋子时
I got to the final bag,
也就是第80棵样本
the 80th replicate,
突然间 那头灰熊妈妈又出现了
and all of a sudden mama grizzly showed up again.
然后她开始追我
And she started to chase me,
我把我们的那些注射器举过头顶
and I had my syringes above my head,
扑打着周围无数的蚊子 然后跳上了卡车
and I was swatting the mosquitos, and I jumped into the truck,
然后我想
and I thought,
“这就是为什么人们喜欢在实验室做实验的原因吧”
“This is why people do lab studies.”
[笑声]
(Laughter)
我等了一小时
I waited an hour.
我觉得这个时间差不多可以
I figured it would take this long
让那些树通过光合作用吸收二氧化碳
for the trees to suck up the CO2 through photosynthesis,
转换生成糖 再把糖送到它们的根
turn it into sugars, send it down into their roots,
然后也许 我猜测
and maybe, I hypothesized,
它们会把那些碳元素从地下传给它们的邻居
shuttle that carbon belowground to their neighbors.
一小时的时间到了之后
After the hour was up,
我摇下了车窗
I rolled down my window,
看看灰熊妈妈还在不在
and I checked for mama grizzly.
哦太棒了 她在挺远的地方吃她的黑莓呢
Oh good, she’s over there eating her huckleberries.
所以我下了卡车继续我的工作
So I got out of the truck and I got to work.
我走到第一个罩上袋子的那棵桦树旁边 把袋子取下来
I went to my first bag with the birch. I pulled the bag off.
我在那棵树的叶子旁边用盖革计数器检测一下
I ran my Geiger counter over its leaves.
咔~~~
Kkhh!
完美
Perfect.
那棵桦树已经完全吸收了 放射性的二氧化碳
The birch had taken up the radioactive gas.
然后就是见证真相的时刻了
Then the moment of truth.
我走向一棵花旗松
I went over to the fir tree.
扯下树上那个袋子
I pulled off its bag.
在它的针叶旁边用盖革计数器进行检测
I ran the Geiger counter up its needles,
然后我又听到了那最悦耳的声音
and I heard the most beautiful sound.
咔~~~
Kkhh!
这就是纸皮桦对花旗松说话的声音
It was the sound of birch talking to fir,
纸皮桦说: “嘿 我能帮你点什么?”
and birch was saying, “Hey, can I help you?”
然后花旗松回应它: “啊对了 你能给我点你的碳吗?
And fir was saying, “Yeah, can you send me some of your carbon?
因为刚才有人用遮光布 把我罩住了”
Because somebody threw a shade cloth over me.”
接着我又走到西部红杉旁边 我用盖革计数器在它的叶子旁边检测了一下
I went up to cedar, and I ran the Geiger counter over its leaves,
结果正如我猜测的一样
and as I suspected,
一片寂静
silence.
西部红杉还真的是与世隔绝的
Cedar was in its own world.
它并没有连接到纸皮桦与花旗松 互连的网络中
It was not connected into the web interlinking birch and fir.
我特别激动
I was so excited,
我在那80棵样本之间跑来跑去 对所有的树都进行了检测
I ran from plot to plot and I checked all 80 replicates.
最后的结果显而易见
The evidence was clear.
碳13和碳14的流向告诉我
The C-13 and C-14 was showing me
纸皮桦和花旗松之间的交流是双向的
that paper birch and Douglas fir were in a lively two-way conversation.
结果还表明在每年的这个时间
It turns out at that time of the year,
在夏天的时候
in the summer,
纸皮桦给花旗松送的碳 比花旗松反送给它的要多
that birch was sending more carbon to fir than fir was sending back to birch,
特别是当花旗松见不到阳光的时候
especially when the fir was shaded.
而在随后的实验中 我们发现了相反的情况
And then in later experiments, we found the opposite,
花旗松给纸皮桦送的碳 比纸皮桦给它的碳多
that fir was sending more carbon to birch than birch was sending to fir,
这是因为当纸皮桦树叶掉光了的时候 花旗松还在不停的生长
and this was because the fir was still growing while the birch was leafless.
这就说明这两种树其实是相互依赖的
So it turns out the two species were interdependent,
就像“阴”和“阳”
like yin and yang.
在那个时候 事情开始变得清晰起来
And at that moment, everything came into focus for me.
我知道我有了重大发现
I knew I had found something big,
这个发现可以改变我们对 森林中树木互动方式的看法
something that would change the way we look at how trees interact in forests,
树木之间不仅有竞争关系
from not just competitors
同时也有合作关系
but to cooperators.
并且我当时已经找到了
And I had found solid evidence
关于在那个世界中 树木的巨大地下交流网络的
of this massive belowground communications network,
确凿的证据
the other world.
现在 我真诚地希望和相信
Now, I truly hoped and believed
我的发现能够改变我们的林业实践活动
that my discovery would change how we practice forestry,
能够让我们放弃皆伐和大范围的使用除草剂
from clear-cutting and herbiciding
转而采用一些更全面和更可持续的方法
to more holistic and sustainable methods,
这些方法更经济 也更实用
methods that were less expensive and more practical.
当时我在想什么呢?
What was I thinking?
我等一下会说到
I’ll come back to that.
那么 在像森林这样复杂的系统中 应该怎么做科学研究呢?
So how do we do science in complex systems like forests?
其实 作为林业学家 我们就是要实实在在地在森林里做研究
Well, as forest scientists, we have to do our research in the forests,
即使 就像我刚才给你们讲的 你所面对的环境会非常恶劣
and that’s really tough, as I’ve shown you.
我们要非常擅长于 逃脱熊的追赶
And we have to be really good at running from bears.
但在大多数时间里 我们必须要坚持不懈
But mostly, we have to persevere
即使所有的事情都跟我们作对
in spite of all the stuff stacked against us.
我们必须要遵从自己的直觉和经验
And we have to follow our intuition and our experiences
然后提出有价值的问题
and ask really good questions.
之后我们还得收集并且核实数据
And then we’ve got to gather our data and then go verify.
对我来说 我在森林中进行过好几百次的实验 而且实验成果都发表了
For me, I’ve conducted and published hundreds of experiments in the forest.
有一些我最早进行实验的种植园 到现在已经超过30年了
Some of my oldest experimental plantations are now over 30 years old.
你可以去看看它们
You can check them out.
这才是搞林业学应该做的事
That’s how forest science works.
那么现在我想谈一谈科学本身了
So now I want to talk about the science.
纸皮桦和花旗松到底是怎么交流的呢?
How were paper birch and Douglas fir communicating?
实际上 它们不仅仅使用碳元素 作为它们交流的语言
Well, it turns out they were conversing not only in the language of carbon
其实还有氮元素和磷元素
but also nitrogen and phosphorus
还有水 防卫信号 等位基因化学物和激素
and water and defense signals and allele chemicals and hormones —
这些都是它们用来交流的信息介质
information.
你知道吗 我得告诉你们 在我之前的科学家们都认为
And you know, I have to tell you, before me, scientists had thought
这种地下的互惠共生现象 是因为有一种菌根
that this belowground mutualistic symbiosis called a mycorrhiza
介入其中
was involved.
菌根的字面意思就是“真菌的根部”
Mycorrhiza literally means “fungus root.”
当你穿行在森林中时 你经常都能看到它们的繁殖器官
You see their reproductive organs when you walk through the forest.
它们就是蘑菇
They’re the mushrooms.
而其实那些蘑菇 仅仅是冰山一角
The mushrooms, though, are just the tip of the iceberg,
因为从那些树干里冒出来的 菌丝生成了菌丝体
because coming out of those stems are fungal threads that form a mycelium,
菌丝体会感染和占领
and that mycelium infects and colonizes the roots
树木和植物的根
of all the trees and plants.
在真菌细胞和植物根细胞交流的地方
And where the fungal cells interact with the root cells,
时时刻刻都发生着为了获取营养的碳交易
there’s a trade of carbon for nutrients,
真菌靠着在土地里生长 并且覆盖住所有的土壤颗粒
and that fungus gets those nutrients by growing through the soil
来获取养分
and coating every soil particle.
这个网络无比密集以至于 在你每走过一步脚下的菌丝连起来
The web is so dense that there can be hundreds of kilometers of mycelium
可以有几百公里长
under a single footstep.
不仅如此 菌丝跟森林中 其它的个体也都有联系
And not only that, that mycelium connects different individuals in the forest,
这种联系不仅仅在单一的种类中存在 在不同种类之间也存在 比如纸皮桦和花旗松
individuals not only of the same species but between species, like birch and fir,
而且它的工作原理就像是互联网一样
and it works kind of like the Internet.
你们看 就像所有的网络一样
You see, like all networks,
真菌的网络中也有节点和链接
mycorrhizal networks have nodes and links.
我们在一片花旗松森林中的 所有树和所有真菌中
We made this map by examining the short sequences of DNA
提取了它们的DNA短序列 并且制作了这份传播图
of every tree and every fungal individual in a patch of Douglas fir forest.
在这张图片上 圆圈 也就是那些节点 代表花旗松
In this picture, the circles represent the Douglas fir, or the nodes,
直线 也就是那些链接 代表着互相连接的真菌干线
and the lines represent the interlinking fungal highways, or the links.
那些最大的 颜色最深的节点 就是最繁忙的 连接最多的节点
The biggest, darkest nodes are the busiest nodes.
我们把它们称作中心树
We call those hub trees,
或者更亲切地称之为母树
or more fondly, mother trees,
因为事实证明 这些中心树哺育着它们的小树
because it turns out that those hub trees nurture their young,
那些小树都处在林下叶层
the ones growing in the understory.
如果你们看见那些黄色的点
And if you can see those yellow dots,
那些就表示幼苗 这些幼苗在这个网络中
those are the young seedlings that have established within the network
已经和它们的母树建立了联系
of the old mother trees.
在一片森林中 一棵母树可以和 其它几百棵树建立联系
In a single forest, a mother tree can be connected to hundreds of other trees.
通过使用同位素示踪剂进行检测
And using our isotope tracers,
我们发现那些母树
we have found that mother trees
会把它们多余的碳元素 通过菌根的网络
will send their excess carbon through the mycorrhizal network
传给处在林下叶层的幼苗
to the understory seedlings,
我们发现这种方式可以让 幼苗的存活率
and we’ve associated this with increased seedling survival
增加四倍
by four times.
现在我们都知道 我们爱自己的孩子
Now, we know we all favor our own children,
所以我想 花旗松能认出来自己的孩子吗?
and I wondered, could Douglas fir recognize its own kin,
就想灰熊妈妈和她的熊宝宝一样?
like mama grizzly and her cub?
因此我们又设计了一个实验
So we set about an experiment,
我们把母树和它们的孩子 以及一些陌生的幼苗种在一起
and we grew mother trees with kin and stranger’s seedlings.
事实证明它们认识它们的孩子
And it turns out they do recognize their kin.
母树通过更大的菌根网络 来覆盖住自己孩子们所在的区域
Mother trees colonize their kin with bigger mycorrhizal networks.
在地下 它们给孩子们会送去更多的碳
They send them more carbon below ground.
它们甚至会抑制自己的根系生长
They even reduce their own root competition
来为它们的孩子们创造更多的活动空间
to make elbow room for their kids.
当母树受伤或即将枯死的时候
When mother trees are injured or dying,
它们还会把智慧信息传给下一代的幼苗
they also send messages of wisdom on to the next generation of seedlings.
我们使用同位素示踪法
So we’ve used isotope tracing
来追踪碳的走向 从一棵受伤的母树
to trace carbon moving from an injured mother tree
树干的地方一直向下到地下的真菌网络
down her trunk into the mycorrhizal network
再到它周围的幼苗中
and into her neighboring seedlings,
不仅仅是碳元素 还有防卫信号的走向
not only carbon but also defense signals.
这两种混合物
And these two compounds
能够让这些幼苗增加抵抗力 以面对未来的压力
have increased the resistance of those seedlings to future stresses.
所以树是会说话的
So trees talk.
[掌声]
(Applause)
谢谢
Thank you.
通过反反复复的对话
Through back and forth conversations,
它们增强了整个团体的适应力
they increase the resilience of the whole community.
这可能会使你联想到 我们人类的社会群体
It probably reminds you of our own social communities,
和我们的家庭
and our families,
当然 至少有些家庭是这样团结的
well, at least some families.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
那么 让我们回到最初的话题吧
So let’s come back to the initial point.
森林不是简简单单的树的“集合”
Forests aren’t simply collections of trees,
森林是拥有枢纽和网络的复杂系统
they’re complex systems with hubs and networks
它可以承载树木并且把树连接起来 使得它们可以互相沟通
that overlap and connect trees and allow them to communicate,
它给树木提供了互相反馈的渠道 帮助它们适应环境
and they provide avenues for feedbacks and adaptation,
也使得森林的恢复力变得更强
and this makes the forest resilient.
这是因为在森林中存在着许多的中心树 和重重叠叠的网络
That’s because there are many hub trees and many overlapping networks.
但森林还是很脆弱
But they’re also vulnerable,
之所以脆弱是因为它们不仅会受到自然界的干扰
vulnerable not only to natural disturbances
比如树皮甲虫会时不时地攻击 粗壮的老树
like bark beetles that preferentially attack big old trees
而且还会受到高强度伐木和皆伐的影响
but high-grade logging and clear-cut logging.
你们看 我们可以拿走一两颗中心树
You see, you can take out one or two hub trees,
但这样就会达到森林承受极限了
but there comes a tipping point,
因为森林里的中心树 就像是飞机里的铆钉
because hub trees are not unlike rivets in an airplane.
你卸下一两个铆钉的话 飞机还能飞
You can take out one or two and the plane still flies,
但是如果你一次卸下太多
but you take out one too many,
或是仅仅卸下固定机翼的那一颗铆钉
or maybe that one holding on the wings,
整个系统就要崩溃了
and the whole system collapses.
那么现在你们对森林的看法是怎样的了?有些改变了吧?
So now how are you thinking about forests? Differently?
(观众)是的
(Audience) Yes.
真棒
Cool.
我太高兴了
I’m glad.
你们还记得吧 我之前说过 我希望我的研究
So, remember I said earlier that I hoped that my research,
我的探索可以改变一些 我们的林业实践的方式
my discoveries would change the way we practice forestry.
我想在30年后 在西加拿大的这个地方做个检测
Well, I want to take a check on that 30 years later here in western Canada.
这里大概是在西边距我们 100公里的地方
This is about 100 kilometers to the west of us,
就在班夫国家公园的边上
just on the border of Banff National Park.
在那里到处都发生着皆伐
That’s a lot of clear-cuts.
据我估计 那儿最近13年都没有发生太大变化
In my estimation, there hasn’t been a lot of changes in last 13 years.
它失去了它的原始风貌
It’s not so pristine.
2014年 据世界资源研究所报道 加拿大在过去十年中的
In 2014, the World Resources Institute reported that Canada in the past decade
森林破坏率已经达到了世界最高 比任何一个国家都高
has had the highest forest disturbance rate of any country worldwide,
我打赌你们之前肯定觉得是巴西
and I bet you thought it was Brazil.
在加拿大 森林破坏率是每年3.6%
In Canada, it’s 3.6 percent per year.
据我推算 这大概是 可持续发展的砍伐率的四倍了
Now, by my estimation, that’s about four times the rate that is sustainable.
大规模高强度的砍伐 已经严重影响到了水循环
Now, massive disturbance at this scale is known to affect hydrological cycles,
破坏了野生动物的栖息地
degrade wildlife habitat,
而且又向大气中 释放了很多温室气体
and emit greenhouse gases back into the atmosphere,
这也会使更多的树木枯死 造成更严重的破坏
which creates more disturbance and more tree diebacks.
不仅如此 我们还在继续种植着 那一两种单一的树木
Not only that, we’re continuing to plant one or two species
还继续着把山杨和桦树清除出去
and weed out the aspens and birches.
这种单一的树木种类使森林缺少了多样性
These simplified forests lack complexity,
这让它们在传染病和虫害面前 根本不堪一击
and they’re really vulnerable to infections and bugs.
随着气候变化
And as climate changes,
这也将会为一些极端事件创造完美的条件
this is creating a perfect storm
比如刚刚席卷整个北美洲的
for extreme events, like the massive mountain pine beetle outbreak
山松甲虫大爆发
that just swept across North America,
还有过去几个月在阿尔伯塔的森林大火
or that megafire in the last couple months in Alberta.
所以现在我想提提我的最后一个问题:
So I want to come back to my final question:
与破坏我们的森林相反
instead of weakening our forests,
我们怎么才能让它们变得更强大 怎么才能帮助它们应对气候变化呢?
how can we reinforce them and help them deal with climate change?
你们知道吗 森林作为一个复杂的系统 最好的一点就是
Well, you know, the great thing about forests as complex systems
它们拥有相当强大的自愈能力
is they have enormous capacity to self-heal.
在我们最近几个实验中
In our recent experiments,
我们发现小规模的砍伐 把中心树保护好
we found with patch-cutting and retention of hub trees
物种多样性 基因和基因型多样性的再生
and regeneration to a diversity of species and genes and genotypes
加上这些真菌网络的存在 会使森林的恢复速度变得无比迅速
that these mycorrhizal networks, they recover really rapidly.
所以出于这种考虑 我想提出四个简单的解决方法
So with this in mind, I want to leave you with four simple solutions.
而且我们一定不能自欺欺人 因为这些做起来其实也挺复杂的
And we can’t kid ourselves that these are too complicated to act on.
首先 我们都得走出家门 走进森林
First, we all need to get out in the forest.
我们需要重新使当地的居民 融入到我们森林中去
We need to reestablish local involvement in our own forests.
其实 现在我们的大部分林业实践
You see, most of our forests now
采用的都是一体通用的方法
are managed using a one-size-fits-all approach,
但是优秀的森林管理员是需要具备 关于当地环境情况的知识的
but good forest stewardship requires knowledge of local conditions.
第二 我们需要保护好我们的古老森林
Second, we need to save our old-growth forests.
保护好它们就是保护好了森林的基因库 保护好了母树和菌根网络
These are the repositories of genes and mother trees and mycorrhizal networks.
这就意味着我们需要减少砍伐
So this means less cutting.
我不是说不伐树了 而是少伐
I don’t mean no cutting, but less cutting.
第三 当我们伐木时
And third, when we do cut,
我们需要保护森林的“遗产”
we need to save the legacies,
母树和菌根网络
the mother trees and networks,
保留一部分树林和它们的基因
and the wood, the genes,
这样它们就能把智慧传给下一代的树木
so they can pass their wisdom onto the next generation of trees
这样整个森林就能禁得起 未来将会面对的重重困难了
so they can withstand the future stresses coming down the road.
我们都需要做自然环境保护者
We need to be conservationists.
最后 第四点 也是最后一点
And finally, fourthly and finally,
我们需要通过人工种植和自然再生的方式
we need to regenerate our forests with a diversity of species
增加森林的物种多样性
and genotypes and structures
基因型多样性和结构多样性
by planting and allowing natural regeneration.
我们需要给大自然母亲 她需要的工具
We have to give Mother Nature the tools she needs
好让她用自己的智慧来进行自愈
to use her intelligence to self-heal.
我们需要明白 森林不仅仅是一堆树
And we need to remember that forests aren’t just a bunch of trees
在互相竞争
competing with each other,
它们是无比优秀的合作者
they’re supercooperators.
让我们的话题回到吉格斯
So back to Jigs.
那次吉格斯掉进坑里的经历 让我见识到了另一个世界
Jigs’s fall into the outhouse showed me this other world,
而这件事完全改变了我对森林的看法
and it changed my view of forests.
我希望今天我也能改变 你们对于森林的一些印象
I hope today to have changed how you think about forests.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

“森林的内容比你看到的多得多”,生态学家Suzanne·Simard这样说。她通过在加拿大森林中30年的研究最终得出了一个惊人的发现——树是会说话的,而且它们经常说话,距离还非常远。让我们一起走进了解树木的和谐又复杂的社会生活,准备好用全新的眼光看待这个自然世界。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Un2yBgIAxYs

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