ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

晶体管是什么工作原理? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

晶体管是什么工作原理?

How transistors work - Gokul J. Krishnan

现代计算机正在改变着我们的生活
Modern computers are revolutionizing our lives,
处理着几十年前人们无法想象的事情
performing tasks unimaginable only decades ago.
一连串的创新实现了那些人们在十几年前无法完成的事情
This was made possible by a long series of innovations,
但几乎所有的技术都取决于一个划时代性的发明
but there’s one foundational invention that almost everything else relies upon:
晶体管所以
the transistor.
什么是晶体管
So what is that,
这是一个什么样的东西可以让计算机完成那么多神奇的事情
and how does such a device enable all the amazing things computers can do?
顾名思义 计算机就是一个进行
Well, at their core, all computers are just what the name implies,
数学运算的机械
machines that perform mathematical operations.
最初的计算机是人手动运行计算的
The earliest computers were manual counting devices,
比如算盘
like the abacus,
后来计算机里增加了机械部件
while later ones used mechanical parts.
计算机的特点便是用特定方式表示数字
What made them computers was having a way to represent numbers
并运用系统处理数字
and a system for manipulating them.
电子计算机使用同机械计算机相同的运算方式
Electronic computers work the same way,
但电子计算机不使用物理排列数字
but instead of physical arrangements,
而被电压代替
the numbers are represented by electric voltages.
大部分的计算机使用布尔数学体系
Most such computers use a type of math called Boolean logic
它只有两种可能的值
that has only two possible values,
那就是正确和错误的逻辑条件
the logical conditions true and false,
并用二进制数值1和0表示
denoted by binary digits one and zero.
它们被高和低电压表述着
They are represented by high and low voltages.
程式通过逻辑门电路来执行
Equations are implemented via logic gate circuits
并输出1或0
that produce an output of one or zero
基于输入值是否符合某一个逻辑陈述
based on whether the inputs satisfy a certain logical statement.
这些电路处理三种基本的逻辑运算接合
These circuits perform three fundamental logical operations,
分离与取反
conjunction, disjunction, and negation.
接合类似于“且”运算 并产生高电压输出
The way conjunction works is an “and gate” provides a high-voltage output
当它接受到两个高电压输入时
only if it receives two high-voltage inputs,
其他两种逻辑运算工作原理相似
and the other gates work by similar principles.
电路可以通过结合来处理复杂的运算
Circuits can be combined to perform complex operations,
比如加法和减法
like addition and subtraction.
电脑通过电子方式运行
And computer programs consist of instructions
程序包括指令
for electronically performing these operations.
这种系统需要一个可靠且精准的算法
This kind of system needs a reliable and accurate method
来控制电流
for controlling electric current.
早期电子计算机 比如电子数值积分计算机
Early electronic computers, like the ENIAC,
使用了一种叫真空管的设备
used a device called the vacuum tube.
真空管是二极管的前身
Its early form, the diode,
在一个真空玻璃管内放置两个电极
consisted of two electrodes in an evacuated glass container.
通过给阴极电压并使温度上升来释放电子
Applying a voltage to the cathode makes it heat up and release electrons.
如果阳极处在一个高一点的正电位
If the anode is at a slightly higher positive potential,
电子就会被吸引过去
the electrons are attracted to it,
联通电路
completing the circuit.
这种单方向电流是可控的
This unidirectional current flow could be controlled
通过对阴极使用不同的电压
by varying the voltage to the cathode,
可以使阴极释放不同数量的电子
which makes it release more or less electrons.
下一个是三极管
The next stage was the triode,
使用了第三个电极叫做栅极
which uses a third electrode called the grid.
这是一种在阴极与阳极之间的网格状的线路
This is a wire screen between the cathode and anode
并可以使电子通过
through which electrons could pass.
不同的电压可以使它排斥
Varying its voltage makes it either repel
或者吸引阴极发出的电子从而
or attract the electrons emitted by the cathode,
得以实现快速电流开关
thus, enabling fast current-switching.
三极管可以放大信号的性能使它成为收音机的关键部位
The ability to amplify signals also made the triode crucial for radio
还有长距通信
and long distance communication.
虽然真空管有这些优点 它不稳定且体型笨重
But despite these advancements, vacuum tubes were unreliable and bulky.
电子数值积分计算机使用了18000个真空管
With 18,000 triodes, ENIAC was nearly the size of a tennis court
这使它的体积近似于一个网球场并重达30吨
and weighed 30 tons.
几乎每天都有真空管出现故障
Tubes failed every other day,
而且使用它1小时的电量等同于15个家庭的日用电量
and in one hour, it consumed the amount of electricity used by 15 homes in a day.
问题的解决办法是晶体管
The solution was the transistor.
它使用了半导体来替代电极
Instead of electrodes, it uses a semiconductor,
比如用其它元素处理过的硅
like silicon treated with different elements
来制造一个电子发射N型
to create an electron-emitting N-type,
和一个电子接收P型
and an electron absorbing P-type.
这些被排列在三个交替层
These are arranged in three alternating layers
并在每一层有一个终端发射极
with a terminal at each.
基极和接收极
The emitter, the base, and the collector.
在典型的NPN晶体管
In this typical NPN transistor,
由于有些出现在在P-N接口的现象
due to certain phenomena at the P-N interface,
一个在发射极和基极之间的特别的区域叫做P-N结
a special region called a P-N junction forms between the emitter and base.
当电压超过某一阀值时
It only conducts electricity
它才会导电不然
when a voltage exceeding a certain threshold is applied.
它会处于关闭状态
Otherwise, it remains switched off.
以这种方式 输入电压里的小变化
In this way, small variations in the input voltage
可以激发高低输出电流之间的转换
can be used to quickly switch between high and low-output currents.
晶体管的优点在于它的高效和小体积
The advantage of the transistor lies in its efficiency and compactness.
因为晶体管不需要加热 它们更加的耐用与低耗
Because they don’t require heating, they’re more durable and use less power.
电子数值积分计算机的性能已被今天指甲盖大小
ENIAC’s functionality can now be surpassed by a single fingernail-sized microchip
携带者几十亿个晶体管的指甲盖大小的微芯片所超越
containing billions of transistors.
有着每秒万亿次计算的
At trillions of calculations per second,
当代计算机看上去是在展现着一个奇迹
today’s computers may seem like they’re performing miracles,
但是在它背后
but underneath it all,
每一个运算仍然只是一个简单的开关动作
each individual operation is still as simple as the flick of a switch.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述
听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

收集自网络

审核员

自动通过审核

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WhNyURBiJcU

相关推荐