How traditional Italian olive oil is made
The world produces up to 3 million tons of olive oil per year.
Leading the market areMediterranean countries
这些国家包括西班牙 意大利 希腊 和突尼斯
like Spain, Italy, Greece, and Tunisia.
The reason why olive oil is so popular there is, of course, climate,
but it is also the result of centuries of history，
with the first evidences recorded as early as 10,000 years ago.
Olives have hundreds of varieties, called cultivars,
which means their flavors vary from country to country.
We visited an olive oil mill in Italy
in the southern region of Puglia,
a region that alone supplies 40 % of Italy’s
olive oil production and 12% worldwide.
Olive oil is an essentialpart of the culture here,
from food to the picturesque landscape.
While the region has4 million inhabitants,
there are as many as60 million olive trees,
and some have been there for centuries.
Divided among corporateand local businesses,
there are over 1,000 olivemills spread across the region.
To get a true feeling of the territory,
we visited a family-runmill in the city of Monopoli
where things are stilldone the old-fashioned way.
The olive oil producedhere comes from a blend
比如Cima di Mola, Olivastra, Simona, Picholine
of local cultivars: Cima di Mola, Leccina, Olivastra, Simona, Picholine,
Coratina,以及 Cellina di Nardò等品种
Coratina, and Cellina di Nardò.
First, harvested olives enterthe mill on a conveyor belt.
This process gets rid ofabout 90% of the leaves,
while the remaining 10%of the leaves are ground
into paste with olives and pits.
Then, the olives are pressed at room temperature using granite wheels,
a method that is called”cold-pressed.”
It means that oil wasextracted with no heat,
which would harm its delicate flavor.
The paste then movesinto a kneading machine
that helps break itdown into water and oil.
It’s spread over large fiber discs.
The discs are piled up andplaced onto a hydraulic press.
This is where you can start to see oil
and water quite clearly:
the yellow liquid is oil,while the black is water.
It takes around 2.5 hours for each pile to be pressed fully.
After which, oil and waterwill be separated for good.
The final product iscalled unfiltered olive oil
and has a cloudy appearance.
It is then stored instainless steel tanks.
It can be sold straightaway,
left to mature for one or several months,
or it can be filtered to remove any excess of pulp or olive particles.
Filtering is done througha funnel and cotton wool.
When an oil is cold-pressed,it’s made without
the use of chemicals, and is unrefined,
it’s called extra-virgin.
This is the highest gradewhen it comes to olive oil.
Olive oil is graded by its acidity level.
A high quality extra-virginolive oil will have
less than 0.8% acidity.
It’s a pure fruit juice after all…