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如何编写一个完美结局

How To Write A Great Ending

If there had to be a single ending,
如果电影只有一种结局
a single ending that does everything right,
一种天衣无缝 无可挑剔
one that satisfies the viewer and creates ample room for a sequel.
令观众心满意足 留白恰到好处的结局
No film does a better job than The Matrix.
那么《黑客帝国》可谓其中翘楚
l’m Henry Sharp,
我是亨利·夏普
and welcome to How to Write A Great Ending.
欢迎收看《如何编写一个完美结局》
Now, in order to realize why The Matrix has such a powerful ending,
在对《黑客帝国》的“豹尾”一探究竟前
we need to first realize what makes for a weak ending,
我们先了解一下什么是“蛇尾”
and in order to do that, we need to know Rule 1:
首先 我们需要明白第一条原则:
The shorter the amount of time between the climax and the end the better.
高潮离片尾越近越好
And incredibly common killer for many stories
造成故事功败垂成的祸根
is when the ending overstays its welcome.
常常是结局过于拖沓
And it’s such a common problem
这个问题很普遍
the issue has earned its own name,
人们甚至称其为
that being ‘Ending Fatigue’.
“结局疲劳”
Ending Fatigue is essentially what happens
结局疲劳主要指
when the story doesn’t wrap up efficiently,
故事草草收尾
and takes just too much time for the movie to reach the credits
或即便主要情节已经完结
once the main plot has been resolved.
还在喋喋不休 不肯结束
If the amount of time between the climax and the credits is over 10 minutes,
若高潮至片尾超过10分钟
that film probably suffers from Ending Fatigue.
那么电影可能出现结局疲劳的问题
Now there are countless films that suffer from this issue,
无数电影正深受这个问题的困扰
but as a random example,
随便举个例子
let’s look at Casino Royale.
比如《007:大战皇家赌场》
Now Casino Royale for its merits is a great film,
《皇家赌场》是一部可圈可点的优秀电影
and is arguably one of the best Bond films to have ever been made.
算是最出色的邦德系列电影之一
However, for the last 40 minutes of runtime,
然而 在影片最后40分钟
the structure really becomes quite a bit of a mess.
故事结构变得些许混乱
So the main plot is this:
其主要情节本是这样的:
Bond has to beat the villain in a game of poker,
邦德必须在扑克游戏中打败反派
and for the first act of the film,
这个终极目标
it is clearly established that that is the end goal,
在影片之始就埋下了伏笔
so after 1 hour and 40 minute mark,
因此在电影1时40分时
Bond wins the game.
邦德赢得了游戏
And then 14 minutes later,
14分钟后
the villain is killed.
反派被杀
Then Bond is recovering from his injuries
邦德伤势恢复 苏醒时
with a nice view with his romantic love interest by his side.
身旁的恋人正深情地注视着他
At this point, all of the plot threads have been resolved,
此时 所有故事主线都以完结
and this would be a great time to end the movie,
本是结束影片的好时机
except then a whole new plot is created:
结果又出现一个全新情节:
where his love interest betrays him,
邦德被恋人背叛
and then he has to go and hunt her down.
他必须追捕她
This quite simply is sloppy story structure.
这就导致故事不够严谨
The viewer should have a correct sense
观众对于影片何时结尾
as to when the movie is about to end.
应该有较为准确的直觉
And when you build that expectation of an ending
正当你认为该结束时
only to reveal that the film is far from over,
却发现其实远远没有
it confuses the viewer,
便会产生困惑
and thusly hinders the viewing experience.
观影体验也因此大打折扣
In the end, the time between the resolution of the main plotline and the credits
《皇家赌场》从高潮至片尾花了40分钟
was 40 minutes, which is about 30 minutes longer than it needed to be.
比最佳时间多了整整30分钟
Now this all comes back to The Matrix,
反观《黑客帝国》
because in my opinion,
在我眼中
this film has a perfect ending.
它的结局十分完美
But how exactly do Wachowskis create this perfect ending?
导演沃卓斯基兄弟到底是如何做到的?
Well, firstly it follows Rule 1 really quite effectively.
首先它严格遵循了第一条原则
We have the climactic scene where Neo beat Smith.
以尼奥与史密斯的正面交锋为高潮
There is a short minute long epilogue with Neo on the phone,
以尼奥一分钟长的电话旁白收尾
and then the credits roll.
然后片尾字幕开始滚动
As a general rule,
一般来说
the moment your climax is over,
影片高潮结束后
you are on the clock where every second that ticks by,
随着分秒流逝
the viewer’ll gradually lose more and more interest,
观众的兴趣也随之消减
and as the age-old saying goes,
俗话说 电影应该让观众
“Leave them wanting more.”
“意犹未尽不思还”
If you end your film quickly and on a powerful emotional note
若在观众还为刚刚的高潮激动时
with them fresh off the excitement of the climax,
就以深刻感人的剧情迅速收尾
it will leave the viewer wanting more,
让观众感到意犹未尽
which in turn will make them come out the cinema
那么走出影院后
with a more overall positive experience.
他们会怀揣着更积极的观影体验
l think many people greatly underestimate the importance of the final taste
我认为许多人大大低估了
that is left in the viewers’ mouth as they leave the theater,
结局在观影结束后带给观众的影响
because if you nail that ending,
若结局让观众久久不能忘怀
then they will look back on the whole experience
他们便会站在更积极的角度
with much more positive eyes,
回味整个观影体验
and with much more negative ones if you don’t.
反之观众的负面评价会增多
Now The Matrix does something else with its ending.
《黑客帝国》的结局还有一个亮点
The final note of the film is Neo talking to the machines
影片的最后是尼奥告诉机器
about what he is about to do next,
他接下来的行动
and how he plans to unplug everyone from the Matrix.
以及他打算如何拯救母体
This is again a good move by the Wachowskis,
这又是沃卓斯基兄弟的一大妙笔
and ultimately, it leads into Rule 2 of writing a great ending:
此情节也引出了第二条原则:
End with a final note of uncertainty (a question).
以未知(问题)结尾
This is not an absolute must,
不一定每部电影都必须这么做
however it is a technique
然而这个技巧
that many filmmakers have been using since film began,
自电影产生以来就被无数制片人运用
and they keep doing it for a very simple reason:
原因非常简单:
because it works.
因为效果显著
Often, the most memorable endings
通常 最令人印象深刻的
are the ones where the final note of the film
都是那些在最后时刻
is one that gives the viewer a question that they have to answer.
留下问题给观众思考的结尾
Whether it be Silence of the Lambs
无论是《沉默的羔羊》里
when the villainous Hannibal wanders into a crowd,
反派汉尼拔走进人群中
leaving our imaginations to wonder as to what that villain will do next.
不禁促使人们想象其接下来的行动
Whether it be Inception
还是在《盗梦空间》里
as the final shot shows the protagonist finally reunited with his family,
主角最终得以与家人团聚
but the camera pans down to the still spinning totem,
但此时镜头向下拍摄正在旋转的陀螺
and it leaves the question:
那么请问:
“Did Cobb have a happily ever after?”,
“柯布从此过上幸福美满的生活?”
or “Was it really all just a dream?”
还是“这一切仅仅是个梦?”
There are countless examples of films that end in this way,
以这种方式结尾的电影不计其数
and the reason why is really very simple:
原因十分简单:
Because it is a very effective technique
因为这个手法
at making the ending a more memorable one;
让结局更加令人印象深刻
because that question leaves the viewer thinking about the film
即便在观影结束后 问题所引发的思考
much longer after it is over
远远比把一切昭然若揭的结局
than one that ties everything up in a neat little bow.
更令人难以忘怀
And to realize what the third and final rule to writing a great ending is,
在了解第三条 也是最后一条原则前
let’s compare The Matrix to Casino Royale,
我们先来对比《黑客帝国》和《皇家赌场》
or more specifically, the timeline of how the main plots are resolved.
具体来说 是对比主要情节得以解决的时间线
So focusing on Royale, there are three main plots:
《皇家赌场》有三个主要情节:
the poker game, defeating the villain, and the romantic subplot.
扑克游戏 打败反派 和次要情节爱情
40 minutes before the credits, the poker game ends.
影片结束前40分钟 扑克游戏结束
20 minutes before the credits, the villain dies.
影片结束前20分钟 反派死了
And in the last few minutes, the film, the romantic subplot is finally resolved.
最后几分钟 爱情也交代清楚了
Now there are a few things wrong with that order in itself.
但这个交待顺序是有问题的
It would have been more effective if the romantic plot finished before the others.
爱情在其他情节前解决会更合理
As a general rule, it’s better to resolve the secondary plot
因为一般而言 应该先交待次要情节
before you resolve the primary one
再交待主要情节
in order to maintain the viewers’ interests.
才能维持观众的兴趣
However, there is another fundamental problem with this timeline.
这条时间线还有一个根本问题
And in order to realize that,
为了更清楚的意识到这个问题
let’s look at the Matrix.
我们拿《黑客帝国》做对比
So in the Matrix there are four plots:
《黑客帝国》有四个主要情节:
defeating the villain agent Smith,
1、打败反派特工史密斯
the Sentinels that are hunting down the ship,
2、追杀飞船的乌贼
the romantic subplot between Neo and Trinity,
3、尼奥和崔尼蒂间的爱情
and the looming prophecy as to whether or not Neo truly is the one.
4、模糊的预言中的救世主到底是不是尼奥
Now the reason why The Matrix has such a resonating climax is really very simple.
《黑客帝国》的高潮引发强烈共鸣的原因很简单
When Casino Royale takes 40 minutes to resolve all of its plots,
《皇家赌场》要40分钟逐个解决主要情节
The Matrix resolves all of them in one.
而《黑客帝国》将所有主要情节连为一体
In one moment, every plot line is resolved.
顷刻间 全部得以解决
and what makes it even more poignant is the fact that
让其结局更为深刻的是
all of the plot threads weave into one another
所有情节都息息相关
where Trinity’s love makes him realize he is the one,
崔尼蒂的爱让尼奥意识到他就是救世主
and then because he realizes he is the one,
尼奥相信自己的身份后
it gives him the power to beat the villain,
激发自身力量打败了反派
and because he beats the villain,
正因为他打败了反派
it allows them to defeat the Sentinels.
他们才能一起战胜乌贼
As a result, instead of like Casino Royale
因此 不像《皇家赌场》
where the satisfaction is diluted over nearly an hour,
观众的兴趣在接近一小时的结局中消减
The Matrix provides all of that satisfaction in one singular moment.
《黑客帝国》一下便满足了人们的所有想象
This leads into Rule 3:
这就引出了第三条原则:
The closer the plots are resolved to one another the better.
情节间的交待越是彼此相关越好
Catharsis really is the weapon of the climax.
感情的爆发力是高潮的杀手锏
No good ending works without it,
好的结局少不了它
and no bad ending is worse with it.
坏的结局不会因它更坏
And I think a very interesting example of an ending that has no plot resolution,
有个例子很有趣 它的故事没有交待清楚
but is still a great ending is the Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring.
但仍不失为好结局 它就是《指环王:护戒使者》
For those of you who have seen this film,
看过这部电影的人
how does it end?
还记得它的结局吗?
At the end of the first Lord of the Rings movie,
在它的结局中
the plot has no sense of progression.
情节并没有过多的进展
There is no great catharsis.
也没有集中的爆发
The climactic scene is really just a fight between the heroes and a group of orcs.
高潮部分仅仅是英雄与半兽人的一场打斗
Really in the last 20 minutes of this film,
在影片最后20分钟
there is very little achieved in terms of plot,
虽然情节没有得以交代清楚
but still, it has a great ending.
但仍然有个出色的结局
In fact there is a very useful lesson here to be learned
事实上其中的手法值得借鉴
when it comes to writing the ending of the story that is in the series.
关于“在系列电影中如何编写完美结局”
Instead of having a plot-based resolution,
除了运用以情节为中心的方法
this film goes for the opposite of a character-based resolution.
还可以运用以人物为中心的技巧
Throughout the movie, we see Boromir,
纵观该电影 我们看到博罗米尔
a man untrustworthy, blinded by greed and hatred,
这个原本欺瞒狡诈 欲壑难填
someone who starts the film, a bad man.
有仇必报的恶人 故事的始作俑者
but in the climax, realizes his flaws and makes a heroic last stand
在影片高潮部分意识到自己的错误
where he sacrifices his life a better man that he once was.
放弃从前优越的生活 做出了英勇的牺牲
And of course there is that powerful moment
就在这个充满力量的时刻
where when speaking to Aragorn,
他对阿拉贡
the man at the start of the film he had no respect for,
这个他一开始不予尊重的人
he says this,
说道:
“I would’ve followed you, my brother,
“我本该追随你的 我的兄弟
my captain,
我的酋长
my king.”
我的国王”
The film leaves us with the main plot unresolved,
电影虽然留下了未解决的情节问题
however, because it gives us this complete character arc
但它塑造了完整的角色变化
where really the whole climax has nothing to do with the main plot,
即便高潮和主要情节毫无关联
but is rather centered around this one character as he dies a hero.
但通过角色的骁勇牺牲成功点题
This ending works because it gives us that satisfying resolution
一个成功的结局离不开
that really you just cannot create a good ending without.
恰当好处的安排
So if you want a powerful ending,
因此如果你想写出“豹尾”
try to weave one of your character’s arcs into the main plotline
试着将其中一个人物的变化编入主要情节
as where you can resolve both simultaneously,
并进行双线演绎
your ending will be all the better for it.
如此一来你的结局会更好
And before we go,
在节目结束前
I want to tell you guys that
我想告诉大家
recently I’ve been using Squarespace for my personal website,
最近我用Squarespace创建个人网站
and can proudly say that Squarespace, the sponsor of today’s video
得意的介绍一下 Squarespace是此视频的赞助商
is one of the best places you can go to build your site.
它是创建网站最出色的平台之一
When you use Squarespace,
使用Squarespace时
they do all the hard work for you.
你不用担心操作困难
There is no complex coding or confusing mechanics,
里面没有复杂的译码或混乱的结构
only a series of simple and easy-to-use templates,
只有一系列简单实用的模板
and are generally easy-to-understand interface.
以及容易理解的操作界面
They have an award-winning customer service team that’s available 24/7,
它拥有一支获奖客服团队 提供全天候服务
and if you use my link: squarespace.com/closerlook,
如果点击链接:squarespace.com/closerlook
you will receive a free trial
你将获得一次免费试用
and 10% off your first purchase.
和首次购买优惠10%的机会
If you’re an artist or a musician or a small business owner,
如果你是画家或音乐家或小企业家
their service is convenient for constructing your site,
使用它创建官网十分简便
and there is no other service I would recommend more than Squarespace.
网站创建平台 首选Squarespace
Again, if you use my link: squarespace.com/closerlook,
再次提醒 如果点击链接:squarespace.com/ closerlook
you will get a free trial
你将获得一次免费试用
and 10% off your first purchase.
和首次购买优惠10%的机会
So please be sure to click that link in the description, while the offer still stands.
因此机不可失 快点击相关链接吧
Anyway, thanks for watching.
感谢收看
And I’ll see you guys next time on the Closer Look.
我们下期节目再见

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视频概述

三条原则教你编写完美结局!正例《黑客帝国》反例《007:皇家赌场》结尾《指环王:第一战》|结局

听录译者

Seline

翻译译者

Seline

审核员

审核员SY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DtYrpJZoAA0

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