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学好了修辞你就可以得到任何想要的

How to use rhetoric to get what you want - Camille A. Langston

如何只用你的话获得你想要的?
How do you get what you want using just your words?
亚里士多德早在2000多年前就开始具体回答这个问题
Aristotle set out to answer exactly that question over 2,000 years ago
用修辞学的专著
with the Treatise on Rhetoric.
修辞学 根据亚里士多德所言
Rhetoric, according to Aristotle,
是一种寻找可用的说服方式的艺术
is the art of seeing the available means of persuasion.
现今我们把它应用到了各种形式的沟通中
And today we apply it to any form of communication.
虽然亚里士多德更偏重于演讲
Aristotle focused on oration, though,
他描述了3种有说服力的演讲类型
and he described three types of persuasive speech.
辩论的或者说判决的修辞
Forensic, or judicial, rhetoric
是一种建立起关于过去的事实和判断
establishes facts and judgements about the past,
就和在犯罪现场的侦探一样
similar to detectives at a crime scene.
富于辞藻的或者公开表露感情的修辞
Epideictic, or demonstrative, rhetoric
是对现在的情况做一个声明
makes a proclamation about the present situation,
像在婚礼上的致辞一般
as in wedding speeches.
但是完成改变的方式是通过审议修辞
But the way to accomplish change is through deliberative rhetoric,
或者说
or symbouleutikon.
既不是过去也不是现在
Rather than the past or the present,
审议修辞关注将来
deliberative rhetoric focuses on the future.
它是政客们
It’s the rhetoric of politicians
通过想象新法律可能会带来的后果来辩论的修辞手法
debating a new law by imagining what effect it might have,
比如当罗纳德·里根警告说医疗保险的提出
like when Ronald Regan warned that the introduction of Medicare
会导致一个社会主义者的将来 这个将来将不断告诉我们的后代
would lead to a socialist future spent telling our children
以及后代的后代当人类自由的时候美国曾经是怎样的场景
and our children’s children what it once was like in America when men were free.
但是同时也是修辞学的激进分子们强烈要求改变
But it’s also the rhetoric of activists urging change,
比如马丁·路德金的梦想
such as Martin Luther King Jr’s dream
就是他的孩子有一天将会活在这样一个国家
that his children will one day live in a nation
在这里他们将不会因为皮肤的颜色被判断
where they will not be judged by the color of their skin,
而是根据他们的品质
but by the content of their character.
在两种情况下 说话者都用一个可能的将来展示给他们的听众
In both cases, the speakers present their audience with a possible future
尝试在防止或者实现这一将来得到他们的帮助
and try to enlist their help in avoiding or achieving it.
但是构成好的审议修辞的
But what makes for good deliberative rhetoric,
除了将来时态还有什么呢?
besides the future tense?
根据亚里士多德 有三种说服力强的诉说
According to Aristotle, there are three persuasive appeals:
道德
ethos,
理性
logos,
同理心
and pathos.
道德是你怎样使你的听众对你的可靠性信服
Ethos is how you convince an audience of your credibility.
温斯顿·丘吉尔通过声明开始他1941年向美国国会的演讲
Winston Churchill began his 1941 address to the U.S. Congress by declaring,
在我一生中我经历了完满的和谐 伴随着流动在
“I have been in full harmony all my life with the tides which have flowed
大西洋两岸反对偏见和垄断的浪潮
on both sides of the Atlantic against privilege and monopoly,”
因此强调了他忠实于民主的品质
thus highlighting his virtue as someone committed to democracy.
更早一点 在他对抗诗人阿奇亚斯时
Much earlier, in his defense of the poet Archias,
罗马雄辩家西塞罗呼吁他自己作为一个政客的实践智慧
Roman consul Cicero appealed to his own practical wisdom
和专业技能
and expertise as a politician:
“从我对自由主义科学的学习中被吸引
“Drawn from my study of the liberal sciences
以及从我承认我不曾在我生活中讨厌过的
and from that careful training to which I admit
仔细的训练
that at no part of my life I have ever been disinclined.”
最终 你可以展示出没兴趣
And finally, you can demonstrate disinterest,
或者你并没有被个人成就所激励
or that you’re not motivated by personal gain.
理性是利用逻辑和理由
Logos is the use of logic and reason.
这种方法可以运用修辞策略比如说类推
This method can employ rhetorical devices such as analogies,
举证
examples,
以及调查研究的举例或数据
and citations of research or statistics.
但是那不仅仅是事实和数字
But it’s not just facts and figures.
它也是演讲本身的结构和内容
It’s also the structure and content of the speech itself.
关键点在于用事实化的知识让听众信服
The point is to use factual knowledge to convince the audience,
像索杰纳·特鲁斯为女权所做的论证:
as in Sojourner Truth’s argument for women’s rights:
”我有和男人一样多的肌肉而且可以做和任何男人一样多的工作
“I have as much muscle as any man and can do as much work as any man.
我可以犁地 收割庄稼 削树皮 砍树 割草
I have plowed and reaped and husked and chopped and mowed
还有哪个男人可以做更多的?“
and can any man do more than that?”
不幸的是 演讲者同样可以用错误的信息来操纵人
Unfortunately, speakers can also manipulate people with false information
故意让听众认为是对的
that the audience thinks is true,
比如已经被揭穿但仍然被广为信服的说法
such as the debunked but still widely believed claim
疫苗会引起孤独症
that vaccines cause autism.
最后 同理心呼吁情感
And finally, pathos appeals to emotion,
在我们这个大众媒体的时代 这经常是最有效的模式
and in our age of mass media, it’s often the most effective mode.
同理心不是固有地好或者差
Pathos is neither inherently good nor bad,
但是它也许是不理智的和不可预测的
but it may be irrational and unpredictable.
它可以容易地团结人们回到和平
It can just as easily rally people for peace
同样可以煽动他们发起战争
as incite them to war.
最多用在广告上
Most advertising,
从承诺可以解除身体的不完美的美容产品
from beauty products that promise to relieve our physical insecurities
到让我们感觉有力量的汽车
to cars that make us feel powerful,
都依靠于同理心
relies on pathos.
亚里士多德的修辞呼吁在今天仍然是强有力的工具
Aristotle’s rhetorical appeals still remain powerful tools today,
但是决定用哪个
but deciding which of them to use
取决于你的听众和你的目的
is a matter of knowing your audience and purpose,
还有正确的地点和时间
as well as the right place and time.
可能还有重要的就是能够注意到
And perhaps just as important is being able to notice
这些相同的说服方式什么时候正在被用在你身上
when these same methods of persuasion are being used on you.

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