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如何将声音转化为光:声致发光 – 译学馆
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如何将声音转化为光:声致发光

How to Turn Sound Into Light: Sonoluminescence

手枪虾和螳螂虾都是会舞动它们的钳子表演魔法的甲壳类动物
The pistol and mantis shrimps are both crustaceans that snap their claws and perform magic.
从它们钳子之间挤出来的水
the jet of water squeezed out from between their
会出现空化 – 一种负压下的液态水
claws travels at such speeds that it cavitates – the liquid water under negative pressure
受到拉扯形成水蒸气气泡的现象
is literally pulled apart into bubbles of water vapor.
当空泡自行溃灭之时会发出响亮的“啪嗒”声 令人惊讶的是
When the bubbles collapse in on themselves, they give off a loud “snap,” and amazingly,
还会伴随有细微的闪光
a small flash of light.
虾用声波冲击波击晕或杀死猎物 而物理学家们
The shrimp use the sonic shock wave to stun or kill prey, but physicists are far more
对那一下闪光更感兴趣 因为我们仍然不知道为什么会发生这种现象
interested in the flash of light, because we still don’t exactly know why it happens.
在实验室里简单的声音就能制造出溃灭的空泡
Collapsing bubbles can also be created in a laboratory simply by using sound – since
正如我们所知 声音从根本上来讲是分子不断地相互挤压
sound, as we know, is basically just molecules repeatedly pushing against each other and
然后分开 如果声波足够强烈的话 低压
then pulling apart, if the sound waves are intense enough, the low pressure will again
会变得更低 足以将液体汽化然后形成空泡
be low enough to pull the liquid apart into vapor and cause cavitation bubbles.
然后空泡自行溃灭 在某些情况下 它们发出的光
The bubbles then collapse, and under certain circumstances, they produce light even brighter
比虾产生的更加明亮
than the shrimp.
这种声音转化成光的现象称为“声致发光”
This phenomenon of turning sound into light is called “sonoluminescence.”
我们知道 灯光的闪烁时间很短 – 大约只有100皮秒
We know that the light flashes are incredibly short – lasting only about 100 picoseconds
并有着惊人的高能量 这意味着溃灭的空泡
– and are surprisingly high energy, meaning the collapsing bubbles may be up to 10 times
比太阳表面的温度还要高十倍
hotter than the surface of the sun.
但我们还不确定 空泡里面的温度怎么会变得如此之高 以及
We don’t know for sure, though, how the inside of the bubble gets that hot, or what exactly
究竟是什么在发光
is giving off the light.
空泡溃灭得很快导致里面的气体被压缩加热
The bubble collapses so quickly that the gases inside are heated by compression, but the
但是增长的压力也可能会造成空泡中的水蒸气液化回水
increased pressure might also cause water vapor in the bubble to rapidly condense back
同时释放大量的潜伏热
to a liquid, releasing large amounts of latent heat.
而闪光可能就来自于气泡中炽热的氩气或氙气
And the flash itself might come from glowing red-hot Argon or Xenon gas in the air bubble,
或者来自于水蒸气热解形成的氢氧根离子和氢离子
OR from heat tearing water vapor apart into hydroxide and hydrogen ions which then recombine
二者再次结合会发光 又或者是气泡整个内部变得足够热
and give off light, OR from the whole interior of the bubble getting hot enough to become
变成了一个发光的等离子体 – 再或者就是上述可能的综合体现
a glowing plasma – OR it might be a combination.
无论哪种情况 关于声致发光很酷的事情是它仍然没有被我们完全理解
Either way, the cool thing about sonoluminescence is that it’s still not fully understood despite
尽管它实现起来相当简单 我的意思是你可以再网上买一个基本的声致发光实验套装
being fairly simple to create – I mean, you can buy a basic sonoluminescence kit off the Internet!
或者直接买一只宠物螳螂虾
Or just get a pet mantis shrimp.
如果你想了解更多在科学无法解释的现象 一大群YouTube博主
If you want to hear about more unexplained phenomena in science
像Vsauce Veritasium theBrainScoop等等
a whole bunch of youtubers like vsauce, veritasium, thebrainscoop, and so forth
制作了关于“未解的科学问题”的很多视频
have made videos about “unanswered science questions”
你可以在同名的《历史十大》系列视频中找到它们
which you can find listed in the “All Time 10s” video of the same name.

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视频概述

让我们跟着皮皮虾一起了解一下声致发光的原理吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

jameschan

审核员

审核员U

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2yHDeKFW8j8

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