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怎样把焦虑转变为动力? – 译学馆
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怎样把焦虑转变为动力?

How to Turn Anxiety Into Excitement

感谢CuriosityStream对本集的支持!
Thanks for CuriosityStream for supportingthis episode!
访问CuriosityStream.com/Psych了解更多
Go to CuriosityStream.com/Psych to learn more.
[背景音乐]
[♪ INTRO ]
想象一下:你正在后台为音乐会做准备 你已为之练习了四周
Picture this: you’re backstage getting ready for a concert you’ve been practicing for four weeks.
你看上去很紧张 但你后台的朋友们非常开心 兴奋并告诉你说
You’re nervous as all get out, while your friends backstage is smiling and excited.and they tell you
“你并不紧张 你只是也很兴奋”
“You’re not nervous,you’re just excited too!”
他们所说的话可能会让你有点恼火
Depending on how they say it, you might be kind of annoyed.
因为你知道自己的感受
Like, you know how you feel.
而另一方面 也许你已经为这场表演兴奋了很久
On the other hand, maybe you’ve been excited about this show for a while.
而且尝试将你的感受引导成这样的情绪可能会有帮助
And trying to channel your energy into that feeling now could actually work.
这就是所谓的“情感再评价”
It’s called emotional reappraisal.
其基本概念是 你的情绪是你的生理反应和当前想法的一个综合体
The basic idea is that your emotions are really a combination of your physiology and what you’re thinking.
所以 改变想法能真正转变你所经历的情绪
So,changing what you think can literally change the emotion you experience.
自心理学开创以来
For as long as psychology’s been a thing,
什么是情绪的争论就从未停止过
there’s been some debate about what an emotion is,
且该情绪与其他想法和经历有怎样的不同呢
and how it’s different from other kinds of thoughts and experiences.
但近期 心理学家确信至少存在两种主要的组成部分:
But lately psychologists are pretty sure thatthere are at least two major components:
你身体所具有的下意识的反应
some kind of automatic reaction your body is having,
以及你对那种反应给出的解释
plus your interpretation of why you’re reacting that way.
就像看到一辆车快速开来时 你的心跳加快一样
Like if your heart starts racing as soon as you see a car speeding down the road,
你可能会因害怕被撞上而感到恐惧
you probably experience that as the fear of possibly being hit,
因为你知道这辆车能使你处于危险的境地
because you know the car could be dangerous.
接下来的部分叫做“评估” 这是你对自己为何
This latter part is called”appraisal,” andit’s basically your inferences
有这样感受的基本判断
about why your body feels the way it does.
尽管如此 但倘若你能转换这种评估
If you can change the appraisal, though,
你就可能改变自己的情绪体验
you might be able to change your emotional experience.
就像那辆车出现在赛场上
Like if that car’s on a race track,
也许你仅仅会对比赛感到兴奋
maybe you’re just excited about the race.
有项研究为证实这个结论 招募了90人参与实验
One study demonstrated this by recruiting 90 men to participate in an experiment
当他们站在桥上时——在悬空摇晃的桥或稳固的桥上
while on a footbridge — either a shaky suspension bridge or a stable one.
研究者们向参与者展示一张图片
The researchers showed the participants a picture
并要他们讲一个关于这张图片的故事
and asked them to tell a story about it.
随后 他们给参与者留下了自己的联系方式
Then they offered the participant their phone number,
并称他们能告诉参与者更多研究信息 如果参与者稍后给他们打电话的话
saying they could tell them more about the study if they called later.
当这些参与者—全是直男
When these participants — who were all straight men —
在一座摇晃并且令人恐惧的桥上时
were on the shaky, scary bridge,
他们讲的故事有更多性感和浪漫的成分
the stories they told had more sexual and romantic content.
并且之后他们更可能打给研究者
And they were more likely to call the research later…
如果研究者是女性的话
if it was a woman.
但如果参与者站在稳固的桥上 或研究人员也是男性的话
But this didn’t happen if they were on the sturdy bridge —
这种情况就不会发生
or if the researcher was also a man.
这些心理学家指出 在摇晃的桥上
What these psychologists figured was happening was that on the shaky bridge,
人们会产生恐惧反应—比如心跳加速并大量出汗
people were having a fear reaction — things like heart racing and sweating more.
但当研究人员是女性时
But when the researcher was a woman,
他们会将其理解为性吸引
they interpreted it as sexual attraction,
从而想到浪漫故事并且更可能打电话
leading to the romantic stories and the increased phone calls.
人们在摇晃的桥上时 常表现出相同的生理反应
People had roughly the same physiological reaction on the shaky bridge
大多数报道都是恐惧多一些
most reported being more fearful.
但当提供给他们对情形的另一种解释时 他们也接受了
But when given a situation that provided an alternate explanation, they took it.
我们曾经在考虑错误评估之前提到过这项实验
We’ve mentioned this study before in the context of misattribution
人们有时会错把恐惧当作爱
where people can sometimes mistake fear for love.
但是重新评估时
But with reappraisal,
你可以利用情绪的这种怪异特点 特意去改变对情感的解读
you can use this quirk of emotions to change your interpretation of your feelings on purpose.
当140名学生被告知 他们必须发表一篇有说服力的演讲
When 140 students were told that they had to deliver a persuasive speech
并交给委员会进行记录和评判时 显然他们会变得焦虑
that would be recorded and judged by a committee, they understandably started to get nervous.
但随后 一半人被告知要特意暗示自己很兴奋
But then, half the group was told to reappraise their reaction
来重新评估他们的感受
by specifically telling themselves that they felt excited-
同时另一半人被告知他们感到焦虑
the other half was told to say they felt anxious.
尽管这并没有改变多少学生对演讲的焦虑程度
Although that didn’t change how much anxiety the students reported about the speech,
但后来那些被告知很兴奋的学生表示
those who were told to say they were excited
他们确实对演讲感到兴奋
later said they did actually feel excited by it.
不过这有一个非常酷的部分:
But here’s the really cool part:
委员会是完全真实的 并且他们不知道每个演讲者属于哪一组
the committee was totally real, and didn’t know what group each of the speakers were in.
当他们评价那些被告知感到兴奋的参与者时 认为他们更有说服力 也更有竞争力
And they rated participants in the group that told themselves they were excited as more persuasive, competent,
且相对于被告知感到焦虑的那组 他们更加自信
and confident than the group told to appraise their feelings as anxiety.
所以 当你重新评估自己的情绪时
So while you’re reappraising your emotions,
你并不是在否认自己的感受
you’re not denying your feelings —
研究中的参与者仍会感到紧张
the people in the study still felt nervous.
但观点的改变却能在其他方面帮助他们
but the change in perspective helped them in other ways
包括情感以及表现
both emotionally, and in their performance.
心理学家认为这样可行
Psychologists think this works
因为你对事物的情感反应有两种不同的途径
because you have two different pathways for how you react emotionally to things.
这两种途径都从丘脑开始—这部分大脑 能监控你的感觉神经输入
Both of these paths start with the thalamus — that’s a part of the brain that monitors all your sensory input.
倘若某件事真的非常不正常
If something’s really out of place,
丘脑会发出信号要你立即采取行动
it sends signals that you should spring into action.
一种信号传入杏仁核—这是快速通路
One signal goes to the amygdala —the fast path
另一种进入大脑皮层 这是慢速通路
and another to the cortex — the slower path.
杏仁核开始会恐惧的反应
The amygdala starts a fear reaction,
这是它工作中的一个重要部分
which is a big part of its job in general.
同时大脑皮层需要确定 这是否真是需要害怕的东西
Meanwhile, cortex needs to process whether it’s really something to be scared of,
随后它将信号传回杏仁核 “冷静点 兄弟”
and then it can send a signal back to the amygdala to, you know, chill out, man.
这种解释容易理解的前提 是用核磁共振成像
This explanation seems to make sense when we actually look at the brains of people as
观察人的大脑 重新评估情绪
they reappraise emotions, using fMRI.
当人们看到消极的场景时
When people were showed negative scenes,
他们的杏仁核 比引发中性情绪的场景时更活跃
their amygdala activated more than with neutral scenes.
但当人们被要求用更愉快的故事来重新解读这些场景时
But when they were asked to reinterpret those scenes with a better story
他们杏仁核的兴奋性再次降低
their amygdala activation went back down.
与此同时 他们的前额皮质中
And at the same time, parts of their prefrontal cortex,
负责掌控高层次推理的部分
which is in charge of higher-level reasoning,
通过重新评估而被激活
were activated by that reappraisal.
值得注意的是 并非每个人都擅长这种做法
It’s good to note that not everyone is equally good at doing this.
研究人员把更擅长重新评估情绪的人称为具有“情感灵活性”
Some people who are better at reappraising are referred to as having”affective flexibility.”
这意味着他们在避免消极反应以及关注积极情感方面做得更好
This means they’re better at avoiding negative responses and focusing on the positive,
这也可以作为整体心理健康的一个标志
and might also be a sign of better mental healthoverall.
如果你能这样做 重新评估也许有助于使你的情绪变得更加积极
But when you can, reappraising seems to help make your mood more positive.
由于重新评估有助于把压力大的事情变得轻松些
And since reappraising can help make stressful things feel less stressful,
那么这会是一个非常有用的帮你冷静的工具
it’s pretty useful tool to have to help you chill out.
感谢观看本期科学秀心理学
thanks for watching this episode of scishow psychology
如果你想学习更多心理学知识 或其他诸如历史或科学的话题
if you want to learn more about psychology or about psychology — or other topics in fields like history or science-
我们为你找了一些你可能会喜欢的视频
we think we’ve found some videos you might enjoy.
而这也是Curiositystream给你带来这集节目的原因
And that’s why this episode is brought to you by CuriosityStream.
Curiositystream是一个订阅电台 并提供超过2000多部
CuriosityStream is a subscription streaming service that offers over 2000 documentaries
由世界上最好的电影制作人制作的纪录片和原创视频
and non­fiction titles from some of the world’s best filmmakers, including exclusive originals.
他们提供有关自然历史和科技
They have videos on nature, history,technology-
以及社会和生活方式等方面的视频
even society and lifestyles —
而这也是我们如此喜欢他们的原因之一
which is one of the reasons we like them so much.
这里有很多可以学习的东西
There’s so much to learn!
比如有个叫做Breakthrough的节目
Like there’s a show called Breakthrough
报道一些领域的最新发展
that covers some of the recent developmentsin multiple fields,
包括心理学和解剖学
including psychology andastronomy.
因此如果你想要学习一些 很酷的事情 比如卡西尼土星任务
So you get to learn a little bit about a bunch of cool things, including the Cassini mission to Saturn
和老年痴呆症研究的新进展
and new developments in Alzheimer’sresearch.
你只需每月花费2.99$ 就可无限量观看这些视频
You can get unlimited access to content like this starting at $ 2.99 a month.
并且为了特别感谢心理科学秀的观众们
And as a special thanks to our SciShow Psych audience,
前30天完全免费
you can get the first 30 days for free!
你只需要curiositystream.com/psych 注册
You just have to sign up at curiositystream.com/psych
并在注册过程中使用促销代码“psych” 即可使用
and use the promo code “psych” during the sign-up process.
背景音乐
[♪OUTRO ]

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视频概述

生活中你是否经常遇到类似情况: 排练了很久的音乐会,临上场时紧张焦虑而影响演出质量?紧张焦虑这些消极情绪,却可以通过再次评估将其变得积极轻松。本视频向你揭示这一切如何产生以及其中的神经机制。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Little_Fo

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S9tBnXz2B1Q

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