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怎样传送薛定谔的猫

How to Teleport Schrödinger's Cat

There are basically three kinds of teleportation:
远距离传输主要有三种形式:
the kind where the thing you want to teleport
一种是可能通过时空结构漏洞或魔术 诸如此类
is somehow instantly moved from one location to another
以某种方式将想传送的东西
perhaps by a loophole in the fabric of spacetime or magic or something ;
立即从一个位置移动到另一个位置
the kind where you disassemble the object and send the pieces
一种是分解物体并发送碎片
to the faraway location to be reassembled ;
到远地点重新组装
and the kind where you scan the object in one place
一种是在一个地方扫描物体
and just transmit the instructions
并传输指令
for how to reassemble it somewhere else using different molecules and atoms.
使得在其他时空使用不同的分子和原子重新组装物体
This last kind of teleportation kind of sounds like cloning,
这最后一种传输方式听起来有点像克隆
since couldn’t you just scan the object and send instructions
因为你无法在不破坏原件的情况下
to reassemble a copy somewhere else without destroying the original?
只扫描物体并发送指令 在其他地方重新组装一个复制品吧?
But no, quantum mechanics prohibits exact copying of arbitrary objects ,
但它不是克隆 量子力学禁止任意物体精确地进行复制
so any method of teleportation governed by the physics in our universe
所以任何在宇宙中受物理支配的传送方法
will somehow alter or destroy the original object.
将以某种方式改变或破坏原来的物体
Which is kind of nice, because it bypasses those soul-searching,
这种方法比较好 因为它绕过那些哪个为真
paradox-inducing questions about which is the real “you”
深刻反省且引起悖论的问题
– the teleported you, or the stuff that was left behind? –
被传送的人 或者被遗留的东西
“no cloning” implies the teleported one is unequivocally the real one.
“非克隆”意味着被传送者确实是真的
This isn’t just science fiction, well, human teleportation is,
这不只是科学虚构小说 人类瞬间移动才是
but physicists have successfully used this method to
但物理学家成功使用这个方法
teleport photons of light, electrons, even calcium atoms .
传送光子 电子 甚至钙原子
In this video I’m going to show you
我将在这个视频中说明
exactly how quantum teleportation works
量子隐形传态究竟是如何工作的
in the hopes of giving you a clearer picture
希望能给你更清楚地描述
of what it can do, and what it can’t.
它能够做到什么 不能够做到什么
Physicists usually teleport small quantum things in a superposition of several states,
物理学家通常传输在几种状态的叠加下的小量子物质
like an electron that’s in a state of spin up and spin down, or whatever.
比如像一种上自旋和下自旋或任何状态的电子 诸如此类
But we’re going to use Schrödinger’s cat, in a superposition
不过 我们将会使用到“薛定谔的猫”
of alive and dead until you look inside the box,
这只猫 直到你打开盒子去看 才会摆脱“死与活的叠加状态”
in which case the state collapses to just one of the two options,
而在这种情况下 “死与活的叠加状态”会坍缩成两种选项中的一种
alive, or dead – the math is the same,
即 活或死 在数学运算上并无区别
but come on, this is the internet .
不过 得了 这是网上说的
Before we get into the details
在我们详细描述之前
and I promise, there will be many,
我保证 我会说得很详细
we need to talk for a second about quantum entanglement,
我们需要讨论一下量子纠缠
because it’s the transmission mechanism that makes teleportation possible.
因为正是这种传输机制使远距离传送成为可能
Quantum particles, as you may have heard,
正如你可能听说的 量子粒子
can be in multiple different states of existence at once,
可以同时处于多种不同的存在状态
like “spin up” and “spin down”,
就像上自旋和下自旋
or “alive” and “dead”,
或活着和死亡
or “exploded” and “not exploded.”
或爆炸和未爆炸
Or if you have multiple particles,
或者如果有多种微粒
they can be in various different combinations of their possible states of existence,
它们能够处在 存在状态的各种组合中
like heads and tails plus heads and heads.
比如 “正面和反面”和“正面和正面”的叠加状态中
Saying two or more particles are “entangled” just means that
我们说两个或以上的粒子彼此“纠缠”
the states of the particles aren’t independent of each other.
意思就是 这些粒子的状态 不是相互独立的
For example, if the gunpowder explodes, Schrödinger’s cat will be dead,
例如 如果火药爆炸 薛定谔的猫将死去
and if the gunpowder doesn’t explode, Schrödinger’s cat will be alive,
而如果火药不爆炸 薛定谔的猫将活着
but the powder can’t be unexploded while killing the cat, and vice versa,
但是 要杀死猫的话 火药不可能不爆炸 反之亦然
so the alive or dead state of existence of the cat
所以 猫的存亡状态
is entangled with the exploded (or not) state of existence of the gunpowder.
与火药的是否爆炸的存在状态纠缠在一起
Or two atoms can be entangled
或者 如果一个电子总是沿外层轨道向左运动时
if the outer electron in one is always orbiting to the left
一个电子沿外层轨道向右运动
while the other is orbiting to the right, or vice versa,
两个原子就会纠缠在一起 反之亦然
so even though either atom could be in either state,
所以 即使两者中任何一个原子可以处于两者中任何一种状态
they’re always opposite,
它们还是一直处于对立的状态
and if we know the state of one, we know the state of the other.
而如果我们知道一个原子的状态 就能知道另一个的状态
In general, if you have a set of fully entangled particles,
总的来说 如果你有一组完全缠结的粒子
you only need to know the states of half of them
你只需要知道其中一半粒子的状态
to be able to infer the states of the other half.
就能推断另一半的状态
That’s not the case with heads and tails plus heads and heads
对于硬币“正面和反面”与“正面和正面”来说 情况就不一样了
– if the first coin turns out to be heads,
如果第一枚硬币是正面
we still don’t know what the second coin is,
我们还是不知道第二枚硬币会转向哪一面
so they’re not entangled.
所以 它们没有彼此纠缠
Ok, so the reason we started talking about entangled pairs of objects
好 所以我们开始讨论纠缠成对物体的原因
is that, since entanglement can be maintained over arbitrarily long distances,
是纠缠可以维持在任意长的距离上
entangled particles are the transmission mechanism for teleportation
所以 纠缠粒子是远距传输的运行机制
– send a pair of entangled objects to two separate locations,
发送一对纠缠物体到两个不同位置上
and one of them is kind of like a mold or scanner
其中一个会有点像模具或扫描仪
and “imprints” the state of the thing we want to teleport;
它会在要传输的物体状态上压上印记
the other object, because it’s entangled with the first,
而另一个物体 因为它和第一个物体相互纠缠
ends up as a kind of “negative” of that imprinted state.
最终成为那种状态印记的一种“负片”
That’s basically it, but to see how teleportation works in detail,
基本上是这样 但为了理解传送是如何详细工作的
let’s send Schrödinger’s cat to the moon.
我们把薛定谔的猫送上月球
Remember, Schrödinger’s cat, hidden in its box,
记住 躲在盒子里的薛定谔的猫
has some probability of being alive,
有存活的概率
and some probability of being dead,
也有死亡的概率
so it’s in a quantum superposition of A times alive,
所以 这只猫的量子叠加状态
plus B times dead,
用“A乘活加B乘死”来表示
where we have no idea what the probabilities actually are.
在这个叠加状态中 我们不知道“生”和“活”的概率具体是多少
In order to teleport the cat’s state of existence
为了传送猫的存在状态
(A alive and B dead) to the moon,
(A乘活而B乘死)到月球
we need an entangled pair of particles,
我们需要一对相互纠缠的粒子
one here, and one on the moon.
一个在这里 一个在月球
Like, an entangled pair of fleas, each hidden in its own box,
呃 一对相互纠缠的跳蚤吧
where one flea is dead and one is alive,
它们分别被放在盒子里 一生一死
but we don’t know which one,
但我们不知道谁生谁死
so they’re in a superposition of
所以它们的叠加状态 表达式是
earth flea is alive and moon flea is dead,
地球跳蚤存活和月球跳蚤死亡
plus earth flea is dead and moon flea is alive.
加上 地球跳蚤死亡和月球跳蚤存活
Maybe we’ll call them Schrödinger’s fleas!
或许我们将称它们为薛定谔的跳蚤
And we’re going to teleport the cat’s state of existence
我们打算把猫的存在状态
to the flea on the moon
传输给月亮上的跳蚤
by putting the earth flea and the cat together in the same box,
传输的方式是 把地球上的跳蚤和猫放在同一个盒子里
entangling them in a particular way,
用一种特殊的方式让它们发生纠缠
and thus teleporting the cat’s state to the moon flea.
这样就能把猫的状态传输给月亮上的跳蚤了
I know it sounds crazy,
我知道这听起来很疯狂
but if you replace cats and fleas with electrons or photons or atoms,
但如果你用电子 光子或原子替代猫和跳蚤
this is exactly what happens.
这就是确切会发生的事情
Here’s how teleportation works.
这就是远距离传输的工作原理
The cat’s initial life-or-death state is
猫最初的生死叠加状态 表达式是
A times alive plus B times dead.
A乘以存活加上B乘以死亡
The entangled pair of fleas are initially in a state of
那对相互纠缠的跳蚤的最初叠加状态 表达式是
earth flea alive moon flea dead
地球跳蚤存活 月球跳蚤死亡
plus earth flea dead moon flea alive, in equal proportions.
加上地球跳蚤死亡 月球跳蚤存活 二者几率均等
So the cat together with the fleas is
所以 猫和跳蚤一起的叠加状态 表达式是
A times cat alive plus B times cat dead,
A乘以猫存活加上B乘以猫死亡的和
times earth flea alive times moon flea dead
乘上地球跳蚤存活乘以月球跳蚤死亡
plus earth flea dead times moon flea alive.
加上地球跳蚤死亡乘以月球跳蚤存活的和
This seems like a complicated situation,
这看起来似乎是一种复杂的情况
but it just means that if we were to look inside the boxes,
不过 要表达的意思就是 如果我们往箱子里看
with probability A we’d see the cat alive
我们有A的概率看到猫存活
and exactly one of the fleas dead
同时 正好看见有一只跳蚤死亡
(either the moon flea or the earth flea),
(要么是月球跳蚤 要么是地球跳蚤)
and with probability B we’d see the cat dead
而有B的概率看到猫死亡
and still exactly one of the fleas dead
同时 正好还是看到有一只跳蚤死亡
(either the moon flea or the earth flea).
(要么是月球跳蚤 要么是地球跳蚤)
No teleportation, just a cat and some fleas entangled with each other
没有远距离传输 只有一只猫和一些跳蚤彼此纠缠
(but not with the cat).
(但跳蚤没有和猫纠缠在一起)
So we won’t look in the boxes like that.
那么我们就不会在箱子里看到像前面所说的情况
To start the teleportation process,
启动传送程序
we need to get the cat also partially entangled with the fleas,
我们需要让猫也与跳蚤不完全纠缠
and to do that we’ll put the cat and the earth flea
并将把猫和地球跳蚤
inside the same box and look inside it in a sneaky, indirect way.
放在同一个箱子里 暗中间接往箱子里看
What I mean by indirect is that
间接的意思是
we can’t just open it up to see
我们不能只是打开箱子看
whether the cat and earth flea are each alive or dead,
猫和地球跳蚤是死是活
since that would entirely collapse the superposition,
因为开箱看会使叠加完全坍缩
either killing or saving the cat (and flea),
要么猫(和跳蚤)两者被杀死 要么两者被救活
and resulting in a failed teleportation.
并且开箱看会导致传送失败
Instead we need a more subtle measurement
相反 我们需要一个更含蓄巧妙的
that only partially collapses the superposition
只是不完全叠加坍缩
and tells us just a little bit about both of them,
并能得知一点关于它们的信息的测量
but not everything.
而不是全部
For example, we could ask, “are they the same?”,
比如说 我们可以问 “它们一样吗?”
which would mean that either both cat and earth flea
意思是猫和地球跳蚤要么都存活
are alive or both are dead,
要么都死亡
but we don’t know which.
但我们不知道是哪一种
Or we could ask ”is only one of them dead?”
或者 我们可以问“它们中只有一个死了吗?”
that is, one is dead while the other is alive,
就是说 当一个存活时 另一个就死亡
but we don’t know which one.
但我们不知道是哪个生 哪个死
Or, “at least one is dead”,
或者 “至少有一个死亡”
which would mean either the cat is alive and the flea is dead,
意思是 或是猫存活 跳蚤死亡
or the cat is dead and the flea is alive,
或是猫死亡 跳蚤存活
or both are dead, but we don’t know which.
或是都死亡 但我们不知道是哪一种
Or, “the cat is not dead alone”,
或者 “猫没有单独死亡”
which would mean either the cat is alive
意思是 猫存活
with the flea either alive or dead,
则跳蚤生死不论
or the cat’s dead and the flea is dead, too
或者猫死亡 则跳蚤也一起死亡
– but again, we don’t know which.
—但还是一样 我们不知道是哪一种
You’ll notice that none of these four questions on its own
你将注意到这四个独立的问题
allows us to determine the full life
都不允许我们确定
or death situation of the cat and its earthbound flea.
猫和地球上跳蚤的详尽的生死情况
“At least one is dead” tells us something about
“至少一个存活”告诉我们
the cat and earth flea, but not everything.
关于猫和地球上跳蚤的一些信息 但不是全部
The four questions taken together, however,
四个问题被放在一起 然而
are an alternative way of fully specifying the cat and flea situation
是否有一种完全确定猫和跳蚤的情况的方法
that we can use instead of “dead and dead”,
能被用来替代“都死亡”
“alive and alive”, “alive and dead”, and “dead and alive”?
“都存活” “猫存活 跳蚤死亡”和“猫死亡 跳蚤存活”的设想呢?
For example, if the cat is alive and the flea is dead ,
比如说 如果猫存活且跳蚤死亡
then we could write that boringly as “alive times dead”,
那么我们可以把“猫存活几率乘以跳蚤死亡几率”
or in our sneaky indirect way as “the cat isn’t dead alone”
或用秘密间接的方法 写成“猫不会单独死亡”
minus “the cat and the flea are the same”
减去“猫和跳蚤同生死”
(you can check to see that it works out).
(你可以看证明过程检验一下)
The sneaky way to write “cat and flea are both alive” is
描述“猫和跳蚤都存活”这种秘密的方法是
– well, you could pause the video now to try to figure it out on your own
现在你可以暂停视频 试着自己计算出来
– or, wait for me to tell you it’s
或者 等我告诉你答案
“they’re both the same” plus “they’re both different”
就是“它们同生死”加上“存亡情况都不一样”
minus “at least one is dead”.
减去“至少一个死亡”
And the sneaky way to write “cat is dead and flea is alive” is
而描述“猫死亡而跳蚤存活”这种秘密的方法是
– “they’re both the same”
“它们同生死”
plus “they’re both different” minus “the cat isn’t dead alone”.
加上“它们存活情况都不一样” 减去“猫不会独自死亡”的几率
And the sneaky way to write “they’re both dead” is
而描述“二者都死亡”这种秘密的方法是
– “at least one is dead” minus “only one is dead.”
“至少一个死亡”减去“只有一个死亡”的几率
The point of all of this sneaky indirect questioning,
记住 所有秘密间接的问题的关键
remember, is to bring the cat into entanglement with the fleas,
是使猫参与到跳蚤的纠缠中
which is what actually teleports the cat’s life-or-death situation to the moon flea.
这实际上向月球跳蚤传输了猫的存亡情况
To see why this works, we’ll have to write out
为了弄清它为何奏效 我们将必须写出
the full state of the cat and both fleas
猫和两种跳蚤的完整情况
(remember from before,
(还记得之前
it was A times cat alive plus B times cat dead,
是A乘以猫存活加上B乘以猫死亡
all times earth flea alive times moon flea dead
再全部乘以地球跳蚤存活乘以月球跳蚤死亡几率
plus earth flea dead times moon flea alive),
加上地球跳蚤死亡乘以月球跳蚤存活几率的和
and then re-write this in terms of the sneaky questions.
然后改写成这些秘密的问题
There’s going to be a bit of algebra and
接下来 将会有一些代数运算
distributing and such going on in the next little bit,
和运算分布 诸如此类
but this is the part where the teleportation actually happens,
但这是传送真实会产生的部分
so it’s worth the effort!
所以 值得花费力气
First, we’ll write out the full state of the cat
首先 我们将写出猫和跳蚤两者的完整情况
and both fleas so that we don’t have any parentheses.
所以 我们不会用任何括号
That means distributing through
这意味着分步运算通过
the “A times cat alive
“A乘以猫存活”
plus B times cat dead”,
加上“B乘以猫死亡”的分配
giving us “A times cat alive
得出“A乘以猫存活”
times earth flea alive times moon flea dead,
乘以地球跳蚤存活乘以月球跳蚤死亡几率
plus A times cat alive times earth flea dead times moon flea alive,
加上A乘以猫存活乘以地球跳蚤死亡乘以月球跳蚤存活几率
plus B times cat dead
加上B乘以猫死亡
times earth flea alive times moon flea dead,
乘以地球跳蚤存活乘以月球跳蚤死亡几率
plus B times cat dead times earth flea dead
加上B乘以猫死亡乘以地球跳蚤死亡
times moon flea alive.”
乘以月球跳蚤存活几率
It’s a mouthful.
这有点拗口
But we’re just getting started.
但我们才刚刚开始
Now we need to entangle the cat and the earth flea,
现在我们需要使猫和地球跳蚤纠缠在一起
so we’re going to re-write the cat and
所以我们将从秘密间接的问题角度
earth flea parts in terms of our sneaky indirect questions
重写猫和地球跳蚤的部分
– remember, where instead of
记住 “同生死”加上“只一个存活”
“cat alive times earth flea alive” (times moon flea dead),
减去“至少一个存活”(依旧全部乘以月球跳蚤死亡几率)
we have “both the same” plus “exactly one alive”
替代了“猫存活乘以地球跳蚤存活几率”
minus “at least one alive” (still all times moon flea dead).
(乘以月球跳蚤死亡几率)
And instead of “cat alive times earth flea dead” (times moon flea alive),
而“猫不独自死亡”
we have “the cat isn’t dead alone”
减去“同生死”(乘以月球跳蚤存活率)
minus “both the same” (times moon flea alive).
替代“猫存活乘以地球跳蚤死亡率”(乘以月球跳蚤存活率)
And instead of “cat dead times earth flea alive” (times moon flea dead),
“同生死”加上“仅一个存活”
we have “both the same” plus “exactly one alive”
减去“猫不独自死亡”(乘以月球跳蚤死亡率)
minus “the cat isn’t dead alone” (times moon flea dead).
替代了“猫死亡乘以地球跳蚤存活率”
And instead of “cat dead times earth flea dead” (times moon flea alive)
“至少一个死亡”
we have “at least one is dead”
减去“仅一个死亡”(乘以月球跳蚤存活)
minus “exactly one is dead”(times moon flea alive).
替代了“猫死亡乘以地球跳蚤死亡”(乘以月球跳蚤存活率)
If we now sort through this big mess and
如果我们现在通过这些间接问题把这堆问题整理一下
group all the different pieces together by the indirect questions,
并所有不同的部分组合在一起
we find that we have four options:
我们发现了四种选项
either “at least one of cat and earth flea is alive”
要么月球跳蚤处于生与死的叠加时
while the moon flea is in a superposition of alive and dead,
“猫和地球跳蚤中至少一个存活”
or “exactly one of cat and earth flea is alive”
要么当月球跳蚤处于生与死的叠加时
while the moon flea is in a superposition of alive and dead,
“猫和地球跳蚤中仅一个存活”
or “both are the same”
或者当月球跳蚤处于生与死的叠加时
while the moon flea is in a superposition of alive and dead,
“猫与地球跳蚤同生死”
or “the cat isn’t dead alone”
或者当月球跳蚤处于生与死的叠加时
while the moon flea is in a superposition of alive and dead.
“猫不单独死亡”
Notice a pattern?
注意到它的模式了吗?
By re-framing the situation in terms of the indirect questions,
通过间接问题重新构建情境
we’ve now put the moon flea,
我们现在已经把
which started off entangled to the earth flea,
起初是纠缠地球跳蚤的月球跳蚤
into one of several of possible superpositions of alive and dead,
放进看起来有点像初始的猫的
each of which looks kind of like the original cat superposition,
存亡的几种可能叠加之一
A alive and B dead!
A存活 而B死亡
There’s one last step to complete the teleportation:
完成传送还有最后一步
now, finally, at the end,
现在 终于 到最后
we actually look indirectly into the cat/earth-flea box
事实上 我们间接看到了猫或地球跳蚤的箱子
to collapse their combined wave function to just
为了仅一种可能的秘密选项
one of the possible sneaky options.
使它们的组合波函数坍塌
Like, maybe we look in (indirectly) and find out
例如 或许我们(间接)看见并发现
that “the cat isn’t dead alone.”
“猫不独自死亡”
Then we know that the moon flea is in a superposition
然后 我们知道了月球跳蚤处于
of A alive minus B dead,
A存活减去B死亡的叠加
which is almost exactly the same as the cat’s original
这几乎与猫原来
“A alive plus B dead” state!
“A存活加上B死亡”的状态一样
All we need to do is switch B and minus B
我们需要做的就是交换B和负B
(which can be done by somebody on the moon
(在我们向他们传递
after we beam them the message
猫不会独自死亡信息后
about the cat not being dead alone),
有人会在月球上完成这件事)
and then the moon flea is in the state that the cat was originally.
然后月亮跳蚤就会处于猫初始的状态
Successful teleportation!
这是成功的传送!
If, instead, the cat and earth flea had been
相反 如果猫和地球跳蚤已经
in the “at least one is dead“ state,
处于“至少一个死亡”的状态
then the moon flea would be B times alive minus A times dead,
然后月球跳蚤将会是B乘以存活减去B乘以死亡几率
and we could tell the person on the moon
而我们将告诉月球上的人们
to just swap B for A and minus A for B,
只用把B换成A 然后把负A换成B
and the moon flea would be in the state the cat was originally.
月球跳蚤将处于初始的猫的状态
Another successful teleportation!
这是另一个成功的传送!
And there are simple swapping rules for each of the other possible scenarios ,
其他可能的情况每种都有简单的交换规律
so we can guarantee that,
所以我们保证
after the dust settles and all is said and done,
尘埃落定并将付诸一切行动之后
the cat’s state of existence will be teleported to the moon.
猫的存在状态将传送到月球上
At this point, you may be wondering about two things.
这时候 你对两件事感到奇怪
First, how is this teleportation
第一 如果我们事实上不把猫送到月球
if we didn’t actually send a cat to the moon?
那么要怎么传送呢?
We just sent the life-or-death state the cat
我们只能发送猫的存活情况
was into a flea on the moon.
到月球上的跳蚤
Well, I used fleas so the math would be easier to follow.
而我用了跳蚤 这样计算起来更容易
But if, instead of fleas, we used two piles of particles
但是 如果我用两堆粒子替代跳蚤
that you could in principle make a cat out of ,
原则上你可以把它们当做一只猫
and if we viewed our whole cat
如果我们把整只猫看做
as just a particular quantum cat-figuration of a pile of particles
一堆粒子的一种特殊的量子态
(which is ultimately what it is),
(就是最终的状态)
then by quantum teleporting, the state of the pile
然后通过量子传送
that looks like a cat
把这堆看起来像猫的粒子状态
to the blank canvas pile of particles on the moon (via the earth blank canvas pile),
传送到月球的空白画布上(通过地球的空白画布堆)
we would indeed end up with a cat on the moon
我们的确用与开始时完全一样的
that is literally the same cat we started with,
在月球上的猫结束
while the particles that were originally the cat on earth
同时 原先在地球上的猫粒子
would now be–what would they be?
现在变得—它们会变成什么呢?
That’s the second thing you might be wondering.
这就是你可能想知道的第二件事
What happens to the original cat on the earth?
原先在地球上的猫会发生什么呢?
Well, in the case of teleporting a pile of
在传送看起来像猫一样的
particles that look like a cat -I mean,
粒子堆的情况下 我的意思是
are a cat – after the teleportation
一只猫的粒子堆 在传送之后
the pile of particles that originally was in the state of a cat
原先处于猫状态的粒子堆
will be in the most mixed-up state possible for those particles,
将会处于可能对粒子来说的最混乱的状态
almost as if it had been put through a blender
几乎就像被放进了搅拌机里
and not at all like a cat!
而且完全不像一只猫
To illustrate this a little more clearly,
为了更清楚地说明
if instead of a real cat, we just teleported the word “cat”
如果要替代一只真正的猫 我们只用传送
encoded as a quantum state,
被编码成量子态的“猫”字
after the teleportation, the “cat” on earth
传送后 地球上的“猫”
would no longer be “C-A-T”,
不再是“C-A-T”
but would in fact be in a superposition
而事实上会是每一个
of every single possible three-letter word,
可能的3字母单词的叠加
all of them equally likely.
它们都是等可能的
That is, it would be entirely jumbled
就是说 “猫”会变得完全混乱
and nothing like the original C-A-T whatsoever,
丝毫不像原先的“猫”
and there would be absolutely no confusion about which one
而这样绝对不会混淆
–the original cat or the teleported cat – is the real cat.
原先的猫或传送的猫 哪个是真的猫
I mean, it’s obvious – only one of them is a cat.
我是说 很明显 其中只有一个是猫
Of course, physicists haven’t succeeded in teleporting whole cats yet
当然 物理学家们目前还未成功传送整只猫
–or even, for that matter, the word “CAT.”
或者说 甚至“猫”这个词
It’s very very hard to make an entangled pairs of
制造成对的
big piles of particles,
大粒子堆的纠缠
and then have them stay entangled long enough
然后使它们纠缠足够长的时间
to take one to the moon.
把其中一个带到月球上 这非常难
So far, only simple quantum states like
目前 只传送了像一个光子或电子
those of a single photon or electron have been teleported,
这些简单量子态
and only as far as about 100km.
而且只传送了大约100公里
So, teleportation is a long way off.
所以 隐形传物还有很长的路要走
If only we had some way, we could get there faster.
只要我们有更多办法 就能更快成功

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视频概述

本视频主要介绍了用薛定谔的猫的原理介绍远距离传送的各种可能性

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

゛Suma¨墨染°

审核员

审核员SR

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DxQK1WDYI_k

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