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怎么攻下一座中世纪城堡 – 译学馆
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怎么攻下一座中世纪城堡

How to Take a Medieval Castle | Animated History

城堡大概是中世纪最著名的发明
Castles are probably the most famous invention of the Middle Ages.
其设计极具智慧
Their design took tremendous ingenuity,
使其对进攻者来说很要命 也很难被攻克
making them deadly to attackers and immensely difficult to take.
正因如此 进攻的军队得更巧妙
Because of this, attacking armies had to be even more ingenious….
攻克这些防御的妙招是挖地洞
A good way of overcoming these defences was through mining.
进攻者在城墙底下挖地道
Attackers would dig a tunnel underground up to
使城堡的城墙崩溃和倒塌
the castle walls causing them to crumble and collapse.
在1215年围攻罗契斯特市的时候 约翰王想到了
At the Siege of Rochester in 1215, King John found
一个巧妙而又残忍的方法
a cunning, albeit cruel, way of doing this.
通过燃烧四十只猪的脂肪
By burning the fat from 40 pigs,
一种太肥而没人吃的东西
which one source claims were’too fat to eat ’,
他的士兵全部埋伏在东南角一动不动
his men brought down the entire south-east corner of the keep!
诸如抛石机这类机器 是火药时代的重型火炮
Machines such as trebuchets were the heavy artillery of the pre-gunpowder era.
它们可以非常精准的从四百米外
They could hurl massive projectiles with remarkable accuracy
投掷大量的落弹
from up to 400 metres away.
抛石机是由一个通过框架
A trebuchet consists of a long beam attached
连在转轴的长梁组成的
to a pivot rod on a heavy frame.
通过长梁末端
A counterweight was placed
与另一端的吊篮达到平衡
on one end of the beam and a sling attached to the other.
吊篮里装着投掷的石头
The sling, with a missile in it,
发射时石头会被抛出 射向目标
would be whipped skyward and towards the target.
1266年的凯尼尔沃思城堡的围攻
Trebuchets were used to deadly effect
对投石车的应用产生了重大的影响
during the Siege of Kenilworth Castle in 1266.
它们过去被用于采矿业
They could also be used alongside mining.
在1216年对多佛的围攻中
At the Siege of Dover in 1216,
法国的路易斯王子使用了两种战术
Prince Louis of France used both two tactics together
去攻打通往城堡的要道
to assault the castle gateway,
他命令军队在一开始就集中火力
allowing his forces to pour through an opening,
攻下碉堡并杀了他们的指挥官
take the barbican and kill its commander.
虽然中世纪的战争是可怕而残忍的
Although medieval warfare was horrific and brutal,
但它发掘了对战的智慧
it promoted ingenuity
并引领了卓越的技术革新
and led to remarkable technological innovation.

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在中世纪,战争即将到来,如何发挥奇思妙想攻克城堡呢?

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