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怎样能在飞机失事时幸存下来?

How To Survive A Plane Crash

On Christmas Eve 1971,
1971年平安夜
lightning struck a commercial jet flying over Peru.
闪电击中了一架正飞越秘鲁的商用喷气式飞机
It exploded.
飞机爆炸
The only survivor out of 92 people on board
飞机上92名乘客仅1人活了下来
17-year-old Juliane Koepcke.
她就是17岁的Juliane Koepcke
Still strapped in her seat,
她一直被系在座位上
she fell two miles into the Peruvian rainforest .
从两公里的高空坠落到秘鲁热带雨林
Thanks to the survival skills her father taught her,
多亏了父亲教给她的求生技巧
she emerged 10 days later with a broken collarbone,
10天后她成功逃生 锁骨受伤
ruptured knee ligaments, and covered in deep gashes,
膝盖韧带断裂 身上伴有多处刮伤
but still very much alive.
但还是活了下来
Now, not all of us are trained survivalists,
不是所有人都受过求生训练
but there are certain things we can do
但是我们可以做些事情
to increase our chances of surviving a plane crash.
来增加自己在空难事故中的逃生几率
After all, plane accidents in general have a 95% survival rate.
毕竟 飞机事故一般有95%的存活几率
怎么在遭遇空难时幸存下来
You can start before you even get to the airport.
在你上飞机之前就要开始准备
Experts recommend wearing tight-fitting clothing when you fly.
专家建议飞行时穿着贴身合适的衣服
If there is an accident,
如果发生事故
loose or baggy things are more likely to snag
宽松肥硕的衣服很有可能会
on jagged edges and slow you down.
发生刮碰 延缓你的逃生速度
Plus, long, snug jeans and shirtsleeves
而且贴身的牛仔长裤和衬衫衣袖
can protect your limbs from sharp objects and fire.
在遇到锐器和火焰时 可以保护四肢
Double down on fire safety by wearing clothing
穿着棉质或天然材料制作的衣物
made from cotton or other natural materials.
遇到火灾时 可以增加安全性
They don’t burn or melt as easily as synthetic ones.
它们不像合成纤维那样容易燃烧或熔化
And your shoes should be just as practical as the rest of your outfit.
鞋子也应该和你的其它服饰一样实用
Boots, sneakers, and other shoes that
无论是靴子 运动鞋或者其他鞋子
won’t fall off your feet are the smart choice
只要合脚就是明智的选择
when it comes to a safe escape.
为的是便于安全逃跑
Officially, the Federal Aviation Administration says
联邦航空局官方声称
that no seat on an airplane is safer than any other,
飞机上所有座位的安全性都是一样的
but the statistics disagree.
但调查数据却与之相悖
In 2015, Time studied airplane accidents
2015年《时报杂志》研究了
from the previous 35 years.
过去35年发生的飞行事故
It found that the seats in the back third of the plane
结果发现飞机后1/3的座位
had a 32% fatality rate,
死亡率为32%
compared to 39% in the middle
而中间段为39%
and 38% in the front.
前1/3的为38%
And if you narrow it down even further,
如若再一步细分
middle seats in the back had the best odds of survival,
坐在后1/3座中间部分的人存活率最高
and the aisle seats in the middle of the craft had the worst.
飞机中部靠近过道的座位存活率最低
An analysis by University of Greenwich professor Ed Galea
格林治大学教授Ed Galea的分析结果表明
found that sitting within five rows of an emergency exit
坐在急救出口五排以内的座位
will drastically improve your chance of survival.
会极大地提高生存几率
Galea analyzed the seating charts from more than 100 plane crashes,
他还分析了100多起失事飞机的座位表
interviewing 1,900 passengers and 155 crew members.
采访了1900名乘客和155名机组成员
He found that most survivors only had to move
他发现大部分生还人员的座位
five rows or less before escaping the plane.
距离飞机出口最多五排距离
Any more than that, your odds of survival drop.
若非如此 你的生还几率会锐减
Giving up a little leg room is a small price to pay for some extra protection.
牺牲点放腿的空间会给你的安全多一点保障
Broken feet and legs are very common in plane crashes.
飞机失事时 腿脚受伤是常有之事
Protecting them is pivotal to a quick evacuation.
保护好腿对迅速撤离至关重要
Putting your carry-on under the seat in front of you closes that gap,
把你的行李放在前座底下 堵住间隙
so your legs can’t slide under and get caught.
这样你的腿就滑不进去 就不会被困
It can also pad your shins if they fly forward during an impact.
受到撞击飞出去时 行李可以垫你的小腿
If you fly often,
如果你经常飞行
you might not always pay attention to the preflight safety briefing.
你可能不怎么关注飞行前的安全须知
The US National Transportation Safety Board surveyed almost 500 passengers
美国国家交通安全董事会调查了大约500名乘客
that were involved in a plane evacuation between 1997 and 1999.
他们在1997年到1999年都参与过飞机撤离
A little more than half of them said they paid attention
一半出头的人说他们
to only 50% of the presentation or less.
只看了一半 或一半不到的安全演示
13% said they didn’t watch at all.
13%的人说他们压根儿没看
Of the passengers on the infamous 2009
2009年 美国航空公司一架降落在
US Airways flight that landed in the Hudson,
赫德森的航班变得臭名远播
only about 30% of them watched the briefing.
机上只有30%的乘客看了安全须知
After the impact, only 10 out of the 150 people on board
失事后 机上150名人员只有10人
grabbed their life vests and evacuated with them.
拿到了救生衣并撤离
The most cited reason for ignoring the briefing?
无视安全须知的最大原因是什么?
Frequent fliers thought they were already familiar with the equipment on board.
常坐飞机的人自认为对飞机上的器械已了然于心
The FAA has been testing brace positions
联邦航空局1967年起就用撞击实验假人
on crash-test dummies since 1967.
测试防冲击姿势
The postures have changed and updated throughout the years,
防冲击姿势早已改变并在逐年更新
but the general idea has stayed the same.
但总的想法一直没变
Lean forward and keep your head close to the seat in front of you.
身体前倾 头部靠近前排座椅
This serves two purposes.
这姿势有两个作用
One is to keep flailing to a minimum,
一是最大程度减少摆动
and the other is to reduce the chance of a secondary impact.
二是减少再次撞击的可能性
Secondary impact is a head injury on top of a head injury,
再次撞击会使得原本受伤的头部再次受伤
like what might happen if your head hits the seat in front of you multiple times during a crash.
撞机时头部多次撞击前排座椅就是如此
The FAA recommends holding your head against the object it may hit
联邦航空局建议抱头以免撞伤
and flexing or bending your limbs inward to keep them in place.
四肢向内弯曲 保持不动
In the rare event that an accident occurs while the plane is cruising,
飞机航行时还可能发生一种罕见事故
you could be faced with a free fall.
那就是自由坠落
Surviving a six-mile plummet is highly unlikely,
从6英里的高空骤降是极难活下来的
but not impossible.
但也不是不可能
And if you stay attached to something,
如果你能附着于某物
your chances are a little bit better.
你的生还几率会更高
“Wreckage rider” is a term coined by amateur historian Jim Hamilton.
“残骸乘客”是业余历史学家Jim Hamilton发明的术语
Hamilton developed the Free Fall Research Page,
他开发了自由降落研究网页
an online database of nearly every instance
这个几乎集所有人类高空坠落案例
of humans falling from great heights.
于一体的线上数据库
The record for the longest survived fall without a parachute
无降落伞坠落存活时间的最长纪录
is held by a wreckage rider.
正是一名残骸乘客创造的
In 1972, a Serbian flight attendant named Vesna Vulovic
1972年 塞尔维亚乘务员Vesna Vulovic
fell 33,000 feet after the plane she was on
搭乘的飞机在捷克上空发生爆炸
blew up over Czechoslovakia.
她从33000英尺的高空往下坠落
Wedged between a catering cart, her seat, a piece of the plane,
她夹在了餐车 自己的座椅 一块飞机残骸
and the body of a fellow crew member,
和一名乘务人员的尸体中间
she crashed into a snowy incline
她坠落在一段雪山坡上
severely injured but still alive.
受伤严重但仍活了下来
People often have fatalistic attitudes when it comes to plane crashes,
遇到撞机事故时 人们总是心如死灰
which can lead to apathy when it comes to safety briefings.
这也是人们对安全须知冷漠以对的原因
But the NTSB says plane accidents,
但是美国国家运输安全委员会说
which are when a plane suffers substantial damage
当飞机受到严重损坏
or someone suffers serious injury or death,
或乘客遭受重大挫伤或死亡时
have a 95% survival rate.
存活率为95%
So the next time you hit turbulence.
所以你下次遇到气流时
and start thinking about all the ways you could die,
与其开始考虑自己的各种死法
think about all the ways you could live instead.
不如多想想怎样活下来

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乘坐的飞机失事怎么办?三大技巧教你轻松应急!

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视频来源

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