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如何学习考试 - 战略考试准备的六大步骤就像天才一样

How to Study for Exams - Top 6 Steps for Strategic Exam Preparation Like a Genius

备考学习与研究学习不同 你需要掌握一些技巧
Studying for an exam is different from studying to learn, you need to be strategic because
因为它关乎尽可能取得最好的成绩
it’s all about getting the best grade possible.
因此无论你忙于明天的考试或者为几个月后的考试准备
So whether you’re cramming for an exam tomorrow or studying for one in a few months’ time,
为了你的成功 这里有6个策略供你采纳
here is the 6 step strategy you should follow for your best chance of success.
第一步做好考试的预习工作 即弄清楚考什么
The first step to hacking your exam prep is being clear about what’s on the exam.
显而易见 很好地完成这个将会帮助你在
This might be obvious, by doing this really well will help you be laser focused in the
接下来5步更为专注
next 5 steps.
如果可以的话 确认三件事:考试的主题和范围
If you can, confirm three things: • What topics and areas you might be tested
考试的题型有哪些
on; • What types of questions there will be;
以及考试中每一部分的分值
• And how much each section of the exam is worth.
你可能没有获得所有的信息 但是要从老师那
You won’t always know this information, but get as many details as possible from your
获得尽可能多的细节
teacher or lecturer.
在考试前一定要去最后一节课或演讲课 核对考试大纲或课程目标
Check the course outline or objectives, but make sure you attend the final class or lecture
因为这节课上老师会提供更多详细资料和建议
before an exam, because that’s often where they’ll share more details or advice.
有3种常见的考试类型 你需要为此进行不同的准备
There are 3 general types of exams and you prepare differently for each of them.
如果你不搞懂这 那你完了
If you don’t get this right, you’ll crash and burn for sure.
这3种是:记忆 概念理解 知识应用
The 3 types are memorization; understanding concepts; and problem solving.
如果你时间不够了 你可能会试图通过背诵来
If you’re short on time, you might be tempted to prepare for a problem solving exam by memorizing
应对考试
things.
那是错的
That would be a mistake.
需要大量记忆的代表性学科有历史、语言
Subjects that typically need a lot of memorization include history, languages and parts of some
和部分的自然学科 如生物、解剖学
science classes like biology and anatomy.
记忆全部与建立概念相关
Memorization is all about building connections.
只靠背诵来记住东西并不能建立概念联系
Using only repetition to try and remember things, doesn’t create connections and that’s
这就是为什么背诵的效果总不好
why it doesn’t work very well.
你可以点击屏幕上的链接 学习5条超有效的记忆技巧的原则
You can click the link on the screen to learn the 5 principles of super-effective memorization
然后就能领先99%的学生
techniques, and jump ahead of 99% of other students.
社会科学以及很多其他的科目的考试主要建立在概念理解基础之上
Social science subjects and a lot of others, have exams based mainly on understanding concepts.
宏观角度理解 同时在微观上解决困惑
It’s important to have a big picture perspective, and understand how all the smaller pieces
这很重要
of the puzzle fit together.
从课堂、笔记和额外阅读资料获取信息
Take the information from your lectures, textbook and extra reading material, and organize it
并根据主要主题和概念把它们组织起来
according to the major themes and concepts.
视觉学习是最简单的 所以利用思维地图、流程图和图表来创建所有的观点
It’s easiest to do visually, so use mind-maps, flow charts and diagrams to create your overall
并展现详细说明、概念和全部主题的联系
perspective, and show the links between details, concepts and the overall subject.
典型的考试问题考察评估、比较及概念运用
Typical exam questions ask you to evaluate, compare and apply the concepts, so practice
所以针对性地练习 并使用具体的例子来解释答案
doing that and try to use concrete examples to explain answers.
第三种考试类型是解决问题 这在工程、 商科
The third type of exam is problem solving, which is common for engineering, commerce
和科学课程中常见
and science courses.
这种考试的关键是解决大量的问题
The key to these exams is doing a lot of problems.
但是请在阅读背后概念之前解决问题
But try doing a problem first before reading the theory behind it.
记住 你将会从解决问题中得到考试的大部分成绩 而不是从概念上
Remember, you’ll get most exam marks for doing problems, not knowing the theory, so
因此 这决定了你学习的优先权
that sets your study priorities.
不要详细地读完一章节再做题 倒过来
Instead of reading a chapter in detail and then trying the problems, flip it around.
大致浏览章节内容后 就开始做题 只有在你遇到
Give the chapter a brief skim, but start on the problems, and only go back to read the
障碍时才回头阅读理论
theory when you hit a roadblock.
这样 你就能解决问题并了解理论
That way, you’ll get the problem done and know the theory.
你还需要知道考试中的题型 因为对每种题型
You also need to know the type of questions in your exam, because you’ll prepare differently
你要进行不同的准备
for each of them.
最常见的问题类型是多项选择、写作、应用题和简答
The most common question types are multiple choice, essays, problems and short answers.
你的考试中有哪种呢?
Which of those will be included on your exam?
有3种类型的多项选择题
There are 3 types of multiple choice questions.
它们测试你对事实的直接反应 对事实和概念间的理解
They can test your straight recall of facts, your comprehension of how facts relate to
或者考你如何应用和理解知识
concepts, or how you apply your knowledge and understanding.
不要在为错误多选题类型上浪费时间和努力
Don’t waste time and effort by preparing for the wrong type of multiple choice question.
接下来是写作题
Next is essay questions.
看一看你课程中重要的话题和主题
Look at the major topics and themes in your course.
哪些是重复或是被强调的?
Which ones were repeated or given emphasis?
用一些你认为会考的问题来练习答题
Make your own potential exam questions to practice answering.
开始要为每个答案建立详细的大纲 然后如果你有时间
Start by creating detailed outlines for each answer, and then if you have time you can
练习写下来 完成文章
practice writing out the complete essay as well.
获取更多作文题准备的详细资料 点击屏幕上的链接
For more step-by-step details on essay preparation, click the link on the screen and you can grab
而且还可以免费下载
a free download.
第三种类型是应用题 这个我已经给过建议了
The third type of question is problems, and I’ve already recommended doing as many practice
尽可能地多做练习
problems as you can.
理解题目需要你做什么是相当重要的
It’s really important to understand what the question requires you to do, so try and
所以尝试用自己的话转述应用题 或者画图来帮助
translate the problem into your own words, or draw an illustration or diagram to help
在你的脑海中描绘应用题
you picture the problem in your head.
形成解决这一类型题目的系统 并记录所有你要使用的公式
Develop a system to approach these types of questions, and record all the formulas you
因为在考试中你会需要它们
use too, because you’ll need to know them for the exam.
最后一种题型是简答题 你或许需要
The final type of question is short answer questions, and you might need to give anything
把所有的句子形成一段话来回答
from a sentence to a paragraph answer.
准备时要记住重要术语和定义 并且用思维地图
Prepare by memorizing important terms and definitions, and by using mind maps to relate
把每一个学科术语和背后所有的概念相联系 并与支持的事实相结合
each term back to the overall concepts of the subject, and connect any supporting evidence.
前3步都是为这一步准备的 因为这一步权重最大
The first three steps were really preparation for this step, because it’s the most powerful.
你有没有听说过二八定律或帕累托原则 它是关于一切的优先次序
If you haven’t heard of the 80/20 rule or Pareto’s Principle, it’s all about prioritization
或者是成效的理论
or bang-for-your-buck.
二八定律表明 一般来说80%的结果来自你20%
The 80/20 rule says that generally speaking, 80 percent of your results come from 20 percent
的努力
of your efforts.
想想你上一次作业 你可能花了20%的时间
If you think about your last assignment, you probably did 80% of that assignment in 20%
就完成了80%的作业
of the total time you spent working on it.
并且如果你像中等学生一样 这20%的时间可能都在
And if you’re like the average student, it was probably the 20% of time right before
你的截止日期之前
your deadline.
那么这要如何应用在备考学习中呢?
So how will this apply to studying for your exam?
你成绩的80%来自于你20%的努力
80% of your exam marks will come from 20% of your study efforts.
不要纠结于数字 它们不都是十分准确的
Don’t get hung up on the numbers, they won’t always hold exactly true, it’s more about
这更多是概念意义
the concept.
明确什么会给你带来最大成效
Identify what’s going to give you the biggest bang for buck.
有些题目在考试中比其他科目更重要吗?
Will some topics have more emphasis in the exam than others?
考试中哪个部分的分值最大?
Which section of the exam is worth the most?
准备一类问题是否也有助于你准备另一类
Will preparing for one type of question also help you prepare for another type of question
问题?
as well?
覆盖了以上所有三个的是考试热点 你应该从这开始复习
If there are hot spots that cover all three, that’s your starting point.
如果你前一天晚上临时抱佛脚 这可能是你所能做到的
If you’re cramming the night before, this might be all you can achieve, but if you have
但如果你有更多的时间 你要关注更多话题和范围
more time, you’ll focus on more topics and areas.
这只是一个简单的例子 来帮助你理解
This is just a simple example, but you get the idea.
要有战略眼光 把精力集中在能给你带来最高分数的地方
Be strategic and focus on what’s going to give you the highest grade possible.
一旦你制定了计划 就开始行动
Once you’ve made this plan, it’s time for action.
好了 现在是彩排时间
Ok, now it’s dress rehearsal time.
在考试中把问题回答好的绝对方法是
The absolute best way to do well at answering questions in your exam, is to practice answering
现在就做考试的练习题
exam questions now.
从课本、课堂例题或作业中获得练习题
Get practice questions from your textbook, class examples or assignments, but if you
如果可以 最有价值的是练习考试或旧试卷
can, the most valuable is practice exams or old exam papers.
首先试做练习题 当你遇到困难时 再参照你的教科书
Try practice questions first and only refer back to your textbook or class material when
或课程资料
you get stuck.
这样 复习了你已掌握的知识突出你还需要加强的地方
Doing it this way reviews everything you know, highlights areas where you need to improve,
然后你跟着学习
and you’ll probably learn as you go as well.
记住 如果你只通过反复阅读你的笔记和课本学习
Remember, if you study by only re-reading your notes and textbook, that will only make
那只会使你更擅长阅读
you better at reading.
然而考试中 将测试你回答问题的能力
Unfortunately you’re going to be examined on how well you answer questions.
所以这就需要你练习
So that is what you need to practice doing.
考试是由压力的 压力使你的大脑疯狂
Exams are stressful, and stress does crazy things to your head.
你以为你掌握知识会像魔术一样消失
Knowledge you thought you had is going to disappear like a magic trick.
你前一天晚上复习的东西不会像你所想
Something you could recall the night before might not be as secure in your mind as you
那样安全
thought.
一个解决方案是过度学习 或在能够回忆起一条信息的基础上
One solution is overlearning, or learning beyond the point of being able to recall a
学习
piece of information.
相反 你应该更进一步地回顾它
Instead, you should keep reviewing it for even longer.
为什么?
Why?
因为像这样过度学习增强你的学习提高了你能快速和容易地
Because overlearning like this strengthens your learning and improves how fast and easily
回忆信息的能力
you’re able to recall information.
这就是你考试中需要的!
And that’s what you want in your exam!
过度学习也会增强你对掌握知识的自信
Overlearning also increases your confidence in what you can remember, and when you’re
而且在你更加自信后 就不会有太多焦虑了
more confident you’ll be less anxious as well.
如果你为考试临时抱佛脚,先用二八定律确认
If you’re cramming for an exam, first use the 80/20 rule to confirm the absolutely most
要学习的最重要的范围
important areas to study.
然后集中精力过度学习他们
Then focus on overlearning them.
这可能只是这门学科的3个或4个基本概念 也可能是
That might be only the 3 or 4 primary concepts of the subject, and for the types of questions
考试中最有权重的题型
that have the greatest weight in the exam.
一旦你完成了那些 如果还有时间
Once you’ve achieved that, if you still have more time available, then you can begin
你可以开始看其他话题或概念以及其他题型
looking at other topics or concepts or types of questions as well.
这就叫有战略意识
That’s called being strategic.
如果你想要更多关于为不同类型考试准备
If you’d like more step-by-step instructions on how to prepare for different types of exam
或者是怎样更有效记忆的详细说明点击屏幕上的链接
questions, or how to memorize more effectively, click the link on the screen and head over
前往记忆学院网站
to the Memorize Academy website.

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临近考试,怎样学习才更有效率?

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