未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

如何使用抽认卡有效地学习

How to Study Effectively with Flash Cards - College Info Geek

This is a flashcard.
这是一张抽认卡
More specifically, it’s a bad flashcard.
再具体点说 这是一张糟糕的抽认卡
And by the end of this video, you’re gonna understand
在本视频末尾 你会真正理解
exactly why because today, we’re talking about
为什么 因为今天我们会讨论
how to make effective flashcards
如何制作有效的抽认卡
and how to study them more efficiently.
以及如何更加有效地学习它们
Now, flashcards are an incredibly powerful
现在 抽认卡是非常有力的
learning tool because they promote active recall,
学习工具 因为它们可以激发有效的回忆
the process of actively retrieving memories
即有效地从大脑里重拾记忆的过程
out of your brain, which is one of the most efficient
这是最有效的学习策略
learning strategies there are.
之一
But flashcards are tools made by human beings
但是 抽认卡是人类制作的工具
and as you probably know, things made by humans
可能你也知道 人类做的东西
come in varying degrees of quality.
质量参差不齐
For example, my girlfriend’s art versus my art.
举个例子 我女朋友的艺术作品和我的对比一下
However, when we go into the making of a thing
然而 当我们制作东西的时候
with the best practices in mind,
大脑经过了最好的锻炼
we can come out with a better product and in
我们就可以做出更好的作品
today’s video, I’m gonna give you eight
在今天的视频里 我将要向大家详细介绍八个原则
specific rules for both making better flashcards
帮你制作更好的抽认卡
and for studying them more effectively.
以及更加高效地学习它们
Now, for the purposes of this video,
现在 为了本视频的制作
I figured I would need some flashcards of my own
我想我需要拿出一些自己的抽认卡
to use as examples.
来作为案例使用
So I’ve gone ahead and issued myself a challenge
所以 我已经先行一步 向自己发出了挑战
and that is to learn and memorize the entire
那就是学习和背诵整个
periodic table of elements because
化学元素周期表 因为
believe it or not, I actually never took chemistry
不管你信不信 事实上我读高中时
in high school.
没有学过化学
I had a really busy schedule with other classes at the time
那时我安排了满满的时间学习其他课程
and just never got to it, so I’ve gone ahead
就没有时间去学化学了 所以我先行一步
and started making some flashcards,
制作了一些抽认卡
which I will be using in the course of this challenge
在挑战的过程中会使用到它们
and we’re gonna use these to demonstrate
我们还会用它们展示
the elements of good flashcards.
好的抽认卡的组成部分
But first, we have to start with a more general tip,
但是 首先 我们提出一个更具有普遍性的建议
which is to simply make your own flashcards.
简单说就是 制作你自己的抽认卡
I know a lot of people like to share their flashcards
我知道很多人喜欢和朋友们分享他们的抽认卡
with their friends and for people
对于研究
who study flashcards on computers or on apps,
电脑或者应用上的抽认卡的人们来说
there are entire online communities where you can upload
有很多在线团体 你可以在里面上传
and download pre-made decks and I think
和下载做好的卡片 我觉得
these have their uses in certain cases,
某些时候 它们是有用的
but in most cases, it’s gonna be much more effective
但是 在大多数情况下 对于你来说
for you to make your own flashcards.
制作自己的抽认卡更有效
One of the most integral and important parts
对于学习来说 最重要的组成部分之一
of learning is the process of intaking information
就是信息的吸收过程
and really wrangling with it on your own
和自己的思想做斗争
and creating your own words and your own forms
以及用得到的信息形成自己的语言
out of that information.
和自己的风格
That’s gonna build really strong neural pathways
那样会形成强大的神经通路
and those are gonna be unique from the neural pathways
那些神经通路是独一无二的 和其他任何人都不一样的
of somebody else and if you just take pre-made cards
如果你用的是别人做好的抽认卡
made by somebody else that you didn’t have to do
你不用做
any work to create, you’re denying yourself
任何有创造性的工作 你就否定了
that entire part of learning process.
自己的整个学习过程部分
So, now that you know the importance of making
所以 现在你知道了制作自己的抽认卡的重要性
your cards yourself, let’s get into the actual
让我们看看制作
nitty gritty of what makes a card good
好的卡片的细节部分
and the first tip I’ve got for you is to add pictures
我的第一个建议是为你的
to your cards and to mix them up with words.
卡片加上图片和文字
Now, in cognitive psychology, there’s a principle
现在 在认知心理学里 有一个原理
called the picture superiority effect,
叫做图片优势效应
which describes how people remember images
描述的是 和文字相比
and pictures much better than they do words
人们更容易记住图片
and from an evolutionary standpoint, this makes sense.
从进化论的角度来说 这是行得通的
Written language is just a system of
书面语是人们编制的
arbitrary symbols that people made up
任意性的符号体系
and when we look at things on a grand scale,
如果我们把目光放远一些
it really hasn’t been around for all that long.
它其实并没有存在那么长的时间
Plus, our brains are adapted to be very sensitive
再说 我们的大脑适应了对
to imagery.
图像很敏感
The locations of food, the animals that’ll think
食物的位置 那些会认为
you’re food, the animals that won’t think you’re food
你是食物的动物 那些不认为你是食物的动物
but they’ll still completely mess you up, et cetera.
但是它们依然让你混淆 等等
By adding pictures to your flashcards,
把图像加添加到你的抽认卡上
you can make them a lot more memorable
你就会更容易记住它们
and personally, I like to do this by drawing
就我个人而言 我喜欢画在
on my flashcards, but you can also just print out
我的抽认卡上 不过你也可以
pictures from the internet and glue them on
从网上把图片打印出来 粘上去
or if you’re using an app or a computerized flashcard
你还可以用应用或者电脑化的抽认卡程序
program, a lot of them will allow you to easily
你可以轻松地用它们
import pictures.
导入图片
But you can take this one step further
但是你可以把这一步做得更好
by making sure those pictures are next to words.
即确保这些图片是附有文字的
In 1985, there was a study done in Canada
1985年 加拿大的一个研究
that showed that descriptive sentences
表明 图片旁边附加的说明性句子
added next to pictures made those pictures much easier
使得人们更容易
for people to recall.
想起图片
Now, if you take a look at my chemistry flashcards here,
现在 如果你看一下这里我的化学抽认卡
you might think they look a little bit weird.
你会觉得有些怪异
But that’s actually on purpose because they’re
但是实际上那是刻意地
demonstrating the third tip I’ve got for you,
因为那就是我的第三个建议要说的
which is to use mnemonic devices on your flashcards.
使用有助于记忆的图形
Now, a mnemonic device is really anything
现在 一个有助于记忆的图形就是任何
that helps you create associations between
帮你把头脑中的信息片段
pieces of information in your mind.
联系起来的东西
The classic one is the acronym, ROYGBIV,
经典的例子就是首字母缩略词ROYGBIV
which helps you remember the order of the colors
帮你记住
in the visible light spectrum, but it can really
可见光谱的颜色顺序 但是它其实
be anything and I’m using associative imagery
可以是任何东西 我用的是我的抽认卡上
on my flashcards.
相关的图像
For example, my flashcard for magnesium
例如 我的镁元素抽认卡中
as a magnemite asking for more goulash, which is a
磁铁想再要一份烩牛肉
completely ridiculous picture but, it helps me
完全是一个荒谬的图画 但是它帮我
remember the association between Mg
记住了Mg
and magnesium because magnemite sounds like Magnesium
和镁元素的关系 因为磁铁和镁元素的发音很像
and more goulash is a good way to remember Mg.
再一份烩牛肉是一个很好的记住Mg的方法
Now, the more weird and crazy and wacky these pictures are,
现在 图画越怪异越疯狂越古怪
the more easily you’re going to remember them
你会越容易记住它们
and remember, you’re making your flashcards
记住了 你在制作属于自己的抽认卡
for yourself, so it doesn’t matter what anyone else
所以其他人是怎么看它们的
thinks of them or whether or not those associations
或者这些联想对于其他人是否有效
would work for someone else.
是无关紧要的
It’s just for you.
它只属于你
So, the next few tips I’ve got for you guys
所以 下面的一些建议
really go hand in hand.
其实是密切相关的
The first one is to have only one question or fact
第一个是 你的一个抽认卡
on each one of your flashcards.
只能有一个问题或者事实
Now, doing this is gonna help you avoid
这么做有助于你避免
what are called Illusions of Competence.
所谓的“幻想能力”
Basically, our brains can really easily confuse
实际上 我们的大脑可以轻易地混淆
recognition with recall.
“认出”和“想起”
When you recognize something, you’re basically
当你“认出”某个事物 你基本上
affirming to yourself that yes, I’ve seen this
肯定自己 是的 我见过这个
or I’ve been exposed to it before.
或者我以前接触过
But recall is different.
但是“想起”就不同了
Recall is actively retrieving something out of memory
“想起”是在没有再次接触的前提下
without again, being exposed to it.
积极地从记忆力里重拾某个事物
And our brains can really confuse these things
如果我们不小心 我们的大脑
if we’re not careful.
就会混淆这些
So, here’s an example.
所以 这里有个例子
Say you’re taking a history of flight class
比如你正在上飞行历史课
because obviously, airplanes are awesome
因为 很明显 飞机都很棒
and now you’re studying for a test
现在你在研究一个实验
where you need to know some information
你需要了解第一架飞机莱特飞行器
about the first airplane, the Wright flyer.
的相关信息
So, you make yourself a flashcard.
所以你自己做了一张抽认卡
You put First Airplane on the front,
你把“第一架飞机”放在正面
but then on the back, you put several different facts
但是 之后在背面 你列举了几条事实
and here’s where you can run into trouble
这样你就会陷入麻烦
because later on, when you’re studying and you see
因为 在你以后学习时 你看到
First Airplane, you might remember that it flew in 1903.
“第一架飞机” 你可能记得它是在1903年起飞的
You might remember that it was called the Wright flyer
你可能记得它叫“莱特飞行器”
and you might even remember that it flew four times.
你甚至还记得它一共飞了四次
But maybe you forgot that it used a sprocket chain drive
但是也许你会忘了它使用了链轮链条驱动
to drive the propellers.
推进器的
And then you turn it over and you say to yourself,
之后你把它翻过去 对自己说
“Oh yeah, I do remember that.”
哦 是的 我是记得的
And then you put it aside.
然后就把它放在了一旁
So, by making four individual cards
所以 把这些事实做成四个独立的卡片
for each of these facts, you’re guaranteeing
会保证你
that you’re getting each one either right or wrong
明确地知道每一个你答的是对还是错
and that’s gonna help you to study the ones
那样会帮你更有效地学习
you got wrong more efficiently and avoid
答错的卡片 避免
those illusions of competence.
那些“幻想能力”
Now, on a related note, we have the fifth tip here,
现在有一个相关的提醒 我们有第五个建议
which is to break complex concepts or questions
就是把复杂的概念或者问题分解为
down into simpler questions.
简单的问题
And you can run into a lot of situations like this one,
你会遇到很多情况 就像这个
where let’s say you’re trying to learn
比如说你正在努力学习
the different groupings of elements
化学元素周期表里
on the periodic table.
不同类别的元素
And there’s lots of them.
有很多类
There’s the alkali metals, the transition metals,
有碱金属 过渡金属
there’s some noble gases.
稀有气体
So, maybe you go and make a flashcard like this
所以 你也许会做一个像这样的抽认卡
where all these groupings are a different color
所有类别用不同颜色表示
and you have to name all of them.
并给各个类别命名
Well, once again, this is a bad flash card
嗯 这又是一个糟糕的卡片
because maybe you know some of those groupings.
因为也许你认识其中几类
Maybe you know all but one, but that one grouping
也许除了一类之外你都认识 但是
you didn’t know, there’s gonna be an illusion
你不认识的那一类可能会让你产生“幻想能力”
of competence and you’re gonna think that you knew it
你会在看过背面之后认为
just by looking at the listing on the back.
你认识它
So instead, make flashcards like this
所以 做像这样的抽认卡取而代之
that only highlight one of those groupings
只突出其中的一类
and make sure that you know it before putting that
务必在你认识了之后再
flashcard aside.
把抽认卡收起来
So, now that you guys know some of the best practices
现在大家了解了关于制作抽认卡的一些好方法
for making your flashcards, it’s now time to move over
现在我们一起进入下一个环节
into how to study them.
怎么学习抽认卡
I’ve got three really important tips
在这个环节我有三个
in this section of the video for you guys
非常重要的建议
starting with the first one, which is
第一个是
to say your answers out loud
在你学习抽认卡的时候
when you’re studying your flashcards.
要大声说出答案
This is kinda just a way to mentally commit
这只是在你去看卡片背面之前
to your answer before you actually look
的记住答案的方法
at the back of the card, which helps you,
这样可以帮你
again, avoid those illusions of competence
避免“幻想能力”
and helps you make sure that you’re not recognizing
帮你确定你不是把答案认出来了
the answer and mistaking that recognition
没有把“认出”
for recall.
误认为“想起”
Make sure that you actually know the answer.
确定你确实知道答案
Now, the second tip here is to make sure you study
现在 第二个建议是务必把卡片的两面
your cards from both sides and this is a way
都学习一下 这是一种在你的大脑里
of creating neural pathways in your brain
建立神经通路的方法
that work in both directions so that way,
这个神经通路适用于两个方向 所以
if you’re asked either side of a question,
如果你被问到任何一面的问题
you’ll be able to trace that neural pathway
你就可以通过神经通路
back to the answer.
找到答案
For example, if you only studied the chemical symbol,
举个例子 如果你只是学习了化学符号
Be and you knew that it stood for Beryllium,
Be 你知道它代表了铍
but then you were later on asked,
但是 之后有人问你
“What’s the chemical symbol for Beryllium,”
铍的化学符号是什么
you might not be able to get back to Be if you didn’t
如果你没有把卡片的两面都学习一下
study the cards in both directions.
你可能就想不到是Be
So, make sure you do.
所以 确定一下要这样做哦
And lastly guys, my final tip for you here
我给大家带来的最后一个建议是
is to realize that flashcards are not a silver bullet.
要意识到抽认卡不是灵丹妙药
They’re just one method of reviewing material
它们只是一种复习方法
and they are situational.
要依情况而定
They’re just like, say, a bow and arrow, right?
它们就像弓和箭 对吗
You wouldn’t use a bow and arrow in every
你不会在每一个情况下都使用
single situation.
弓和箭
You wouldn’t use it up-close no matter how good
不管你认为你是多好的Hanzo玩家
of a Hanzo player you think you are
你不会在很近的距离使用
and flashcards are the exact same way.
使用抽认卡时也是一样的
You have to know the right situations to use them in.
你要知道使用它们的恰当环境
A lot of information ties into an overall
很多信息是按照一整个
visual hierarchy or an organization and
with flashcards,
等级系统或者组织关联起来的 如果用抽认卡
you kind of lose that.
你会丢失这些信息
For instance, the periodic table is a really,
例如 化学元素周期表的确是一个
really powerful visual tool and if you were to say,
很强大的视觉工具 如果你
try to memorize all the atomic numbers of the elements
试图用抽认卡记住所有元素的原子序数
with flashcards, you’d really be doing your brain
真的会让你的大脑
a disservice because learning the periodic table
受到伤害 因为学习化学元素周期表
and all the visual representations
中的符号代表的意义
and relationships is much more effective.
以及它们之间的关系更为有效
Also, make sure that you’re learning before
同时 务必在复习之前学习一下
you’re reviewing because flashcards often
因为就教你学会深层概念而言
aren’t the best tool for teaching you
抽认卡不是最好的工具
the underlying concepts, which may help you learn
它可以帮你更有效地
facts much more efficiently.
学习事实
So, those are my eight tips for improving the way
那么 这些就是改善制作和学习抽认卡方法的
that you make and study flashcards
八个建议
and right now, you might be thinking to yourself,
现在 你可能在自言自语
“Wait a minute, Tom skipped something.”
等一下 汤姆漏掉了一些东西
And yes, I did, because there’s one additional
是的 确实是 因为还有一个
incredibly effective technique for learning
非常有效的
and studying that goes hand in hand with flashcards
和抽认卡密不可分的学习方法
and that is spaced repetition.
那就是 间隔重复
But that’s such a complex topic and I really wanna
但是这是一个复杂的话题 我实在
dig deep into it and teach you guys the science behind it
很愿意深入探讨 教给大家背后的科学
and how to use it effectively both on paper
怎样用纸和应用有效地使用
and with apps, so that is gonna be
所以 那会是
the subject of next week’s video.
下周视频的主题
Until then guys, thank you so much for watching
好了 非常感谢大家观看本期节目
and if you’ve got additional tips about flashcards,
如果你有关于抽认卡的其他建议
I would love to hear them down in the comments below.
我很愿意在下面的评论里听到它们
Also, if you enjoyed this video and you found it helpful,
同时 如果你喜欢这个视频 觉得它很有帮助
give it a like to support this channel
请点一个赞 以支持我们的频道
and if you wanna get new videos on being a more
如果你想每周看新的视频 成为一个
effective student every single week,
高效的学生
you can click that big red Subscribe button
可以点击下面那个
right down there.
大大的红色的“订阅”按钮
If you wanna get a free copy of my book on earning
如果你想得到我的免费图书《获得高分的十个步骤》
better grades, you can click the picture
可以点击这里图书的照片
of the book right there and if you
如果你
missed last week’s video, it was on having a more
错过了上期视频 可以去
productive summer, so check it out right there.
“拥有一个更充实的夏天”那里找
You can find the full article for this video
你可以找到视频的全部文本
with lots of links and resources and cool extra details
那里还有很多链接 资源以及很棒的额外的详细资料
right over there and if you wanna connect with me,
如果你想和我联系
go out into the forest and tune into one of those
去森林里 收听
creepy number stations and listen for my voice.
恐怖数字电台 听听我的声音
(creepy music)
[恐怖音乐]
Don’t actually do that.
千万别那样做

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

抽认卡是常见的帮助记忆的学习工具,你知道怎么如何制作自己的抽认卡,如何更有效率地利用它学习吗?本期节目中汤姆会为大家提供抽认卡制作和使用的八个小窍门。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Jessie

审核员

译学馆审核团K

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzCEJVtED0U

相关推荐