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6种科学的学习技巧-如何高效学习 – 译学馆
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6种科学的学习技巧-如何高效学习

How to Study Effectively for School or College - Top 6 Science-Based Study Skills

如何用六种必不可少的方法高效学习
How to study effectively, using 6 essential strategies.
如果你是学生 你可能很想知道 究竟什么才是最高效的学习方法
If you’re a student, you’ve probably wondered – what is the most effective way to study?
这是一个聪明人的问题 不幸的是很多人
That’s a smart question, because most people unfortunately waste their time with stuff
在一些鸡毛蒜皮的小事上浪费时间
that just isn’t effective.
所以我就科学学习方法咨询了认知心理学家
So I asked the cognitive psychologists over at The Learning Scientists for some tips.
他们研究了科学学习和最佳实践技能
After all their research into the science of learning and absolute best-practice study
得出了帮助释放你的洪荒之力的六种方法
skills, here are their top six strategies to bring out your inner genius.
第一个方法是间隔练习
The first strategy is called spaced practice.
集中学习五个小时 不如将其平分到
5 hours of study crammed into one intensive session is not as good as that same 5 hours
两周多来完成
spread out over two weeks.
学得更多更好 用时却相同或更少
You’ll learn more and get better results with the same amount of time or less.
这会比集中学习更轻松 而且因为你学到了更多
It’ll be less stressful than the panic of cramming, and because you’ll learn more
未来学习需要的时间会减少 因为你不需要
you’ll also reduce the time you need to study in the future, because you won’t have
再重学一遍相同的内容
to re-learn the same information.
做个计划并在日历上划分出学习时段
Make a plan and schedule short study sessions into your calendar, this is not about marathon,
这不再是马拉松式的集中时段学习
intensive periods of study.
一天后开始复习每堂课的内容
Review information from each class, starting a day later.
在你已经学过最近的课后 回去复习
After you’ve covered the most recent class, go back and study important older information
温故知新
to keep it fresh.
不要只是重看一遍你的笔记 这并没有用
And don’t just re-read your notes – that’s ineffective.
用这个视频里的另一种方法吧
Use the other strategies in this video.
在同一科目的学习时段中间隔2至3天
And leave 2-3 days between study sessions on the same subject, the key is consistent
关键是一直坚持短时段的学习
short study sessions over time.
在某一课程的一个独立学习阶段内转换想法
Switch between ideas during a single study session for a particular class, this is called
这就叫交错学习
interleaving.
不要研究一个想法 课题或问题太久
Don’t study one idea, topic or type of problem for too long.
交替学习会突出话题或问题
Switching will highlight and contrast the similarities or differences between topics
异同并形成对照
or types of questions.
若你正忙于解决问题 转换会帮你选择对的方法
If you’re doing problem solving, switching can help you choose the correct approach to
去解决它
solve a problem.
这种方法会鼓励你当你在转换想法时去建立它们间的联系
This strategy will encourage you to make links between ideas as you switch between them.
如果你希望头脑灵活并且易于在不同想法中转换
You want your mind to be nimble and easily able to jump between ideas and know how they
知道他们彼此的关系
relate to each other.
就要在转换前确保你学到了足够的知识去理解想法
Make sure you study enough information to understand an idea before you switch, you’ll
你需要弄清楚哪种想法对你最有用 不要把全部时间
need to figure out what works best for you – don’t spend an entire session on one
放在一个课题上 但也不要太频繁的转换哦
topic, but don’t switch too often either.
当你在思想世界中畅游时 尝试建立它们中的联系
Try to make links between ideas as you move between them.
然后为了你下一个学习阶段 改变你的工作课题顺序
And for your next study session, change the order you work through topics, because that
因为这样进一步会加强加深你的理解
will strengthen your understanding even more.
“转换”可能会比长时间研究一个课题更难 但是请记住
Switching will probably feel harder than studying one topic for a long time, but remember, we
我们追求的是最高效 而非 最简单
want to use what’s most effective, not what’s easiest.
下一个小策略是针对当你面对着你的课本和笔记时你该如何
The next strategy is for when you have your textbook and notes in front of you.
问自己“为什么如何”或“怎么样如何”的问题 然后在你的讲义里
Ask yourself questions about how and why things work, and then find the answers in your class
找答案
material.
用尽可能多的细节去解释和描述想法 把观点和你的日常
Explain and describe ideas with as many details as you can and connect the ideas to your daily
生活经验相联系
life and experiences.
这强迫着你去理解和解释你正在学什么 然后用
This forces you to understand and explain what you’re learning, and connect it with
你已经知道的东西去与它建立联系
what you already know.
这会帮你组织新想法 使它们过后更容易被回忆起来
That helps you organize the new ideas and makes them easier to recall later.
提出“为什么”和“怎么样”的问题会让你去考虑想法是相同
Creating ‘how’ and ‘why’ questions makes you think about how ideas are similar
或相异 这会有助于你的理解
or different, and that improves your understanding.
在笔记本或练习本上列出你需要学习的内容的清单
Start with your notes and textbook and make a list of the ideas you need to learn.
依清单逐项问自己“为什么”和“怎么样”的问题
Go down the list and ask yourself questions about how these ideas work and why.
然后通过你的课堂学习材料寻找问题的答案
Then go through your class material again and look for answers to your own questions.
在不同观点间建立联系 然后解释清楚他们是如何相互作用的
Make connections between different ideas and explain to yourself how they work together.
你问出的特别的问题和你如何打破自己的观点取决于
The specific questions you ask and how you break down ideas depends on what you’re
你的所学 可能是数学 科学 历史等等
studying, it might be math, science, history or something else completely.
看看以下视频的例子
Check out the description below this video for some examples.
要用具体明确的例子
Use specific, concrete examples.
相关的例子会帮助示范并解释想法 这会帮你更好的理解
Relevant examples help demonstrate and explain ideas, which helps you to understand them
它们
better.
人更善于记忆具体信息而非抽象事物 所以
Human memory hooks onto concrete information better than abstract information, so always
寻找一些你能关联上的真实生活中的事例
look for real life examples you can relate to.
例如“不足”就是个抽象的例子
For example ‘scarcity’ is an abstract idea.
你可以用“物以稀为贵”解释它
You can explain it as ‘the rarer something is, the higher its value will be’.
但我们常采用抽象的方式解释抽象的想法
But we’ve used abstract terms to explain an abstract idea.
这并不是很有效
Not so helpful.
所以我们用一种特殊的例子去阐明观点
So we use a specific example to illustrate the idea.
想象一张黄牛票
Think about a ticket scalper.
如果你在赛季开始时买票 票的价格
If you purchase a ticket to a sports event at the start of the season, the ticket price
会是合理的
is reasonable.
但当赛日临近 并且是两支顶级队伍的赛事
But as the game day gets closer and the two teams are now at the top of the ladder, more
买票的人更多
people buy tickets.
这使票价水涨船高 黄牛票比正常票价
This scarcity drives up the cost of the tickets and the ticket scalper charges more for the
要更贵
tickets.
这是个关于抽象想法的具体实例
That’s a concrete example of an abstract idea.
你的例子可以来自老师或导师 课本或笔记
You can collect examples from your teacher or professor, search your textbook or notes,
也可来自日常生活
and look out for examples in your daily life.
想想自己的事例是对学习最有帮助的 但要
Thinking of your own relevant examples is most helpful for your learning, but be careful
和老师确认你的例子是准确的 并且与你
to confirm with your teacher that your examples are accurate and relevant to the idea you’re
所学有关
learning.
在观点和事例间建立联系 这样你就会理解事例是怎样运用的
Make the link between the idea and the example, and you’ll understand how the example applies.
将语言材料和视觉效果相结合
Combine verbal material with visuals.
这么做会给你两种方法去理解和记住稍后的信息
Doing this gives you two ways of understanding and remembering the information later on.
在你的笔记和课本中找到具象 检查单词所描述的
Find visuals in your notes and textbook and examine how the words are describing what’s
形象事物
in the image.
然后用另一种不同方法再做一遍 想象它是怎样通过文本呈现出
Then do it the other way around – how does the image represent what’s described by the
具体被描述的事物的
text?
看着具象事物 然后用自己的话解释意思
Look at the visuals and explain in your own words what they mean.
然后为课上材料摘取词汇 并配图
Then take the words for your class materials and draw your own picture for them.
尝试用不同的方法去解释信息 当你稍后
Try to create different ways to represent the information, and start to use this strategy
练习去检索知识时就可以用这种方法
when you practice retrieving your knowledge later on.
声明一下 这不是关于学习方法的问题
And just to clarify, this is not about learning styles.
大量研究表明 评价你的学习方式并与你的
A great deal of research has shown that assessing your learning style and matching your study
方法相适应并不会提升你的学习效果
approach to that style does not improve your learning.
只是因为你可能更喜欢图片 并不意味着它对你
Just because you might prefer pictures doesn’t mean it’s the most effective way for you
学习最有效
to learn.
当你把词语与视觉结合 你的学习效果最好
You learn best when you combine words and visuals.
最后 这是一个最有价值的学习技能 可以帮你提高学习效率
And finally, this is the single most valuable study skill to help you boost your performance,
它真的值得一学
so it’s definitely worth mastering.
练习在头脑中回忆已知的关于课题的知识
Practice retrieving everything in your head you already know about a topic.
把所有笔记课本放一边 马上写下或草拟出你所有刚刚
Put away all your notes and textbooks and write down or sketch out everything you know
记得的东西
right now.
为啥呢
Why?
因为像这样回忆复原你的知识就像是在巩固所学
Because retrieving your knowledge like this reinforces what you’ve learned and makes
然后会使它在后面更容易被记住
it easier to remember later on.
但是 提高来自于练习 如果你想要在
But also, improvement comes with practice.
考试中更好的回忆知识 那你应该
If you want to get better at recalling information in exams, then you should practice recalling
从现在起就联系回想 就像你练习其他技能一样
information now, just like you practice any other skill.
圈注标明你不理解的知识 这就是学习时间集中利用的
Plus it highlights what you don’t know and that’s where you should focus your study
地方
time.
有些道理的 对吗
Makes sense, right?
那什么是完成这件事的最好方法呢
So what’s the best way to do this?
尽可能多的练习 即使你会补充一部分
Take as many practice tests as you possibly can, even if you have to make them up and
或与朋友进行交换
swap with a friend.
或只是一张白纸或空空的大脑 写出所有
Or just start with a blank piece of paper and empty your brain, write out everything
你知道的东西 画草图 或树状图去让所有想法联系在一起
you know, draw sketches or concept maps linking all the ideas together.
确定你在学习后一段时间才用这种方法 所以把笔记
Make sure you do this a while after you’ve learned something, so put away your notes
放一边 这不是在背诵你刚从笔记本上瞥见的知识
– this is not about reciting information you’ve just glanced at in your textbook.
完成后 对照课堂材料检查写下的东西
Once you’re finished, check what you’ve written against your class material.
你写错了或写对了什么 或是那些根本没想起来的
What did you get right or wrong, and what didn’t you recall at all.
这是展示你要去加强哪里的最好反馈
That’s perfect feedback and shows you where you need to get better.
现在你知晓了六种学习方法 学术研究认为它们都是最有效的
Now you know the six study strategies academic research says are the most effective, here’s
这是一个在下一阶段学习的简单的回忆方法
a simple way to recall them for your next study session.
如果你想免费下载这六种方法的海报挂在墙上
If you’d like some free downloadable posters about these 6 strategies to put on your wall,
请点视频下方的介绍内容
follow the link in the description below this video.
感谢观看 再会
Thanks for watching, bye!

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视频概述

六种高效使用学习方法,帮助您在同样的时间内拓宽知识宽度,延伸知识深度。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CPxSzxylRCI

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