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八个先进的学习技巧

How to Study Effectively: 8 Advanced Tips - College Info Geek

你得到的大部分学习技巧
A really huge portion of the study tips you’ll get
无论是教授传授的还是别的
from professors and other people who want
希望你在学校表现更加优秀的人教你的
you to be better in school and maybe
又或者是你在YouTube上习得的实际上都是很基础的
that you’ll find here on YouTube are really basic.
他们会告诉你上课坐在前排
They’ll tell you to sit in front in class,
略读你的课本而不是精读
scan your textbooks instead of reading every
每个章节
single chapter.
抱着你的猫咪去上课来减轻你的压力
Bring your cat to class to reduce stress
你可以在动物管理中心看到那些可爱的
and so you get to meet the nice folks at animal
家伙们
control.
虽然这些方法很好
These tips, while they’re good,
也确实很实用但很基础
they’re really really useful, they are basic.
也许你像我一样
Maybe you’re like me.
是一个讲究细节的呆子
You’re a classical detail-driven nerd.
当我玩格斗游戏的时候我想要知道
When I play fighting games I want to learn
它的框架数据和每一个动作
about frame data and every single move sets
及其搭配 而不是单纯的游戏娱乐
and all the match-ups instead of just playingthe game and”having fun.” So,
所以我把同样的方法应用到学习上
applying to study I’m the
我想找到真正先进的方法
same way and I want to find really advanced tips, ways
来快速学习
to hack my learning,
事情常常不能如愿当你使用基础的学习技巧
things that usually don’t come up when you get your basic study tips.
为了达到目的 也许你会像我一样想获得一些先进的学习技巧
To that end, maybe you’re like me and want to get some advanced study tips,
而我
and I am
乐于提供帮助
happy to oblige.
在本视频中 我将会给你8个
In this video, I am going to give you 8
先进的学习建议 让我们开始吧
of those Advanced Study Tips, so let’s get started.
第一个是寻求老师帮助时使用科森科技
The first tip is to use the Corson Technique when asking professors for help. Now,
目前,戴尔·科森是康奈尔大学的第八届校长
Dale Corson was the eighth presidentof Cornell University. Yes,
就是那个形成了著名的康奈尔笔记系统的康奈尔大学
the same Cornell University that spawned the famous Cornell Note-Taking System.
他也是一个化学教授
He was also a chemistry professor.
他说化学专业
He said that students
和其它科学以及数学专业的学生
in chemistry and other science and math programs often have to really
在浏览教科书或问题集时
work to crack problems one sentence at a time
必须一次解决问题
as they go through their textbooks or problem sets,
但有时你会遇到
but sometimes eventually you get to
不能独自解决的问题
a point where you just can’t crack the problem
这是你就需要寻求帮助
on your own and you need to ask for help. So,
所以你找到了你的老师
you go to your professor,
戴尔·科森想让你在与教授实际交谈之前
and what Dale Corson wants you to think about before you
停下来问问自己 我不明白的是什么
actually talk to your professor is pause andask yourself,”What is it that I don’t understand? Truly,
我真正不明白的是什么
what is it that I don’t understand?”
他想让你避免这样的现象
What he wants you to get away from is this thing
照他所说 许多学生
that a lot of students do is where they
向教授问问题时
go to their professors and with a”
仅仅是举起手来
general wave of the hand,” as
然后说
he says, they say,” I
我不理解我正看的这些
don’t understand what I’m looking at.”
这使我困惑 我不理解
This is just confusing to me, I don’t getit.”
他想让你不要这样做
What he wants you to do is avoid that, rather,
不是让你把问题拆解成一句一句的话
pick apart the problem one sentence at a time
也不是让你准确指出
and figure out the exact point
你不懂的那一点
at which you don’t get what’s going on.
而是指出我理解这部分 我搞得懂这里
Right here, I understand this, this process makes sense to me,
但是这部分我有点儿困惑
but here’s where I’m getting
我实在不理解
a little shaky and I just don’t get this.
除此之外 都能理解
After that, I’m cool.
在你指出这些问题之后
When you can pinpoint that,
你要向教授展示了你做的准备工作
you’re going to impress your professor with your preparation
以及你对这个问题所付出的努力
and the amount of effort you put into the problem,
所以在这你可以得到一些印象分
so you get some brownie points there,
但是你也在努力学习
but you’re also working to
识别困惑的艺术
practice the art of recognizing confusion and following it
并追寻问题本源
down to its actual source.
这将会极大的促进你的学习
This will help you immensely in all of your learning going forward.
建议二 使用重复记忆法快速学习了解
Tip # 2 is to learn facts quickly with a technique called space repetition. Now,
重复记忆法是在越来越长的时间间隔内
space repetition is the art of studying things
学习事物的方法
at increasingly bigger and bigger intervals
这是一个非常有效的学习方法
of time and it’s a very efficient way to study,
同时这也利用了
but it also takes advantage of the way your
大脑工作的机制
brain works. Basically,
基本上 重复记忆是一个学习系统
space repetition is a system where you’ll study something,
如果
and if you know that
你非常了解一件事
individual fact very well,
你不会长时间地复习它
you will not see it for quite a while, but the facts that you
但如果你不是很了解
don’t know well,
你会越来越频繁的查阅它
you’re going to see them more and more frequently.
这个作用于我们大脑的方法是
The way that it works on our brain level is
让你去努力回忆信息
that you are trying to recall information.
在你快要忘记时
You’re forcing your brain to pull it out
强迫你的大脑
at the closest time possible to when you are
在最短的时间内想起来
about to forget it,
所以实际上 你的大脑不得不尽其所能地
so your brain actually has to work as hard as it possibly can to
回忆信息 并且更好地编译它
recall this information and it encodes it better,
所以这种方法更高效而且你可以
so its more efficient and you can
真正的快速学习
actually learn a lot faster.
利用这种方法的最好办法是
The best way to take advantage
使用SRS或重复记忆软件
of this is to use an SRS or space repetition software
来进行你的学习而不是使用索引卡或者别的东西
to do your studying for you instead of using index cards or something. Now,
现在 我在学习日语
when I was studying Japanese,
而且我会再使用这个方法
and I will be doing this again soon, I used one called
我使用了一个叫WaniKani的软件
WaniKani that was very,
它非常有效地帮助我学习了许多
very efficient and helped me learn hundreds of Kanji and Japanese
日本汉字和词汇
vocab words.
实际上 这里有一个免费且广泛使用的软件
There is actually a free and generalized one
名为Anki 你可以在AnkiSRS上
called Anki and you can find it on AnkiSRS.
找到它
net
在这个软件上你可以创建自己的卡片组
where you can actually create your own card sets
放置任何你想学习
for any type of data that you think you
的数据
would want to study
你也可以找到研究过此类问题的人
with SRS or you can actually find shared card decks from people who have
分享的卡片组
already made things. So,
所以 一定要查找一下
definitely check that out.
我认为制作卡片组的准备过程
I think the preparation aspect
是很有用的
of making your own card decks is very useful, but simply
但是仅使用重复记忆法学习
going through and studying them using
通常比使用典型的
space repetition is usually going to be more efficient
线性抽认卡学习法更高效
than using just typical linear flashcard studymethods on paper.
建议三
Tip #3.
我们有一个更先进一点的建议
We’re getting a little more advanced here,
是尝试记忆轨道法
so this one is to try out the Method of Loci for memorization.
轨道法可追溯到古希腊和罗马时期
The Method of Loci goes back to the
这是一个被记忆冠军长时间使用的
Greek and Roman times and it is a memorization technique
记忆技巧
that has been used by memory champs for along time.
它本质上很好地利用了
It essentially takes advantage
大脑记忆空间信息的能力
of your brain’s ability to remember spatial information very well.
这就是将其可视化
It’s all about visualization.
传统的做法是
The classic way to do it is to associate certain sets
将特定的你想记忆的数据
of the set of data you’re trying to memorize,
与特定的含有不同的房间的组联系起来
certain groups of that with different roomsof a house.
举个例子
Let me give you an example.
日本王这个文字及其发音
This is the Kanji for king in Japanese,
在日本王念 Oh
and the pronunciation, the way that you say king
而 Oh 是一个十分简单的发音
in Japanese is”Oh,” and”Oh” is really simplepronunciation.
实际上不太适合记忆术
It doesn’t really lend itself too well to mnemonics,
这是一个遗憾的事
which is a shame because mnemonics
因为记忆术是学习日本汉字的好方法
is a great way to learn Kanji. Now,
我想将轨道法改编
what if I want to adapt the Method
与其它方法
of Loci to learning this Kanji along with lots
一起使用
of others.
王坐在王座上
What does a king sit on, a throne,
我们可以联想成坐在马桶上
or as we could say,
同时我不反对
the toilet, and I am not averse
发挥五岁的幽默
to using 5-year-old humor here.
当你闻到马桶的味道时总会脱口而出 Oh
What do you say when you smell the toilet,”Oh.” Yeah,
看吧 轨道法起作用了
work with me here. Also,
王的日本文字看起来像毛巾架
the Kanji for king looks like a towel rack
所以我可以将王与家里的盥洗室联系起来
so I can associate king with the bathroom
如果我实在想让这个学习技巧起作用
in a house, and if I really want to make this study technique useful for me,
我会
I would go
在盥洗室的墙上粘贴抽认卡
into the bathroom and I would put up flashcards
这样 当我走在房子里时
on the walls and then I’d walk through my
就顺便学习了
house and study this. Now,
如今 轨道法难以使用
the Method of Loci is difficult to use.
如果你有很多工作而有较少的卡片组
It’s an advanced technique and usually you’re
且没有有效的方法记忆时
going to be better off with SRS or mnemonics
可以尝试轨道法
if you have a smaller set of data,
它确实是一个先进的技巧
but if you’ve got a lot of work with and nothing
使用SRS或记忆术通常可以使你做得更好
else has worked for you, it’s something thatyou can try.
建议四 克服意志薄弱
Tip #4 is to hack akrasia.
无自制力现象是一个追溯到
Akrasia is a term that has been written
柏拉图时期且被书写了几个世纪的术语
about for centuries and it goes back to Plato, and
本质上是缺乏自我控制
it’s essentially a lack of command over oneself.
有一个更复杂的术语叫picoeconomics
There’s another even more complex term called picoeconomics,
描述了
which talks about this hyperbolic
双曲贴现理论
discounting that we do. Essentially,
我们会这样低估事物的价值
we discount the value of a task the more it is delayed,
越被延后的事
the more the reward
回报就来得越晚
is pushed off into the future,
简而言之 我们倾向拖延
which in short means that we tend to procrastinate and do
而去做一些短期内与我们价值观不一致的
fun things that don’t really align with our values
有趣的事情 我们逃避那些
in the short term, and we avoid doing
与我们价值观一致的事情 这是因为回报被推迟
things that really do line up with our values because the reward is delayed.
做到以下两步
The way you can hack akrasia or avoid
就可以克服意志薄弱或者避免成为这样
becoming a victim to it is two-fold. One,
第一 采用承诺机制
use a commitment device,
可用我之前提过的
bind yourself to getting your task done on time, and the
Beeminder应用软件
way I do this is by using an app called Beeminder,
约束自己按时完成任务
which I’ve talked about before.
我真的很喜欢Beeminder
I absolutely love Beeminder and I’ve been
且已经用了一段时间
using it to ensure I publish three things
确保自己每周发表三篇文章
a week for quite a while now.
如果你看到我上传的发布曲线图
If you look at my graph here, which I’ll throw up,
你会发现我的确
you can see that I have been actually
比之前
publishing much, much,
发表得更频繁 这主要是因为
much more frequently than I was before, and it’s largely because
我采用承诺机制督促自己完成
I use a commitment device to buy myself todo this. Now,
另一个克服意志薄弱的方法
another way that you can hack akrasia,
也是步骤的第二步 为短期
the second part of the fold, is to add a shorter
完成的任务设置奖励
term reward to completing a task.
你可能看到过一个传统的表现
The classic way, you’ve probably seen this image before,
就是把小熊软糖贴在课本上
is to put gummy bears on your textbook,
当你读到相应段落的时候可以奖励自己
and as you read paragraphs you allow yourself to eat them,
你可以做各种
but you can do all sorts
类似于这样的事
of other things.
一旦你完成了一项任务
Let yourself watch an episode
就奖励自己看一段权利的游戏
of Game of Thrones once you finish an assignment or maybe use
或者当你完成学习 解决了问题或者别的
a tool like HabitRPG and give yourself some
就奖励自己使用HabitRPG
experience and goals when you finish the study,
获取经验和目标
problem set or something.
只要找到一个方式
Just find a way to make sure
确保并非只有被延期的引起无自制的事
that the only reward isn’t that far-off delayed one that
才值得奖励
causes akrasia.
好的
All right.
建议五 完善番茄工作法
Tip #5 is to improve the Pomodoro Technique.
你也许听说过番茄工作法
You may have heard of the Pomodoro Technique,.
每个人都在谈论它 如果你没听过
Everyone talks about it, but in case you haven’t,
那我告诉你 它是一个简单的方法 设置一个
it’s simply a technique where you set a timer
25分钟的番茄钟
for about 25 minutes classically,
然后你只需要在25分钟内完成
and then you work only on one task during that 25-minute
一个任务
session.
我认可许多人这么做 且这个方法很有用
I think a lot of people do this and it’s very useful,
但是我觉得有一些改进的部分
but there are some areas for improvement
许多人没有利用
that I don’t a lot of people take advantageof. So,
让我快速列举给你
let me just rapid fire give them to you.
首先 我说过我是Beeminder应用的大粉丝
Number one, and I’ve talked about how much I’m a fan
而Beeminder也是一个
of the Beeminder app, and the Beeminder
获取生产力技术和实验的好渠道
blog is also a good resource for productivitytechniques and experiments.
有一次他们谈论过托科鸟
One of things that they talk about is this thing they do called Tocks.
托科鸟可视为一个番茄钟
ATock is essentially a Pomodoro session except
它们每工作45分钟然后休息15分钟
they use about 45 minutes and then take 15-minute breaks instead
而不是工作25分钟休息五分钟
of the classic 25-minute, 5-minute
打破了规定
break structure.
这个时间间隔只是一个例子
The tip here is to experiment with the timeintervals.
不要只设置25分钟
Don’t just set yourself to 25 minutes
认识到这仅是一个
and assume that’s the only potential interval
你学习的参考
that you could study at.
找到适合自己的时间
Find what works for you.
此外 在你进行番茄钟时
The other one is to put a piece
放一张纸在旁边 无论何时
of paper next to you during your Pomodoro session, and whenever
发生任何使你分心的事
anything that comes up that distracts you,
比如一个电话或查收Facebook的信息
maybe a phone call or the urge to check Facebook
或别的 把它写下来
or something, write it down.
这样做有两个作用
This lets you do two things. One,
一 你可以记下使你分心的事
you can remember what the distraction was and
如果碰巧发生了什么紧急的事
if it happened to be something urgent
你可以在休息时好好处理
you can take care of it during your break time,
二 在你进行了
but two, as you continue to lots of
数月的番茄钟实践之后
Pomodoro sessions over months and months,
你会发现是哪些常见的
you start to see what are the common problem
干扰问题
points.
会经常使你分心
What comes up a lot that distracts you,
然后你就可以采取步骤防止这些事情
and then you can take steps to prevent these things.
也许你忘记了给手机设置免打扰模式
Maybe it’s your phone, you forget to put in do not disturb mode; well,
你可以设置了
you can do that
就现在
now.
如果你确实想去浏览某个网站
If its a certain website that you really want to visit
因为它是如此地吸引你
because it’s just so distracting
使你心烦意乱
and draws you in,
你可以在学习时使用
then you can use an extension like Stay Focused on Chrome to block it during
“Stay Focused on Chrome”网站
your study session.
这是一个很有用的网站
Very useful stuff.
建议六 在学习新概念时
Tip # 6 is when learning new concepts,
使用集中和发散的思维
use both focused and diffused thinking.
这是我从一本叫
This is a concept that I learned about
Thinking in Numbers的书上学到的
in a book called, Thinking in Numbers.
看这个人 Magnus Carlsen
Look at this guy, Magnus Carlsen.
他是当前世界上最强的象棋手
He is currently the # 1 chess player in the world,
2004年他才13岁时
but back in 2004 when he was just 13
就与Garry Kasparov对战
years old, he played Garry Kasparov,
Garry Kasparov在十几年前被认为是
who was considered the best chess player in the world
是世界上最厉害的棋手
a couple of decades ago and who was
也经常被认为是空前绝后的
often considered to be the best chess player of
最棒的棋手
all time.
而Magnus Carlsen与Garry却打成了平手
He played Garry to a draw,
从这个图片中看看他是怎么做的
and look at what he does from these screen shots here.
实际上在比赛中 他会站起来四处走动
During the match he actually gets up and walks around,
看向别的桌子 作者在书中
looks at other tables, and what he’s doing,
指出他做的事
what the author of this book has pointed out,
是在使用发散思维
is he’s using diffused thinking.
集中思维是利用
So focused thinking really takes advantage
前额皮质去专注于
of your prefrontal cortex to focus on one
特定的数据集 特定的问题
specific set of data, one specific problem,
它真的专注于一件事情
and it really concentrates on one that thing,
但是它不能使大脑余下的部分变得活跃
but it doesn’t let the rest of your brainbecome activated.
不同的想法产生于不同的脑节点
A lot of ideas come from different nodes
不同的脑节点用不同的方式
of your brain connecting different completely
产生完全不同的想法
unrelated ideas in new different ways,
这就是发散思维
and that’s the diffused mode of thinking.
在你学习新事物时
When you’re leaning something new,
如果想使用发散思维 你可以考虑
you want to use diffused thinking, so you can grock it,
将不同的脑节点结合起来
you can tie it to other nodes
再去理解它
in your brain and understand it.
如果你仅是集中于问题而不尝试别的
If you only try to focus on the problem and do nothing else,
你会经历
you’re going to have a lot
相当一段时间解决问题
harder time solving the problem. Now,
集中思维对于
focused thinking is very,
你已经了解的事情很有利
very good for problems you already understand, for processes
不过 你已经知道了
that you’ve gone through before,
这就是为什么你要结合两种思维
and that’s why you want to use these two modes of thinking
的原因
in combination. Now,
建议七 我之前就提到过
tip # 7 and I’ve talked about this before
课本是预测课程的根本
in terms of textbooks is to gauge your classes,
我想让你意识到的是
and the specific area I want you to think
预测教授上课的进程
about here is gauge the speed at which your
并且清楚自己理解的程度
professor moves and at which you’re able tounderstand.
如果你的老师上课太快
If your professor tends to go too fast
而你并不理解他所书写的
and you can’t really understand everything he’s
知识点
presenting.
也许他写得太快而你
Maybe he writes too fast and you can
记笔记的速度跟不上 或者是他
take notes fast enough or he just moves through
讲述教材太快
the material too fast
快于你需要理解的时间
for you to really understand it and give time to process in your brain. Then,
这时 你渴望减少这样的问题
you want to take some steps to mitigatethat problem.
你可以做的事是在课前通读全章内容
One thing you could do is to read through the chapter before a lecture.
也许你有一些上课的
Maybe if you have some material that outlines
内容大纲 你可以
what’s going to be in the lecture, you can
通过这去看课本中最切题的部分
use that to look at the most relevant parts
让你的大脑为上课
of the textbook and prime your brain for the
做准备
lecture.
如果课程的进度太快你还可以
One other thing you can do if the class pace is just too fast,
而这也无需我着重强调
and I can’t really emphasize
就是找老师帮助
this enough is to simply ask your professor
在课上问他
for help or ask questions in the middle of
问题
class.
老师们是来帮助你的 你应该好好利用这一点
Professors are there to help you and you should take advantage of that.
第八个也是最后一个建议 独自写习题集
My 8th and final tip is to start your problem sets alone.
我大二上统计学课程时
When I was a sophomore I had a statistics class,
有一个学习的搭档
and I actually had a partner and she
基本上只要一有家庭作业
would come over to my dorm basically every
她就会来我的宿舍
time we had a homework assignment to do and
和我一起做作业
we would do it together. Now,
我意识到这不是一个好的策略
I realize that this isn’t really thebest strategy. Now,
尽管我还是取得了好的成绩
I got a pretty good grade in the class anyway,
但以后 我不会再这么
but going forward, I wouldn’t do this
做了
again.
以下是理由
Here’s the reason why.
当你与搭档一起做习题集时
When you do a problem set with a partner,
你失去了自己
you’re robbing yourself the opportunity to
找到理解的薄弱点的机会
really pinpoint gaps in your understanding
因为两个人同时
because two people going at the same problem
写到同样的题目
at the same time,
要么是其中一个人可以独立完成
if one person is able to do the entire thing and the other person can
且另一个也可以
kind of get where the first person’s comingfrom. So,
要么是你不懂这个问题怎么解
if you don’t really understand
或者有某部分
a problem or maybe there’s one tiny little section that
不理解 但是你的搭档可以
you wouldn’t have gotten, but your partner does,
你就会抓紧他的答案进行参考
you’re going to latch onto their answer.
你会说 是的
You’re going to say,” Yeah,
我知道了
I sort of get that,” and you
然后你就会抄过来
‘re going to move on, but if
但如果你独立做题
you do it alone,
你就可以找到使你困惑的点
then you’re going to be able to pinpoint those areas of confusion and shore
在进入小组并完成任务之前明确它们
them up before you get into a group and finish the assignment,
所以开始独立做题吧
so start them alone.
以上就是八个先进的建议
Those are my 8 Advanced Study Tips.
我知道这个视频比平时的要长
I know this video is a bit longer than normal,
但如果你有任何问题
but if you’ve got any questions about these
或者想了解更详细的某点建议
and want to learn more about any specific ones,
请在下面留言评论
then be sure to leave a comment below
让我知道
and let me know. Otherwise,
下次再见
I will see you in the next video.
朋友们,谢谢观看我的这次视频
Hey guys, thanks so much for watching my video on Advanced Study Tips. Now,
如果你想每周获得
if you want to get more
更多的学习建议和其它成为优秀大学生的建议
study tips every single week and other tips on being an awesome
点击右边的那个红色的订阅按钮
college student, then hit that big red Subscribe button right there,
你将每周四
and you’ll get those videos
获取这些视频
every single Thursday. Also,
如果你想找到
if you want to find the
我的放置调查资源或涉及到的东西
companion blog post where I link to any resources for research
的博客
I did or other things I mentioned
你可以点击视频里的橙色按钮
in the video you can click the orange button right there
去找到
to find that.
如果你错过了上一个视频
If you missed the last video,
这里有一个重播按钮
there’s a clip of it playing right there, and also if you
如果你想取得更好的成绩
want to get better grades,
我写了一本上千字的书叫
I wrote a hundred plus page book called, 10 Steps to Earning
轻松学习 十步取得好成绩
Awesome Grades while Studying Less,
这本书免费发行
and I want to give it to you for free.
如果你想得到这本书
If you want to get that book,
就点击这本书的图片
just click the picture of the book right there. Lastly,
如果你想联系我
if you want to connect
询问问题或为新视频提供想法
with me or ask questions or submit new ideas for new videos,
你可以联系我的推特账户Tom Frankly
you can either follow me on Twitter
或者就在视频下方
at Tom Frankly or simply leave the comment
留言评论
in the video below here,
不管什么问题我都会回复的
and I will respond to you no matter what.

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视频概述

如果你已知的传统的学习方法不能有效的帮助你提高,这里给出了八个先进的学习技巧,希望这些能帮到你。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5ad6grll-ak

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