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如何阻止暴乱 – 译学馆
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如何阻止暴乱

How to Stop a Riot

[警告]该视频含有暴乱场景图片 包括暴力 渎神和令人不安的图片
两周前 夏洛茨维尔发生了暴乱
Two weeks ago Charlottesville erupted into chaos.
一群白人至上论者 新纳粹主义分子和极右翼示威者
Violence met the streets as a groups of white supremacists, neo-Nazis,
与反对主义者产生冲突
and far right demonstrators
在街上发生暴力事件
clashed with counter-protesters.
一些人批评并把暴力事件归咎于警方的反应
Some have criticized and blamedthe violence on the police response.
警察拥有一切的优势
“The police had every opportunity.
他们有加班费 有风险津贴
They’re getting overtime pay, they’re getting hazard pay,
他们每个军官都有数万美元的装备
they’ve got tens of thousands of dollars of equipment per officer
然而他们到这来 对着空地守卫了整整一天
and they came out here and guarded empty space the entire day.”
但为了更好地理解 为什么示威会以这样的方式结束
But to better understand why the demonstration ended up the way it did,
你需要知道防暴行动的运行机制
you have to understand how riot control works.
防暴行动的根本问题在于
The fundamental problem with riot control is
暴徒的人数永远比防暴警察多
that there are almost never more riot police than rioters
所以警察们需要人为地给自己增加其他优势
so the police need to artificially give themselves an advantage.
其一就是心理上的优势
Part of it is psychological.
他们能让暴徒觉得自己不敌警察
They make it so rioters think that the police could defeat them.
全副武装的防暴警察看起来冷酷无情
The uniforms riot police wear are intentionally dehumanizing.
从头到脚都穿戴着防卫装备
Clad in protective gear head-to-toe,
使你很难将他们区分开来
you can hardly tell one person from the next.
这将在骚乱者与警察间形成心理屏障
This creates a psychological barrier betweenthe police and the rioters.
研究显示
Studies have show
这些防暴装备使暴徒与警察自己
that these uniforms make both protesters and the police themselves
都觉得警察的实力要大过暴乱者
feel like the police officers are morepowerful than they are.
事实同样证明
It has also been proven that
防暴警察的行进方式使他们比看起来更强大
the way riot police act increases their perceived power.
警察们通常步调一致地前进
The officers almost always marchand act in unison.
当他们像抗议者一样组成一个集体时
When they act as a collective, just like the protestors,
他们自己和群众都会觉得
they personally feel as if they have
他们仿佛拥有了集体的力量
the power of the collective and the crowd does too.
防暴警察的基本编队如图所示
The most basic riot police formationlooks like this.
为了将人群驱赶到其它地方
With the goal of moving the crowd to another location,
梯次编队的前锋会缓慢前进
this front echelon slowly advances,
用他们的警棍和防护盾把骚乱者向前推
pushing rioters forward with theirshields and batons.
整个团体的领队总领全队人员
They’re followed by a team leader who organizes the whole group,
就像夏洛茨维尔拍摄镜头中的这位警官
most likely this officer in this Charlottesville footage.
领队旁边是几位防化警察
Right with the team leader are a few gas officers.
比如这位警官
You can see one here.
他们用催泪瓦斯和辣椒水喷雾
They have tear gas or pepper spray to deploy
来驱散队伍前方聚众闹事的
over the front echelon towards any demonstrators
示威游行者
that put up a fight.
接下来是一队负责逮捕骚乱者的警察
Following them is a group of arrest officers.
如果队列前锋的警察遇到了个别极为激进的反对者
Should the front group encounter any particularly difficult rioters,
他们会从中央散开 让骚乱者进入包围 紧接着执法人员会逮捕骚乱者
they can open up, let the demonstrator though, then the arresting officers can take the troublemaker into custody.
队伍最后方的警察负责断后
Finishing is the rear echelon which protects the
并替补队伍前锋
group and can sub out with the front echelon
防止前排警员过度疲劳
when they tire.
集会时发生暴乱是由三个原因导致的:
Violence happens at rallies because of threefacts:
未知身份的人群 匿名人群滋生了暴力 暴力行为降低后果预估能力
crowds are anonymous, anonymity breeds violence, and violence lowers consequences.
游行队伍中的人都有从众心理
Crowds are deindividualizing.
当你是游行队伍中的一员时
When you’re just one of a number,
你既不会认为也不会表现出
you don’t think or
自己是独立于集体外的一员
act as much like an individual person.
拥有共同目标和相同思维方式的人产生了群体意识
A group of people all with a common goal and a common way of thinking breeds a collective conscience.
和独自一人时不同 人们身处一个群体中往往会做事 不计后果
In a crowd, people don’t think about consequences the same way they do when they’re on their own.
情绪会像传染病一样蔓延
There’s a sort of contagion of feeling.
就像人们在体育比赛和夜总会里表现得很反常
Just like a sports game or a nightclub,
是因为他们受到了旁人情绪的影响
people act differently than they normally might because other people do too.
有一种来自同伴的无形的压力
There’s a sort of wordless peer-pressure.
为了配合领导人 一些人会刻意加重他们的暴力行为
Individuals subconsciously escalate theirviolence to match that of the leaders.
在团体中 人们的行动受本能指引
People act almost by instinct
个体意识消失 成为集体的一部分
in crowds and the individual breaks down and becomes a part of the collective.
普遍的暴力行为会减轻落实到个人的惩罚
When there’s widespread violence, individualsare punished less.
人们法律责任感较低
There’s a lower sense of legal culpability
原因就是警察的逮捕次数比平常少
since police often make far fewer arrests than normal.
在暴乱中 警方不能逮捕所有的暴乱者
In a riot, authorities can’t arrest everyone.
因此他们把最激进的反对者代表作为攻击目标
They target the leaders, the most violentprotestors.
就像躲避一头熊一样
It’s like running from a bear.
你没必要跑得比熊快
You don’t have to be faster than the bear,
你只需要跑的比最慢的那个人快就行
you just have to be faster than the slowest person.
在夏洛茨维尔事件中
Dozens or perhaps
上百人有暴力行为 在平时他们理应被拘留
hundreds of people committed violent acts in Charlottesville that normally
但在这些人之中
would have resulted in arrests, but out of them,
只有八个人被逮捕
only eight were arrested.
警察必须小心对待抗议活动的走向
Police have to be very careful with the directionality of the protest.
警察的目标是终止或减缓骚乱
The police’s goal is to stop
但大规模的逮捕往往加剧了
or slow the riot while widespread arrests will often further
暴力行为的发生
ignite the violence.
比如在夏洛茨维尔的暴乱中
In Charlottesville, for example,
如果警方的干涉过于强硬
if the police had intervened too strongly, the direction
骚乱的方向就会转变
could have turned and members
游行者和反对者双方可能会将他们的暴力行为
of both groups could have directed their violence towards
转向警察
the police.
警方绝对不会想要在危险的暴乱中被指控为执法不公
Police never want to be perceived as unjust in a riot scenario that is dangerous, so they
所以他们必须谨慎在不作为和乱作为中维持平衡
have to play a careful balancing act between too little and too much response.
所以在夏洛茨维尔事件中到底什么出了差错?
So what went wrong in Charlottesville?
它为什么会以如此暴力的方式结束 警察又是否能够阻止它?
Why did it end up so violent and could the police have prevented it?
“统一权利”的集会最初计划在中午开始
The “ Unite the Right ” rally was
但在上午九点时
initially slated to begin at noon but by 9 am there
两个派别都聚集了上百人
were already hundreds of demonstrators fromboth sides.
警方没有来得及准备
The police were not ready that early.
他们没有穿防暴警服 同时警察的数量不足
They weren’t in their riot uniforms and they didn’t have significant numbers.
最初的计划是使用武力
The initial plan was to physically
将夏洛茨维尔市中心的民众分离到
separate the two groups on separate sides of Emancipation
解放公园的两边
park in downtown Charlottesville.
警方设立了屏障
There were barriers set up,
但没有人预想到集会的人数规模
but nobody seemed to anticipate the number of people that showed up.
“统一权利”集会事实上已经被批准
The “Unite the Right” rally was in facta permitted assembly.
游行者在解放公园的聚集行为是完全合法的
That group’s presence at Emancipation park was fully legal,
但是当局肯定不希望
but the city did not want
游行者在此聚集
them there specifically.
当地政府以封禁他们的游行许可证为要挟
The city government tried to block the demonstration permit
要求游行者将他们的集会范围控制在附近
unless the group agreed to hold their
占地面积更大且更空旷的麦金太尔公园里
rally at nearby McIntire park,
但集会的组织者根据第一修正案
a much larger and more open park nearby, but the rally’s
成功地在法庭上驳回了这一请求
organizers successfully contested this move in court
并被允许在夏洛茨维尔的
on first amendment grounds and was
市中心举行集会
allowed to hold their rally right there indowntown Charlottesville.
显然那里没有足够的场地
There simply was not enough space for the number
容纳聚集在此的人群
of people who showed up, but the fundamental
但人口是夏洛茨维尔的根本问题
issue in Charlottesville was numbers.
夏洛茨维尔是一个小镇
Charlottesville is a small town,
居民不足五万人
fewer than 50,000 people live there, and their police
而相应的 警察的数量也很少
force is correspondently small.
当有数千抗议者聚集在此时
While there were thousands of protestors,
警方的数量却不足130人
the police force had fewer than 130 officers.
与此同时
At the same time,
夏洛茨维尔的警察缺乏应对骚乱事件的经验
the officers working in Charlottesville were hardly experienced with riots.
夏洛茨维尔并非经常发生骚乱
It’s not a big city
的大城市——在这或许是许多警察第一次
with frequent protests—this might have been the first time many officers
在人群中使用防暴装置
used their riot gear in the field.
当遭遇暴力行为时他们无法抵抗
They could not afford for the violence toturn towards them.
当警长还没有说完自己的计划
While the chief of police hasn’t spoke much
专家便指出 这个计划没有在一开始干涉暴乱
about his tactics, experts have said that the lack of initial intervention was likely a conscious choice
是为了保证暴力只发生在抗议者之间 而不波及警察
to assure that the violence stayed between protestors and protestors,not between protestors and police.
弗吉尼亚州允许公开携带武器
Virginia is an open-carry state and
许多骚乱者会随身携带威胁性武器
many demonstrators carried assault weapons so escalated aggression
这会将暴力行为变得更加危险
could have turned the riot even deadlier.
大概在上午11:40
At around 11:40 am,
弗吉尼亚州的警方宣布示威游行属于非法集会
the Virginia State Police declared the protest an unlawful assembly
意味着参与游行将是非法行为
meaning it was then illegal to participate.
随后警察开始谨慎地驱散人群
They subsequently began the process of breakingit up carefully. Now,
如何驱散并制止一场骚乱非常重要
how you break up a protest is very important.
因为错误的方式可能会导致严重的后果
Doing it wrong can turn deadly.
警方的首要任务是清空解放公园
Their first priority was clearing EmancipationPark.
解放公园是此次抗议的象征和中心
This was both the symbolic and physical centerof the protest.
次举使民众知道集会是违法的
They made it know that the assembly was nowunlawful
“官方已经宣布集会游行属于违法行为。”
“This gathering has been declared it illegal to hold rallies and marches.”
接着警察穿上防暴制服向外扩散队伍
then began to slowly work their way outwards in a uniform
把所有挑起争端的人向外推
fashion pushing back anyone who put up a fight.
警察会把暴力行动的领导者带离公共场合
They strategically removed the violence leadersfrom the public area.
你能看到防暴警察队伍的前锋
Here you can see the man in red pulled
控制住了这个穿红衣服的男人(在12:10的时候)
through the front echelon of officers.
作为激进人员之一 他被警察队伍中部的
(12:10) He was likely brought into custodyby the arrest officers behind the front echelon
执法人员逮捕拘留了
since he was one of the main escalators.
还有一些会让场面失控的人
There were other aggressors escalating the situation
例如这个举着旗帜的男人
like this man with the flag, but
但警方不会冒着打乱队列的风险逮捕他
the police didn’t risk breaking rank totake him into custody.
这样做会让他们受到暴力袭击的威胁
Doing so would expose officers to the violence of the main crowd.
催泪瓦斯被用于驱散公园中负隅顽抗的人
Tear gas was used to get the final people out of the park.
催泪瓦斯威力强大的原因之一是
Part of the reason tear gas is so effective is
它给人们带来的严重不适感会
because the discomfort it brings makes
让人们停止集体活动并开始担心自己的安危
people stop their collective action to worryabout themselves.
它会驱散人群并使他们把注意力集中在自己身上
It takes them out of the mass and has them concentrate on the individual.
公园最终被被清空 但主要的游行活动被转移到了周边的街道上
The park was eventually cleared but the riot largely continued on the surrounding streets.
关键问题是警方没有试图控制游行人群
What was important was that they police did not try to contain the demonstrators.
他们只是制止了暴乱 而非抗议人员
They did try to contain the violence, butnot the people.
无论防暴警察何时介入
Whenever riot police intervenes,
他们总是会给游行人群留后路
they always want to leave an escape route for the demonstrators
让他们考虑自己是否达到目的并离开
who decide that they’ve had enough and wantto leave.
防暴警察看起来如此吓人的另一个
A big reason why riot police look and
重要原因是为了让游行人群离开
act so intimidatingly is to get rioters to leave.
事实就是这样
This is, in fact,
怎样驱散人群就是制止一场骚乱的核心
exactly how you stop a riot—by getting people to leave.
在夏洛茨维尔事件中 当警察清空了公园后
In Charlottesville, after the clearing of Emancipation Park
许多极右倾主义的骚乱人员
many of the alt-right protestors moved to a secondary location
在反对者向附近街道进军时 开始向第二阵地转移
while the counter-protestors starting marching in the surrounding streets.
在数小时的暴力行为后 两个团体完成撤离
After many hours of violence, the groups did,
在一定程度上 彼此拉大距离会造成
to an extent, naturally separate from each
参与违法游行人员的心理压力
other given the additional space and pressure of the illegality of the protest.
警察已经制定了一个计划
The police had set up a plan to
就是从一开始就把人群分开
physically separate the opposing groups from the start
但这是一个不切实际的方案
but that was an idealistic plan.
认为狂热的反对者会自觉
It was unrealistic to think that passionate,
退回到自己的地盘上的想法完全是
aggressive protestors would self-select into
一厢情愿
their proper areas.
我们无法断言警方是否
It’s hard to know exactly
能更好地制止暴力事件发生
if the police could have done a better job at preventing violence.
但分析结果表明
From analysis its clear
他们对自己的行事方法极为谨慎以至于有人认为
that they were overwhelmingly cautious in their techniques which some may
由于他们缺乏经验和人手 这件事发生是理所当然的
consider merited given their inexperiencewith riots and disadvantage in numbers.
防暴警察的技术装备是为了
The techniques riot police use are designed to
在他们身处不利境地时获得一定优势
give them an advantage where they don’t have one.
他们被要求阻止破坏与流血事件的发生
They’re tasked with preventing damage, injuries,
但他们却耍着平衡暴力行为的花招
and death but they do have to play a careful
来确保暴力攻击的矛头
game of balance to make sure
不会直接指向他们自己
that violence isn’t immediately directed towards them.
在受到暴力袭击时 他们无法有效阻止破坏性暴力事件发生
If they’re overwhelmed with directed violence, they can’t effectively prevent damaging violence.
警察的职位意味着他们在
The police are in a position where they’re
不作行动和干涉过多时
criticized when they have too little response
都会遭受批评
and criticized when they have too much.
每个人对于适当干预的标准都不同
Everyone’s opinion on the proper level
所以一场骚乱发生时要使
of response differs so it’s almost impossible
警察不受非议几乎是不可能的
for an assembly to occur without criticismof the police.
夏洛茨维尔事件是一个不幸的例子
Charlottesville was an unfortunate situation where
数千人聚集到一个小城市
thousands of people all came Into atiny town to hold
发生了这十年中最狂热的暴乱事件之一
one of the most violent and passionate protests of this decade.
对警察的反应最好的分析可能是结果:
The best analysis of the police’s responsemay be in the outcome
此次事件中 城市无法避免的破坏和流血伤亡降到了最小
there where no directly preventable deaths and damage to the city was minimal.
美国和许多其他国家
The United States and many other countries
在言论自由的理念达成了统一
around the world are centered on the idea of free speech,
所以警察的工作就是判定示威游行在
so these police officers have the unenviable job of deciding where the demonstration
合法权利与暴力流氓行为间的界限
of this unalienable right stops and wheredangerous, violent hooliganism begins.
值得一提的事
On a lighter note,
这个星期四 8月31日 我会开一个全新的节目
I’ll be launching a brand new channel this Thursday, August 31st.
我不想剧透太多
I don’t want to reveal too much,
但本质上来讲它是对老版节目的延续
but it’s essentially the continuation of the old TWL series.
所以现在你可以订阅我们的频道
All you should do now is subscribe here
以便在第一条视频上架时收到提醒
to get the first video right when it comes out.

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视频概述

带你了解暴乱发生的过程,以及防暴措施是如何生效的

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yT9bit2-1pg

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