[警告]该视频含有暴乱场景图片 包括暴力 渎神和令人不安的图片
Two weeks ago Charlottesville erupted into chaos.
Violence met the streets as a groups of white supremacists, neo-Nazis,
and far right demonstrators
clashed with counter-protesters.
Some have criticized and blamedthe violence on the police response.
“The police had every opportunity.
They’re getting overtime pay, they’re getting hazard pay,
they’ve got tens of thousands of dollars of equipment per officer
and they came out here and guarded empty space the entire day.”
But to better understand why the demonstration ended up the way it did,
you have to understand how riot control works.
The fundamental problem with riot control is
that there are almost never more riot police than rioters
so the police need to artificially give themselves an advantage.
Part of it is psychological.
They make it so rioters think that the police could defeat them.
The uniforms riot police wear are intentionally dehumanizing.
Clad in protective gear head-to-toe,
you can hardly tell one person from the next.
This creates a psychological barrier betweenthe police and the rioters.
Studies have show
that these uniforms make both protesters and the police themselves
feel like the police officers are morepowerful than they are.
It has also been proven that
the way riot police act increases their perceived power.
The officers almost always marchand act in unison.
When they act as a collective, just like the protestors,
they personally feel as if they have
the power of the collective and the crowd does too.
The most basic riot police formationlooks like this.
With the goal of moving the crowd to another location,
this front echelon slowly advances,
pushing rioters forward with theirshields and batons.
They’re followed by a team leader who organizes the whole group,
most likely this officer in this Charlottesville footage.
Right with the team leader are a few gas officers.
You can see one here.
They have tear gas or pepper spray to deploy
over the front echelon towards any demonstrators
that put up a fight.
Following them is a group of arrest officers.
Should the front group encounter any particularly difficult rioters,
他们会从中央散开 让骚乱者进入包围 紧接着执法人员会逮捕骚乱者
they can open up, let the demonstrator though, then the arresting officers can take the troublemaker into custody.
Finishing is the rear echelon which protects the
group and can sub out with the front echelon
when they tire.
Violence happens at rallies because of threefacts:
未知身份的人群 匿名人群滋生了暴力 暴力行为降低后果预估能力
crowds are anonymous, anonymity breeds violence, and violence lowers consequences.
Crowds are deindividualizing.
When you’re just one of a number,
you don’t think or
act as much like an individual person.
A group of people all with a common goal and a common way of thinking breeds a collective conscience.
和独自一人时不同 人们身处一个群体中往往会做事 不计后果
In a crowd, people don’t think about consequences the same way they do when they’re on their own.
There’s a sort of contagion of feeling.
Just like a sports game or a nightclub,
people act differently than they normally might because other people do too.
There’s a sort of wordless peer-pressure.
Individuals subconsciously escalate theirviolence to match that of the leaders.
People act almost by instinct
in crowds and the individual breaks down and becomes a part of the collective.
When there’s widespread violence, individualsare punished less.
There’s a lower sense of legal culpability
since police often make far fewer arrests than normal.
In a riot, authorities can’t arrest everyone.
They target the leaders, the most violentprotestors.
It’s like running from a bear.
You don’t have to be faster than the bear,
you just have to be faster than the slowest person.
Dozens or perhaps
hundreds of people committed violent acts in Charlottesville that normally
would have resulted in arrests, but out of them,
only eight were arrested.
Police have to be very careful with the directionality of the protest.
The police’s goal is to stop
or slow the riot while widespread arrests will often further
ignite the violence.
In Charlottesville, for example,
if the police had intervened too strongly, the direction
could have turned and members
of both groups could have directed their violence towards
Police never want to be perceived as unjust in a riot scenario that is dangerous, so they
have to play a careful balancing act between too little and too much response.
So what went wrong in Charlottesville?
Why did it end up so violent and could the police have prevented it?
The “ Unite the Right ” rally was
initially slated to begin at noon but by 9 am there
were already hundreds of demonstrators fromboth sides.
The police were not ready that early.
They weren’t in their riot uniforms and they didn’t have significant numbers.
The initial plan was to physically
separate the two groups on separate sides of Emancipation
park in downtown Charlottesville.
There were barriers set up,
but nobody seemed to anticipate the number of people that showed up.
The “Unite the Right” rally was in facta permitted assembly.
That group’s presence at Emancipation park was fully legal,
but the city did not want
them there specifically.
The city government tried to block the demonstration permit
unless the group agreed to hold their
rally at nearby McIntire park,
a much larger and more open park nearby, but the rally’s
organizers successfully contested this move in court
on first amendment grounds and was
allowed to hold their rally right there indowntown Charlottesville.
There simply was not enough space for the number
of people who showed up, but the fundamental
issue in Charlottesville was numbers.
Charlottesville is a small town,
fewer than 50,000 people live there, and their police
force is correspondently small.
While there were thousands of protestors,
the police force had fewer than 130 officers.
At the same time,
the officers working in Charlottesville were hardly experienced with riots.
It’s not a big city
with frequent protests—this might have been the first time many officers
used their riot gear in the field.
They could not afford for the violence toturn towards them.
While the chief of police hasn’t spoke much
about his tactics, experts have said that the lack of initial intervention was likely a conscious choice
to assure that the violence stayed between protestors and protestors,not between protestors and police.
Virginia is an open-carry state and
many demonstrators carried assault weapons so escalated aggression
could have turned the riot even deadlier.
At around 11:40 am,
the Virginia State Police declared the protest an unlawful assembly
meaning it was then illegal to participate.
They subsequently began the process of breakingit up carefully. Now,
how you break up a protest is very important.
Doing it wrong can turn deadly.
Their first priority was clearing EmancipationPark.
This was both the symbolic and physical centerof the protest.
They made it know that the assembly was nowunlawful
“This gathering has been declared it illegal to hold rallies and marches.”
then began to slowly work their way outwards in a uniform
fashion pushing back anyone who put up a fight.
They strategically removed the violence leadersfrom the public area.
Here you can see the man in red pulled
through the front echelon of officers.
(12:10) He was likely brought into custodyby the arrest officers behind the front echelon
since he was one of the main escalators.
There were other aggressors escalating the situation
like this man with the flag, but
the police didn’t risk breaking rank totake him into custody.
Doing so would expose officers to the violence of the main crowd.
Tear gas was used to get the final people out of the park.
Part of the reason tear gas is so effective is
because the discomfort it brings makes
people stop their collective action to worryabout themselves.
It takes them out of the mass and has them concentrate on the individual.
The park was eventually cleared but the riot largely continued on the surrounding streets.
What was important was that they police did not try to contain the demonstrators.
They did try to contain the violence, butnot the people.
Whenever riot police intervenes,
they always want to leave an escape route for the demonstrators
who decide that they’ve had enough and wantto leave.
A big reason why riot police look and
act so intimidatingly is to get rioters to leave.
This is, in fact,
exactly how you stop a riot—by getting people to leave.
In Charlottesville, after the clearing of Emancipation Park
many of the alt-right protestors moved to a secondary location
while the counter-protestors starting marching in the surrounding streets.
After many hours of violence, the groups did,
to an extent, naturally separate from each
other given the additional space and pressure of the illegality of the protest.
The police had set up a plan to
physically separate the opposing groups from the start
but that was an idealistic plan.
It was unrealistic to think that passionate,
aggressive protestors would self-select into
their proper areas.
It’s hard to know exactly
if the police could have done a better job at preventing violence.
From analysis its clear
that they were overwhelmingly cautious in their techniques which some may
consider merited given their inexperiencewith riots and disadvantage in numbers.
The techniques riot police use are designed to
give them an advantage where they don’t have one.
They’re tasked with preventing damage, injuries,
and death but they do have to play a careful
game of balance to make sure
that violence isn’t immediately directed towards them.
If they’re overwhelmed with directed violence, they can’t effectively prevent damaging violence.
The police are in a position where they’re
criticized when they have too little response
and criticized when they have too much.
Everyone’s opinion on the proper level
of response differs so it’s almost impossible
for an assembly to occur without criticismof the police.
Charlottesville was an unfortunate situation where
thousands of people all came Into atiny town to hold
one of the most violent and passionate protests of this decade.
The best analysis of the police’s responsemay be in the outcome
there where no directly preventable deaths and damage to the city was minimal.
The United States and many other countries
around the world are centered on the idea of free speech,
so these police officers have the unenviable job of deciding where the demonstration
of this unalienable right stops and wheredangerous, violent hooliganism begins.
On a lighter note,
这个星期四 8月31日 我会开一个全新的节目
I’ll be launching a brand new channel this Thursday, August 31st.
I don’t want to reveal too much,
but it’s essentially the continuation of the old TWL series.
All you should do now is subscribe here
to get the first video right when it comes out.
[警告]该视频含有暴乱场景图片 包括暴力 渎神和令人不安的图片