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如何在重压下保持冷静? – 译学馆
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如何在重压下保持冷静?

How to stay calm under pressure - Noa Kageyama and Pen-Pen Chen

“压力是人生的礼遇”——比利·简·金
“Pressure is a privilege.” – Billie Jean King
你最喜欢的运动员将迎来最后的胜利一击
Your favorite athlete closes in for a victorious win.
观众屏住呼吸
The crowd holds its breath,
但在这关键时刻 她却错失良机
and at the crucial moment, she misses the shot.
这位选手只是经历了“重压窒息”
That competitor just experienced the phenomenon known as”choking”,
这是指无论训练几个月还是几年
where despite months, even years, of practice,
但关键时刻仍会失败的情况
a person fails right when it matters most.
“重压窒息”在体育运动中很常见
“Choking” is common in sports,
通常在重压下
where performance often occurs under intense pressure
或关键时刻发生
and depends on key moments.
而且焦虑也会影响公众演讲者
And yet, performance anxiety also haunts public speakers,
拼字比赛选手 甚至是世界著名音乐家
contestants in spelling bees, and even world-famous musicians.
大多数人本能的把“重压窒息”归咎为紧张
Most people intuitively blame it on their nerves,
但为什么紧张会破坏专业表现呢?
but why does being nervous undermine expert performance?
现有的两种理论都认为
There are two sets of theories, which both say that
重压窒息产生的根本原因是注意力
primarily choking under pressure boils down to focus.
第一种是注意力分散理论
First, there are the distraction theories.
这是指
These suggest that performance suffers
当注意力没有放在手头的工作上
when the mind is preoccupied with worries, doubts, or fears,
而是被忧虑 疑惑 或恐惧占据
instead of focusing its attention on performing the task at hand.
当相关与无关的想法需要同等的注意力
When relevant and irrelevant thoughts compete for the same attention,
必须放弃其中之一时
something has to give.
大脑每次只能处理那么多信息
The brain can only process so much information at once.
用来挑战做事记忆的任务
Tasks that challenge working memory,
也就是我们用来暂时
the mental “ scratch pad
储存电话号码和购物清单的大脑便签
we use to temporarily store phone numbers and grocery lists,
这种大脑便签极容易受到压力的影响
are especially vulnerable to pressure.
在2004年的一项研究中 一组大学生
In a 2004 study, a group of university students
被要求解答数学问题
were asked to perform math problems,
问题有易 有难而且需要高强度记忆
some easy, others more complex and memory-intensive.
一半的学生在毫无影响的情况下完成了两种类型的问题
Half the students completed both problem types with nothing at stake,
而其他学生是在压力下保持冷静完成的
while the others completed them when calm and under pressure.
每个人在简单问题上都做得很出色
While everyone did well on the easy problems,
那些感到压力的人 在完成难度更大
those who were stressed performed worse
需要高强度记忆的任务时表现得更差
on the more difficult, memory-intensive tasks.
明确的监控理论构成了
Explicit monitoring theories make upthe second group of explanations
第二组对“重压窒息”的解释
for choking under pressure.
他们关心的是 压力如何使人们
They ’ re concerned with how pressure can cause people
过分纠结眼前的工作
to overanalyze the task at hand.
逻辑上 当一项技能变成本能反应
Here, the logic goes that once a skill becomes automatic,
思考它的精确机制会干扰你的能力
thinking about its precise mechanics interferes with your ability to do it.
我们下意识的活动 似乎
Tasks we do unconsciously seem to
最容易受到“重压窒息”的影响
be most vulnerable to this kind of choking.
一项关于实力相当的高尔夫球手的研究
A study on competitive golfers compared their performance
对以下两种情况进行了比较
when instructed to simply focus onpodding as accurately as possible,
一种是按照指示 只关注尽可能地精准进球
versus when they were primedto be acutely aware
另一种是要有意识地注意推杆击球的动作机制
of the mechanics of their podding stroke.
因为高尔夫球手通常会下意识地执行这个动作
Golfers usually perform this action subconsciously,
所以那些把注意力突然调整到
so those who suddenly tuned in to
准确完成动作过程的人
the precise details of their own moves
他们的进球准确率变得更糟
also became worse at making accurate shots.
但是“重压窒息”对所有人来说并非是不可避免的
Choking may not be inevitable for everyone though.
研究表明有些人比他人更容易受影响
Research suggests that some aremore susceptible than others,
特别是那些自我意识过剩 焦虑
especially those who are self-conscious, anxious,
害怕被他人负面评价的人
and afraid of being judged negatively by others.
因此 我们如何在关键时刻避免因压力而失败呢?
So, how can we avoid chokingwhen it really counts?
首先 在有压力的环境下练习 是有帮助的
First, it helps to practice under stressful conditions.
在一个有关飞镖高手的研究中
In a study on expert dart players,
研究人员发现 那些没有在压力下练习过的人
researchers found that thosewho hadn’t practiced under stress
相比那些习惯压力的人
performed worse when anxious
在焦虑时 表现得更差
compared to those who had become accustomed to pressure.
其次 许多表演者都宣扬预演动作的好处
Secondly, many performers extol the virtues of a pre-performance routine,
不管是做几次深呼吸
whether it’s taking a few deep breaths,
重复提示词 还是做一系列有节奏的动作
repeating a cue word, or doing a rhythmic sequence of movements,
有关高尔夫球 保龄球和水球的研究发现
studies on golfing, bowling, and water polo,
简短的仪式可以使状态更稳定
find that short rituals can lead to more consistent
在压力下发挥得更好
and accurate performance under pressure.
第三 研究人员表明
And thirdly, researchers have shown that
把终极目标作为关注点
having an external focus on the ultimate goal
要比以自身作为关注点更有效
works better than an internal focus,
通常是在某人关注做事方法而非最终目标的情况下如此
where someone is tuned into the mechanics of what they’re doing.
一项有关经验丰富的高尔夫球手的研究表明
A study of experienced golfers revealed
那些在切杆时
that those who hit chip shots
关注球的飞行情况的人
while focused on the flight of the ball
比那些注意手臂动作的人
performed significantly better than
明显表现得更加出色
those who focused on the motion of their arms.
所以 或许我们可以修正那句古话:
So, perhaps we can modify that age-old saying:
全神贯注地在压力下练习
practice under pressure, with focus,
并且有着远大的目标 就能达到完美
and with that glorious end goal in sight makes perfect.
想知道何为面临压力百折不挠
For a nail-biting example of persevering under pressure,
我们强烈推荐《激流少年》这本书
we highly recommend the boys in the boat.
它讲述了九个美国桨手
it tells the gripping true story of nine American rowers
在1936年的纳粹德国奥运会上获得金牌的扣人心弦的故事
and their quest for gold at the 1936 Olympics in Nazi Germany.
你可以登录audible.com/teded
You can download an audio version of this book
免费下载《激流少年》这本书的音频版
for free at audible.com/teded.
每个通过这个链接获得的免费试用都将支持TED的公益事业
Every free trial started through this link help support Ted’s nonprofit mission

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教你上场时如何才能不紧张、保持冷静!

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