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如何找出影响真正幸福的不健康想法 – 译学馆
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如何找出影响真正幸福的不健康想法

How to spot unhealthy ideas that stop true happiness | Johann Hari

如何找出妨碍更深度幸福的不健康想法
我所了解的抑郁和焦虑的九大病因
Of the nine causes of depression and anxiety I learned
都写在我的书《失联》里了
about for my book Lost Connections,
有些对我真的很有挑战性
there were a few that were really challenging for me
因为我知道它们是怎样折磨着我
because I realized how much I recognized them in myself.
其中最难的一点是——
So one of the hardest –
我想先给你们讲一个别的故事
I have to tell you a story about something else first, but when
这发生在2009年 圣诞节前夕
I was, in 2009 on Christmas Eve—
这让故事显得更悲伤了
it makes it even sadder that this story happened on Christmas Eve.
我以前靠吃垃圾食品生活
So I use to live on junk food.
而且吃得超级多
I used to eat appallingly.
在2009年圣诞前夜
And on Christmas Eve 2009
我在午饭时间进了我们当地的肯德基
I went into my local KFC at lunchtime
我到那儿后就点了餐
and I turned up and I gave my order—
太糟心了 我都不想再说一遍
which is so disgusting I won’teven repeat it.
柜台后面的服务生对我说
And the guy behind the counter said “Oh Johann,
“嘿约翰 很高兴见到你!
I’m so glad you’re here!
请稍等”
Wait a minute.”
我就像这样 “好……”
I was like, “Okay….”
然后他走开了
So he walked off
回来时 所有员工都跟在他后面
and he came back with all the other staff
他们给我一张巨大的圣诞节贺卡
and they’d bought me a massive Christmas card.
上面写着 “致我们最好的顾客”
And they’d written in it “To our bestcustomer.”
看着这张卡片 我不仅心塞而且绝望
And so I was looking at this and my clogged heart sank.
我想 “这甚至还不是我最常去的炸鸡店呢”
I thought, “This isn’t even the fried chicken shop I come to the most.”
这真是一个糟透了的时刻
It was a very unfortunate low point.
但众所周知 垃圾食品已经接管了我们的饮食
But we all know, right, junk food has taken over our diets.
尽管极不愿意承认我就是这样
Not admittedly to the extreme that I was,
但垃圾食品正逐渐支配我们的饮食
but junk food is increasingly dominating our diets
而且它会让我们的身体变弱
and it’s making us physically sick.
在这个研究中我最震惊的是
One of the things that really shocked me in the research is that
一些有力的证据显示
there’s really good evidence
思想中也有类似的事发生
that something similar has happenedwith our minds.
一些差劲的价值观已经占据了我们的思想
Our kind of junk values have taken over our minds
并让我们的精神状况变差
and they’ve made us mentally sick.
几千年以来哲学家们都说
So for thousands of years now philosophers have said,
如果你认为生活是关于
if you think life is about,
金钱 地位和炫耀
you know, money and status
那么你将会感觉很糟糕 是吧?
and showing off you’re going to feel terrible, right?
从孔夫子以来人们就被这样警示
From Confucius on down, people have been warning us of that.
但奇怪的是没人从科学角度去研究它
But weirdly nobody had actually scientifically investigated it,
直到我知道了一个叫蒂姆·凯瑟的杰出人物
until an incredible man I got to know called Professor Tim Kasser
伊利诺伊州诺克斯大学教授
who’s at Knox University in Illinois.
凯瑟教授认为
So Professor Kasser knew
当谈到人的动力 基本上
when it comes to human motivation there’s basically
大致上可分为两种
—to put it crudely—two kinds of human motivation, right.
想象你在弹钢琴
Imagine you play the piano.
如果你因为热爱和快乐而在早上弹琴
If you play the piano in the morning because you love it and it gives you joy,
那这就是一种内在动力
that’s an intrinsic motivation.
你不是想借此获取什么利益
You’re not doing it to get something out of it.
你这么做只是因为它给你带来快乐 对吧
You’re just doing it because that thing gives you joy, right?
那好 现在想象你不是因为快乐而弹琴
Okay, now imagine you play the piano not because it gives you joy,
而是为了交房租而在破旧酒吧里弹
but in a dive bar to pay the rent
或者是因为父母强迫你成为一个钢琴大师
or because your parents are really pressuring you to be a piano maestro,
又或是为了让人记住你 也许是某个古怪的钢琴迷?
or to impress a man, maybe some weird piano fetishist, right?
那么这就成为一种弹钢琴的外在动力
That would be an extrinsic reason to play the piano.
你弹琴不是为了享受
You’re not doing it for the experience itself.
而是为了得到什么
You’re doing it to get something out of it.
你是为了别的
You’re doing it one removed.
为了获得体验以外的东西
You’re doing it to get something out ofthe experience.
显然 我们兼有内在和外在的动力
Now we’re all a mixture of intrinsic and extrinsic values obviously,
而且在一生中我们一直在改变
and we change throughout our lives.
但是凯瑟教授发现了一些不可思议的事情
But Professor Kasser discovered some really fascinating things.
第一件
The first thing is,
外在动力占据你的生活越多
the more your life is dominated by extrinsic values
你就越不会因为某件事重要才去做
the more you’re doing things not because you think they’re important
而是因为你会怎样被别人看待
but because of how you’ll look to other people,
从表面上你看起来如何
how you’ll seem on the outside
你就更有可能抑郁和焦虑
—the more likely you are to become depressed and anxious.
这个影响很重要
It’s a quite significant effect
通过对22例抑郁和14例焦虑的研究
that’s been found in 22 studies with depression and
他发现了这个结论
14 studies with anxiety.
有很多原因
Now there are many reasons.
我只讲一个
I’ll give you just one.
我们知道
One of the things we know is
人生中真正的快乐以及重要的事物
that something that’s a real source of joy in human life,
被称为“心流状态”
things that really necessary are what are called flow states, right?
它是指做真正热爱的事的时刻
They’re moments when you’re doing something you really love.
对我来说是写作
For me it’s writing.
对有的人来说可能是跑步
For someone else it might be running.
当然那不是我
It’s definitely not that for me.
或其它的任何事情
Or, you know, whatever.
当你感到时光飞逝时
When your time seems to collapse
你已完全沉浸其中
you’re totally in the moment of what you’re doing
处于心流状态
and you’re flowing, right?
极度的外在价值观会严重妨碍你进入这种状态
Extreme extrinsic values massively disrupt your ability to get into flow states.
想象下你正在弹钢琴
If you imagine you’re playing the piano.
试想弹琴的人是出于内在原因
Imagine the guy’s playing the piano for intrinsic reasons, right,
因为这让他快乐
because it gives him joy.
现在试想下 他突然想
Now imagine suddenly he has to think,
“我是不是全纽约最棒的钢琴师
“Am I the best piano player in New York City today?
有人比我更好吗
Who’s better than me?
听众们觉得怎么样
How are these people listening to me?
他们会怎么评价我
How are they judging me?
我会得到报酬吗”
Am I going to get paid for this?”
你能看出它是如何让你脱离心流状态的
You can see how it would jolt you out of the flow state, right?
思想受外在影响 就不再处于心流状态了
When you think extrinsically you get jolted out of flow state.
外在价值判断让我们感觉差劲是有很多原因的
There are many reasons why extrinsic values make us feel bad
而且它们会破坏你的人际关系质量
and they ruin the quality of your relationships.
它们会排挤掉那些内在价值
They crowd out intrinsic values.
这种事情常常发生
There’s all sorts of things going on.
但是凯瑟教授也认为
But Professor Kasser is also showing
外在价值已经在我们的文化中占据主流
that extrinsic values have been taking over our culture.
我们将越来越被这些外在价值判断所支配
We’re becoming more and more dominated by these extrinsic values.
我们沉浸在这种思维中
We are immersed in this way of thinking
从我们出生就这样
from the moment we’re born.
很多18个月大的孩子对麦当劳的标志比自己的姓还熟悉
More 18-month-old children recognize the McDonald’s M than know their own surname.
充斥在生活中的广告信息告诉我们
We are pickled in advertising messages telling us
生活就是外在的
that life is about living extrinsically, right?
想象一个广告对你说
Imagine an advert that told you,
“你知道吗?你很棒
“You know what? You’re great.
你看起来很棒
You look fine.
你闻起来很棒
You smell nice.
你太棒了
You’re amazing.
今天你不需要别的什么了 ”
You don’t need anything more today.”
这可能会成为史上最差劲的广告了 对吧
That would be the worst advert that had ever been done, right?
广告是终极的腹黑友
Advertising is the ultimate frenemy.
它总是说“哦 宝贝 我爱你
It’s always telling you “Oh babe, I loveyou.
要是你不那么臭就好了”
It’s just, you know, if only you didn’tstink,” right?
凯瑟教授想表达的是
Now what Professor Kasser showed as he puts it is
在某种程度上我们都知道
at some level we all know this;
看这个视频的人都知道你不会说谎
everyone watching this knows you’re not going to lie,
在生命的最后时刻 你不会说谎
on the last day of your life you will not lie there
你不会想到那些你买过的东西
and think about all the things you bought, right.
你不会想到在办公室度过的那些时间
You will not think about all the hours you put in at the office.
你将会想起那些具有深刻意义和联系的时光
You will think about moments of deep meaning and connection.
但正如凯瑟教授所说
But as Professor Kasser puts it
我们生活在一个机器里
we live in a machine that’s constantly diverting us
使我们不断远离有意义的生活
from what is meaningful about life.
有一个精彩的实验
There’s a wonderful experiment that was done
比凯瑟教授的研究更早
before Professor Kasser’s work,
但我认为这确实阐明了这一点
but I think it really illustrates this.
这是1978年的实验
It was done in 1978.
这是一个非常简单的实验
It’s a very simple experiment.
将很多五岁的小孩带到沙坑
You get a lot of five year olds and you put them in a sand pit,
再分成两组
and you split them into two groups.
给第一组看某玩具的两个广告
The first group is shown two advertisements for a specific toy,
那玩具就是1978的《小猪佩奇》
whatever the 1978 equivalent of Peppa Pig was, right.
第二组不看任何广告
And the second group is shown no adverts.
最后 给所有的孩子一个选择
And at the end of it they give all the kids a choice.
“好了孩子们 做个选择吧
They say “Okay kids, got a choice now.
你可以跟一个好孩子一起玩
You can either play with a nice boy
他没有那个广告里的玩具
who doesn’t have the toy from the advert,
或跟一个有玩具的坏孩子一起玩”
or you can play with a nasty boy who’s got the toy.
没看广告的孩子
The kids who didn’t see the ad
多数选择了没玩具的好孩子
mostly choose the nice boy without the toy.
而看了广告的孩子
And the kids who saw the ad
多数选择了有玩具的坏孩子
mostly chose the nasty boy who’s got the toy.
仅仅两个广告 两个
So just two advertisements—two
使孩子们选择了一团毫无生命的塑料
—primed those children to choose an inanimate lump of plastic
超过了善意与关系
over kindness and connection.
我们每天看的广告远远超过两个
We are all being driven by way more advertising
它们驱使着我们 不是吗?
than that every day, right?
所有在看这个视频的人 包括我
Anyone watching this—and I would include myself in that
都工作到深夜 做着不喜欢的工作
—who stayed late at work doing something they don’t want to do
为了买一些他们可能并不需要的东西
to buy something they don’t need rather than…
而不是回家陪孩子?
go be home with their kids maybe?
你已经深陷这种行为模式之中
You’ve fallen prey to that dynamic.
而凯瑟教授给出了指引方向
And Professor Kasser has really shown this way
教导我们不要选择这些的垃圾价值观
that we’ve got to unpick these junk values.
我们已经被这些垃圾价值观充斥那么久
These junk values are what we’ve been fed for so long.
他们就是精神的垃圾食品
They’re a kind of KFC for the soul,
而这正使我们感到糟糕
and they’re making us feel terrible.

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视频概述

如何甄别外来不健康思想是否影响到我们

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0texZ9XDi_0

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