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如何识别谎言

How to spot a liar | Pamela Meyer

好吧 我不想吓唬在坐的各位
Okay, now I don’t want to alarm anybody in this room,
但我注意到你右边的人是骗子
but it’s just come to my attention that the person to your right is a liar.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
同样坐在你左边的人也是骗子
Also, the person to your left is a liar.
坐在你座位上的那个人还是个骗子
Also the person sitting in your very seats is a liar.
我们都是骗子
We’re all liars.
今天我要做的就是
What I’m going to do today
要告诉你研究表明为什么我们都是骗子
is I’m going to show you what the research says about why we’re all liars,
你应该如何识别谎言
how you can become a liespotter
以及你为什么要大费周折
and why you might want to go the extra mile
从识别谎言走向寻求真相
and go from liespotting to truth seeking,
最终实现建立信任
and ultimately to trust building.
那么 说到信任
Now, speaking of trust,
自从我写了《识破谎言》之后
ever since I wrote this book, “Liespotting,”
谁都不愿意再和我面对面打交道了 不不不
no one wants to meet me in person anymore, no, no, no, no, no.
他们说 “没关系 我们给你发邮件”
They say, “It’s okay, we’ll email you.”
[笑声]
[Laugher]
我甚至约不到人去星巴克喝咖啡
I can’t even get a coffee date at Starbucks.
我先生说:“亲爱的 测谎?
My husband’s like, “Honey, deception?
你还是把心思花在烹饪上吧 学法国菜怎么样?”
Maybe you could have focused on cooking. How about French cooking?”
所以在我开始之前
So before I get started, what I’m going to do
我需要向你们澄清我的目的
is I’m going to clarify my goal for you,
我的目的不是教你们玩测谎游戏
which is not to teach a game of Gotcha.
测谎者并不是挑刺的孩子
Liespotters aren’t those nitpicky kids,
那些孩子会在屋后大喊 “抓到了!
those kids in the back of the room that are shouting, “Gotcha! Gotcha!
你的眉毛抽动 鼻孔张开
Your eyebrow twitched. You flared your nostril.
我看过电视剧《别对我撒谎》我知道你在说谎”
I watch that TV show ‘Lie To Me.’ I know you’re lying.”
不是的 测谎者
No, liespotters are armed
以识破谎言的科学知识来武装自己
with scientific knowledge of how to spot deception.
并用之找出真相
They use it to get to the truth,
他们像成熟的领导人那样
and they do what mature leaders do everyday;
与难以打交道的人进行艰难的沟通
they have difficult conversations with difficult people,
有时候还会赶上诸事不顺的时候
sometimes during very difficult times.
开始之前他们会首先接受一个前提
And they start up that path by accepting a core proposition,
就是下面这个:
and that proposition is the following:
说谎是一种合作行为
Lying is a cooperative act.
想想 谎言在表达方面没有任何力量
Think about it, a lie has no power whatsoever by its mere utterance.
而当人们信以为真时
Its power emerges
谎言的力量就显现出来了
when someone else agrees to believe the lie.
所以我知道这听起来像是逆耳忠言
So I know it may sound like tough love,
但是 如果你被骗了
but look, if at some point you got lied to,
那就是因为你选择相信谎言
it’s because you agreed to get lied to.
谎言的第一条真相:说谎是一种合作行为
Truth number one about lying: Lying’s a cooperative act.
并不是所有的谎话都有害
Now not all lies are harmful.
有时 出于社会关系或面子问题
Sometimes we’re willing participants in deception
我们会去说谎
for the sake of social dignity,
或许有些秘密还是不要道破为好
maybe to keep a secret that should be kept secret, secret.
我们说 “这首歌真好听”
We say, “Nice song.”
“亲爱的 你穿这件不显胖 一点也不”
“Honey, you don’t look fat in that, no.”
我们 特别是数码达人还会说
Or we say, favorite of the digiratti,
“我才从垃圾邮件里还原那封邮件
“You know, I just fished that email out of my Spam folder.
真不好意思”
So sorry.”
而也有时候我们不愿意说谎
But there are times when we are unwilling participants in deception.
这常会造成戏剧性的代价
And that can have dramatic costs for us.
去年美国仅因为商务欺诈
Last year saw 997 billion dollars
就损失了9970亿美元
in corporate fraud alone in the United States.
这几乎就是一万亿美元
That’s an eyelash under a trillion dollars.
占税收总额的7%
That’s seven percent of revenues.
欺诈可能造成数十亿美元的损失
Deception can cost billions.
想一想安然 麦道夫 次贷危机
Think Enron, Madoff, the mortgage crisis.
还有像Robbert Hassen和Adlrich Ames这样的
Or in the case of double agents and traitors,
双面间谍或叛徒
like Robert Hanssen or Aldrich Ames,
谎言能出卖我们的国家
lies can betray our country,
能够削弱我们的安保 能够破坏民主制度
they can compromise our security, they can undermine democracy,
还能夺走国家卫士的生命
they can cause the deaths of those that defend us.
欺骗是一个严重的问题
Deception is actually serious business.
这个骗子Henry Oberlander 他的骗术很高明
This con man, Henry Oberlander, he was such an effective con man,
据英国官方称
British authorities say
他有能力破坏整个西方世界的银行系统
he could have undermined the entire banking system of the Western world.
而你在谷歌上找不到他 在任何地方都找不到
And you can’t find this guy on Google; you can’t find him anywhere.
他曾有一次接受采访时 说了如下的话
He was interviewed once, and he said the following.
他说 “我有一个原则”
He said, “Look, I’ve got one rule.”
他的原则是 他说
And this was Henry’s rule, he said,
“每个人都愿意给你某样东西
“Look, everyone is willing to give you something.
他们愿意付出一些来换取他们真正想要的”
They’re ready to give you something for whatever it is they’re hungry for.”
而问题就在这里
And that’s the crux of it.
如果你不想被骗 你就得明白
If you don’t want to be deceived, you have to know,
你真正想要什么?
what is it that you’re hungry for?
我们都不愿意承认
And we all kind of hate to admit it.
我们希望自己成为更好的丈夫 更好的妻子
We wish we were better husbands, better wives,
希望自己更聪明 更强大 个子更高 更有钱……
smarter, more powerful, taller, richer —
诸如此类的愿望
the list goes on.
谎言是人们试图在现实与愿望之间架起的桥梁
Lying is an attempt to bridge that gap,
把我们理想的自己 理想的生活
to connect our wishes and our fantasies
我们的种种心愿和幻想
about who we wish we were, how we wish we could be,
与真实的自己联系起来
with what we’re really like.
天啊 我们在用谎言来填补现实与幻想之间的鸿沟
And boy are we willing to fill in those gaps in our lives with lies.
研究指出 一天之中你可能听到
On a given day, studies show that you may be lied to
从10到200次不等的谎言
anywhere from 10 to 200 times.
的确 其中有许多是善意的谎言
Now granted, many of those are white lies.
而另一个研究显示
But in another study,
陌生人见面后的前十分钟内
it showed that strangers lied three times
可能会说3次谎
within the first 10 minutes of meeting each other.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
头一次听到这个数据 我们会接受不了
Now when we first hear this data, we recoil.
我们不敢相信人们会如此频繁地说谎
We can’t believe how prevalent lying is.
我们本质上反对说谎
We’re essentially against lying.
但仔细想想 问题实际不这么简单
But if you look more closely, the plot actually thickens.
我们对陌生人说谎的次数比对同事说谎的次数多
We lie more to strangers than we lie to coworkers.
外向的人比内向的人说谎次数多
Extroverts lie more than introverts.
男人说关于自己的谎言的次数是关于他人的8倍
Men lie eight times more about themselves than they do other people.
女性说谎往往是为了保护别人
Women lie more to protect other people.
如你们是一对普通夫妻
If you’re an average married couple,
你们的每十次沟通里就会有一次谎言
you’re going to lie to your spouse in one out of every 10 interactions.
你可能觉得这不好
Now, you may think that’s bad.
如果你未婚 那么每三次交流就有一次谎言
If you’re unmarried, that number drops to three.
说谎是个复杂的现象
Lying’s complex.
它与我们的日常生活工作交织在一起
It’s woven into the fabric of our daily and our business lives.
我们对真相总拿捏不准
We’re deeply ambivalent about the truth.
我们基于需求去理解它
We parse it out on an as-needed basis,
有时候是合情合理的
sometimes for very good reasons,
而有时候则是因为我们不接受现实与理想的差距
other times just because we don’t understand the gaps in our lives.
谎言的第二个真相:
That’s truth number two about lying.
我们反对说谎
We’re against lying,
但背地里却认同它
but we’re covertly for it
以我们的社会长期以来形成并认同的方式
in ways that our society has sanctioned for centuries and centuries and centuries.
其历史源远流长
It’s as old as breathing.
这是我们文化和历史的一部分
It’s part of our culture, it’s part of our history.
想想但丁 莎士比亚 《圣经》以及新闻
Think Dante, Shakespeare, the Bible, News of the World.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
谎言在人类进化上有着重要价值
Lying has evolutionary value to us as a species.
研究人员早就发现物种的智力越高
Researchers have long known that the more intelligent the species,
大脑皮层面积越大
the larger the neocortex,
就更可能产生欺骗行为
the more likely it is to be deceptive.
你们可能还记得Koko
Now you might remember Koko.
还有人记得那只学会手语的大猩猩Koko吗?
Does anybody remember Koko the gorilla who was taught sign language?
人们训练Koko用手语交流
Koko was taught to communicate via sign language.
这是Koko和她的小猫
Here’s Koko with her kitten.
这就是她毛茸茸的可爱宠物小猫咪
It’s her cute little, fluffy pet kitten.
有一次Koko责怪她的宠物猫弄坏了墙上的水槽
Koko once blamed her pet kitten for ripping a sink out of the wall.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
我们天生就喜欢当领导
We’re hardwired to become leaders of the pack.
这种行为很早就出现了
It’s starts really, really early.
多早?
How early?
婴儿会假哭
Well babies will fake a cry,
停一下 看看谁过来
pause, wait to see who’s coming
然后接着哭
and then go right back to crying.
一岁的孩子就会学会隐瞒
One-year-olds learn concealment.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
两岁的孩子会虚张声势
Two-year-olds bluff.
五岁的孩子撒谎都不打草稿
Five-year-olds lie outright.
他们会靠谄媚来达到目的
They manipulate via flattery.
九岁的孩子是掩盖真相的高手
Nine-year-olds, masters of the cover-up.
到你上大学时
By the time you enter college,
你与你母亲的每五次交流中就有一次谎言
you’re going to lie to your mom in one out of every five interactions.
而当我们工作开始养家糊口
By the time we enter this work world and we’re breadwinners,
我们就进入了一个充满了谎言 虚假的网友
we enter a world that is just cluttered with Spam, fake digital friends,
党派媒体
partisan media,
身份盗贼
ingenious identity thieves,
世界级的庞氏骗局等
world-class Ponzi schemers,
一个谎言盛行的时代
a deception epidemic —
有的作家将其简称为——后真相社会
in short, what one author calls a post-truth society.
长久以来这都让人们摸不着头脑
It’s been very confusing for a long time now.
你该怎么办?
What do you do?
有一些方法可以让我们挣脱迷雾
Well, there are steps we can take to navigate our way through the morass.
受过识谎训练的人能得到到90%的真相
Trained liespotters get to the truth 90 percent of the time.
而普通人只有54%正确率
The rest of us, we’re only 54 percent accurate.
为什么人能轻易学会识破谎言呢?
Why is it so easy to learn? Well
有人擅长说谎 有人不擅长
There are good liars and bad liars.
没有人生来就说谎
There are no real original liars.
我们会犯同样的错误 会用同样的手法
We all make the same mistakes. We all use the same techniques.
我要做的就是向你们展示两种欺骗的套路
So what I’m going to do is I’m going to show you two patterns of deception.
然后我们来看看一些破绽
And then we’re going to look at the hot spots
看看我们能否自己辨别出来
and see if we can find them ourselves.
我们从讲话开始
We’re going to start with speech.
我要向大家声明
(Video) Bill Clinton: I want you to listen to me.
再次郑重声明
I’m going to say this again.
我没有同那名女子发生性行为
I did not have sexual relations with that woman,
莱温斯基小姐
Miss Lewinsky.
我从没有让任何人说谎 一次没有 从没有
I never told anybody to lie, not a single time, never.
这些指控都是诬陷
And these allegations are false.
我得回去为美国人民工作了
And I need to go back to work for the American people.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]
好 有哪些破绽呢?
Pamela Meyer: Okay, what were the telltale signs?
首先 听到一个我们称为“正式的否定”
Well first we heard what’s known as a non-contracted denial.
研究表明人们想要过度强调否认时
Studies show that people who are overdetermined in their denial
喜欢使用更加正式的语言
will resort to formal rather than informal language.
我们还听到 “那名女子” 这种遥指性的措辞
We also heard distancing language: “that woman.”
我们知道说谎者会不自觉想撇清自己
We know that liars will unconsciously distance themselves
和相关对象的关系
from their subject,
借用语言来达成目的
using language as their tool.
如果克林顿总统说的是:“实话告诉你……”
Now if Bill Clinton had said, “Well, to tell you the truth …”
或者用尼克松总统的口头禅:“实话跟你说……”
or Richard Nixon’s favorite, “In all candor …”
他毫无疑问会暴露
he would have been a dead giveaway
在鉴谎者面前露出马脚
for any liespotter that knows
因为鉴谎者了解这种被称为修饰语的话
that qualifying language, as it’s called, qualifying language like that,
会让他的话更不可信
further discredits the subject.
如果他完整地将问题重复了一遍
Now if he had repeated the question in its entirety,
或者他添加了过多细节
or if he had peppered his account with a little too much detail —
幸好他没这么做
and we’re all really glad he didn’t do that —
他会让自己的话更假
he would have further discredited himself.
弗洛伊德说的有道理
Freud had it right.
弗洛伊德说:“瞧 话中有话
Freud said:look, there’s much more to it than speech,
没有人能保守住秘密
“No mortal can keep a secret.
如果他闭嘴 他的指尖也会说出来”
If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips.”
不管你有多厉害 我们都这样
And we all do it no matter how powerful you are.
我们的指尖都会出卖我们
We all chatter with our fingertips.
我下面给你们看多米尼克·斯特劳斯卡恩与奥巴马的对话
I’m going to show you Dominique Strauss-Kahn with Obama
他的指尖就出卖了他自己
who’s chattering with his fingertips.
[笑声]
[Laugher]
那么 我们再来看下一个模式
Now this brings us to our next pattern,
肢体语言
which is body language.
讲到肢体语言 我们要这样做
With body language, here’s what you’ve got to do.
你要把之前的假设统统抛到脑后
You’ve really got to just throw your assumptions out the door.
让科学给你上一课
Let the science temper your knowledge a little bit.
因为我们认为说谎者总会烦躁不安
Because we think liars fidget all the time.
你猜怎么着?他们说谎时会刻意让上身不动
Well guess what, they’re known to freeze their upper bodies when they’re lying.
我们觉得说谎者不敢直视你的眼睛
We think liars won’t look you in the eyes.
猜猜怎么着?他们会长时间盯着你的眼睛
Well guess what, they look you in the eyes a little too much
就为了证明他们不慌
just to compensate for that myth.
我们觉得热情和微笑代表坦率真诚
We think warmth and smiles convey honesty, sincerity.
但有经验的鉴谎者能够识别假的微笑
But a trained liespotter can spot a fake smile a mile away.
你们能看出哪个是假笑吗?
Can you all spot the fake smile here?
你可以随时收缩脸上的肌肉
You can consciously contract the muscles in your cheeks.
但是真正的微笑发自眼睛 在眼角的鱼尾纹
But the real smile’s in the eyes, the crow’s feet of the eyes.
这是挤不出来的
They cannot be consciously contracted,
如果你打了太多肉毒杆菌素就更挤不出来了
especially if you overdid the Botox.
别打太多肉毒杆菌素 否则没人会相信你诚实
Don’t overdo the Botox; nobody will think you’re honest.
下面我们来找破绽
Now we’re going to look at the hot spots.
你们能告诉我在对话过程中发生了什么吗?
Can you tell what’s happening in a conversation?
你们能找到破绽吗?
Can you start to find the hot spots
能看出某个人
to see the discrepancies
言行上的不一致吗?
between someone’s words and someone’s actions?
我知道这似乎显而易见
Now, I know it seems really obvious,
但当你和你怀疑说谎的人交谈时
but when you’re having a conversation with someone you suspect of deception,
你往往忽略了态度这个有效指示标
attitude is by far the most overlooked but telling of indicators.
诚实的人将会很合作
An honest person is going to be cooperative.
他们会显示出与你站在一边
They’re going to show they’re on your side.
他们会很热情
They’re going to be enthusiastic.
他们会愿意帮助你找出真相
They’re going to be willing and helpful to getting you to the truth.
他们会与你一起头脑风暴找嫌疑人
They’re going to be willing to brainstorm, name suspects,
为你提供细节
provide details.
他们会说
They’re going to say,
“可能是管工资的那些家伙做了这些假支票”
“Hey, maybe it was those guys in payroll that forged those checks.”
如果感到自己被诬告他们将会很生气
They’re going to be infuriated if they sense they’re wrongly accused
谈话过程中一直如此 而不会只表现一会儿
throughout the entire course of the interview, not just in flashes;
他们在整个谈话过程中都会很愤怒
they’ll be infuriated throughout the entire course of the interview.
如果你问某个诚实的人
And if you ask someone honest
该怎么处理这些支票造假的人
what should happen to whomever did forge those checks,
诚实的人更有可能
an honest person is much more likely
建议你严惩而不会让你放他们一马
to recommend strict rather than lenient punishment.
那么假设你正在进行这个谈话
Now let’s say you’re having that exact same conversation
同某个说谎的人
with someone deceptive.
这个人可能会急于撇清关系
That person may be withdrawn,
总向下看 降低音量
look down, lower their voice,
几字一顿 吞吞吐吐
pause, be kind of herky-jerky.
让骗子讲述事情经过
Ask a deceptive person to tell their story,
他们会在不大相关的地方
they’re going to pepper it with way too much detail
加入过多细节
in all kinds of irrelevant places.
他们还会严格按照时间顺序陈述
And then they’re going to tell their story in strict chronological order.
一个训练有素的审问者
And what a trained interrogator does
会花几个小时反复用多重方式复述过程
is they come in and in very subtle ways over the course of several hours,
他们会让那个人用倒叙的方式来陈述
they will ask that person to tell that story backwards,
然后观察他们的表现
and then they’ll watch them squirm,
并记录嫌疑人在回答什么问题时音量最大
and track which questions produce the highest volume of deceptive tells.
他们为什么这么做?我们都会这样做
Why do they do that? Well, we all do the same thing.
我们会事先排练一套说辞
We rehearse our words,
但却很少事先排练我们的肢体动作
but we rarely rehearse our gestures.
我们说“是” 而我们却在摇头表示“不”
We say “yes,” we shake our heads “no.”
我们说的故事很有说服力 但我们却轻轻地耸了耸肩
We tell very convincing stories, we slightly shrug our shoulders.
我们犯了重罪
We commit terrible crimes,
而在侥幸逃脱时会面露微笑
and we smile at the delight in getting away with it.
那么这种微笑被称为“欺骗的喜悦”
Now, that smile is known in the trade as “duping delight.”
我们会在下面的几个视频中看到
And we’re going to see that in several videos moving forward,
我们从这里开始 如果你不大熟悉
but we’re going to start — for those of you who don’t know him,
这是总统候选人John Edwards
this is presidential candidate John Edwards
他因有一个私生子而震惊全美
who shocked America by fathering a child out of wedlock.
我们将看到他谈论亲子鉴定的事
We’re going to see him talk about getting a paternity test.
看看你能否看出他在说“是”的时候摇头表示“不”
See now if you can spot him saying, “yes” while shaking his head “no,”
微微耸肩
slightly shrugging his shoulders.
我愿意做亲子鉴定
(Video) John Edwards: I’d be happy to participate in one.
我确定这个孩子不可能是我的
I know that it’s not possible that this child could be mine,
因为我的时间安排不允许
because of the timing of events.
所以我知道这不可能
So I know it’s not possible.
我愿意接受亲子鉴定并且期待结果
Happy to take a paternity test, and would love to see it happen.
你会很快去做鉴定吗? 有人…
Interviewer: Are you going to do that soon? Is there somebody —
我只是一方 我只是鉴定的一方
JE: Well, I’m only one side. I’m only one side of the test.
但是我很乐意去鉴定
But I’m happy to participate in one.
好的 这些摇头动作很容易识别
PM: Okay, those head shakes are much easier to spot
只要你注意观察
once you know to look for them.
会有一些瞬间当他做某个表情时
There are going to be times when someone makes one expression
会有另外一种表情显露出来
while masking another that just kind of leaks through in a flash.
谋杀者通常会漏出悲伤的表情
Murderers are known to leak sadness.
你新的合资伙伴可能会跟你
Your new joint venture partner might shake your hand,
握手庆祝 出去吃饭 然后会露出一点愤怒的表情
celebrate, go out to dinner with you and then leak an expression of anger.
我们不可能一夜之间都成为表情专家
And we’re not all going to become facial expression experts overnight here,
但有个技巧我可以教给大家 很有效
but there’s one I can teach you that’s very dangerous
并且很容易学
and it’s easy to learn,
这就是轻蔑的表情
and that’s the expression of contempt.
那么对于愤怒 假设两个人势均力敌地竞争
Now with anger, you’ve got two people on an even playing field.
这仍然是一种健康的关系
It’s still somewhat of a healthy relationship.
但当愤怒转变为轻蔑 你就危险了
But when anger turns to contempt, you’ve been dismissed.
这与道德优越感相关
It’s associated with moral superiority.
正因如此 才很难改正这个行为
And for that reason, it’s very, very hard to recover from.
这个表情就是轻蔑
Here’s what it looks like.
它的标志是一个嘴角抿起来
It’s marked by one lip corner pulled up and in.
这是唯一一个不对称表情
It’s the only asymmetrical expression.
无论是否伴随欺骗——并不会总伴随欺骗的——
And in the presence of contempt, whether or not deception follows —
只要看到对方的轻蔑表情
and it doesn’t always follow —
就应该反方向思考
look the other way, go the other direction,
重新考虑这笔交易
reconsider the deal,
说:“不了 谢谢 我来可不是喝酒的 谢谢”
say, “No thank you. I’m not coming up for just one more nightcap. Thank you.”
科学研究找出了许多许多的此类标志
Science has surfaced many, many more indicators.
我们知道 比如说
We know, for example,
说谎者会改变他们眨眼的频率
we know liars will shift their blink rate,
他们的脚尖会朝着出口
point their feet towards an exit.
他们会拿某样东西作为界限
They will take barrier objects
挡在质询者和自己之间
and put them between themselves and the person that is interviewing them.
他们调整说话语调
They’ll alter their vocal tone,
通常是把声调压低许多
often making their vocal tone much lower.
那么请注意
Now here’s the deal.
这些行为都只是行为而已
These behaviors are just behaviors.
并不是欺骗的证明
They’re not proof of deception.
它们只是警示标志
They’re red flags.
我们都是人类
We’re human beings.
我们整天都在掩盖谎言
We make deceptive flailing gestures all over the place all day long.
这本身并不意味着什么
They don’t mean anything in and of themselves.
但当你看到一连串 这就是信号了
But when you see clusters of them, that’s your signal.
你要观察 倾听 质问 问些难的问题
Look, listen, probe, ask some hard questions,
从那种理所当然的状态中走出来
get out of that very comfortable mode of knowing,
进入好奇模式 多问些问题
walk into curiosity mode, ask more questions,
自尊 并友好地尊重对方
have a little dignity, treat the person you’re talking to with rapport.
不要像《法律与秩序》或者其他电视节目里的人那样
Don’t try to be like those folks on “Law & Order” and those other TV shows
咄咄逼人得出结论
that pummel their subjects into submission.
不要进攻性太强 没有用的
Don’t be too aggressive, it doesn’t work.
那么我们谈了如何同说谎的人说话
Now, we’ve talked a little bit about how to talk to someone who’s lying
如何识别谎言
and how to spot a lie.
刚才说过 我们将看到真话是什么样的
And as I promised, we’re now going to look at what the truth looks like.
我会给大家看两个视频
But I’m going to show you two videos,
两位母亲——一个说谎 一个说真话
two mothers — one is lying, one is telling the truth.
资料由加利福尼亚研究者David Matsumoto整理
And these were surfaced by researcher David Matsumoto in California.
我认为这是展现真话的绝好例子
And I think they’re an excellent example of what the truth looks like.
这位母亲 Diane Downs
This mother, Diane Downs,
用枪近距离击中自己的孩子
shot her kids at close range,
开车带他们去医院 满车鲜血
drove them to the hospital while they bled all over the car,
她谎称是一个头发蓬乱的陌生人干的
claimed a scraggy-haired stranger did it.
在视频中你会看到
And you’ll see when you see the video,
她连假装悲伤都装不出来
she can’t even pretend to be an agonizing mother.
你会在这看到一个惊人的反差
What you want to look for here is an incredible discrepancy
她所描述的可怕事故以及她淡定表现的反差
between horrific events that she describes and her very, very cool demeanor.
如果仔细看 你会看到她在视频中流露出欺骗的喜悦
And if you look closely, you’ll see duping delight throughout this video.
晚上当我闭上眼睛
(Video) Diane Downs: At night when I close my eyes,
我能看到自己开车时Christie向我伸出手
I can see Christie reaching her hand out to me while I’m driving,
鲜血从她嘴里流出来
and the blood just kept coming out of her mouth.
也许时间能够冲淡这一切
And that — maybe it’ll fade too with time —
但我不这么认为
but I don’t think so.
这使我寝食难安
That bothers me the most.
我再给你们看另一个视频
PM: Now I’m going to show you a video
这是一位真正悲伤的母亲 Erin Runnion
of an actual grieving mother, Erin Runnion,
这是她在法庭上与虐杀自己女儿凶手对质的情形
confronting her daughter’s murderer and torturer in court.
你完全看不到任何虚假情绪
Here you’re going to see no false emotion,
这是一位心痛欲绝母亲真实的哭斥
just the authentic expression of a mother’s agony.
我写下这个声明
(Video) Erin Runnion: I wrote this statement
在你三年前的一晚带走我的宝贝的同一天
on the third anniversary of the night you took my baby,
你伤害她
and you hurt her,
打得她体无完肤
and you crushed her,
恐吓她 直到她心脏停止了跳动
you terrified her until her heart stopped.
她反抗 我知道她反抗你了
And she fought, and I know she fought you.
但我知道她用漂亮的棕色眼睛看着你
But I know she looked at you with those amazing brown eyes,
你还是对她痛下杀手
and you still wanted to kill her.
我不能理解
And I don’t understand it,
我永远不会理解
and I never will.
好的这些表情的准确性是毫无疑问的
PM: Okay, there’s no doubting the veracity of those emotions.
当今的测谎技术
Now the technology around what the truth looks like
正在飞速地发展
is progressing on, the science of it.
我们知道 比如说
We know, for example,
有专门的眼球追踪仪 红外线脑部扫描
that we now have specialized eye trackers and infrared brain scans,
还有能够破解我们说谎时
MRI’s that can decode the signals that our bodies send out
身体发出信号的核磁共振成像技术
when we’re trying to be deceptive.
这些技术将得到广泛推广
And these technologies are going to be marketed to all of us
成为测谎的保障
as panaceas for deceit,
有朝一日它们会发挥意想不到的作用
and they will prove incredibly useful some day.
但与此同时你们必须扪心自问
But you’ve got to ask yourself in the meantime:
你想要和谁坐在一起
Who do you want on your side of the meeting,
某位训练有素的鉴慌者
someone who’s trained in getting to the truth
还是一个家伙从门外
or some guy who’s going to drag a 400-pound electroencephalogram
拉进来400磅脑电图机器?
through the door?
鉴慌者依赖于人的工具
Liespotters rely on human tools.
他们知道 就像有人曾说
They know, as someone once said,
“人格就是黑暗中的人类本性”
“Character’s who you are in the dark.”
有趣的是今天我们的黑暗已经很少
And what’s kind of interesting is that today, we have so little darkness.
我们世界全天24个小时都是亮堂堂的
Our world is lit up 24 hours a day.
在博客和社交媒体之下世界是透明的
It’s transparent with blogs and social networks
新一代人在网上表达自己的思想
broadcasting the buzz of a whole new generation of people
他们选择以公开的方式生活
that have made a choice to live their lives in public.
世界变得更加吵闹
It’s a much more noisy world.
我们面临的一个挑战就是
So one challenge we have is to remember,
过度分享 这并不是诚实
oversharing, that’s not honesty.
我们疯狂的推特和短信会迷惑自己
Our manic tweeting and texting can blind us
看不清人类的道德正义——人格的正直——
to the fact that the subtleties of human decency — character integrity —
这仍然很重要 这永远都很重要
that’s still what matters, that’s always what’s going to matter.
在这个更加喧嚣的世界
So in this much noisier world,
我们有必要
it might make sense for us
对道德准则做更明确的认知
to be just a little bit more explicit about our moral code.
当你把观察和倾听的艺术与
When you combine the science of recognizing deception
鉴别谎言的技术结合起来时
with the art of looking, listening,
你就使自己脱离了谎言的影响
you exempt yourself from collaborating in a lie.
你会以更加明确的目标继续前进
You start up that path of being just a little bit more explicit,
因为你对周围所有人发出信号
because you signal to everyone around you,
你说 “嘿 我的世界 我们的世界 将会是诚实的
you say, “Hey, my world, our world, it’s going to be an honest one.
我的世界里真话会充满力量
My world is going to be one where truth is strengthened
谎言会被识别并排斥”
and falsehood is recognized and marginalized.”
当你这么做的时候
And when you do that,
你脚下的世界就一点一点地开始改变
the ground around you starts to shift just a little bit.
这就是真相 感谢大家
And that’s the truth. Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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译制信息
视频概述

谎言的两条真相,以及如何鉴别谎言的简单技巧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

AF

审核员

审核团SC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P_6vDLq64gE

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