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如何加速化学实验

How to speed up chemical reactions

音乐
(Music)
看我们的化学家哈里特
Meet our chemist, Harriet.
她需要加快一个化学反应的速度。
She has a chemical reaction that needs to occur more quickly.
化学家在实验过程中需要做一些处理
A chemist has some processes at her disposal
来帮助她加速化学反应
that can help her speed up her reaction,
她知道有五种方式
and she knows of five ways.
为了记住这些,她会想起从前的日子
And to remember them she thinks back to her days
在她还是个高中生的时候
as a high school student,
那天她正要去一个舞会
and the day she got a date for the dance.
哈里特在一个高中,正在两个班之间学习
Harriet was in high school, studying between classes.
她忘记了时间,上课就快迟到了。
She had lost track of time and was going to be late to class.
她不知道,在前面的拐角处,哈罗德也在奔跑,因为他也要迟到了。
Unbeknownst to her, Harold, who was just around the corner, was running late too.
他们同时向班里冲刺
They both sprinted to class,
他们碰巧撞到了彼此身上。
and as it happened, sprinted directly into one another.
这看来是个不小的冲撞
Now, this was no small collision.
他们跑太快了,就冲撞到了彼此。就这样他刚好被她手中抛出的书砸中。
They ran squarely into one another in such a way that he knocked the books right out of her hand.
“对不起,”他说“让我帮你捡起书吧。”
"I’m sorry," he said. "Let me help you with your books."
他亲切的帮助女孩捡回了她的东西,
He kindly helped her re-collect her belongings,
然后有礼貌的送她回教室。
and politely offered to walk her to class.
你绝不会猜出在那年后来谁和谁一起一起去跳舞了
And you’ll never guess who went together to the dance later that year.
是的,就是他们两个。
Yup, those two.
所以我们能从这个例子中知道,
So, as we can see from this example,
得到跳舞约会的秘诀
the key to getting a date for the dance
就是遇到某个人并把书从他们手中接过来
is to collide with someone and knock the books out of their hands.
你现在或许已经知道了就是不是所有去舞会赴约的路上都会出现碰撞
Now, you’re probably already aware that not all collisions lead to dates for the dance,
谢天谢地
thankfully.
碰撞必须有两个重要的特殊条件:
The collisions must have two important characteristics:
首先,是一个可以将书从一个人的手中撞下来的正确方向,
One, correct orientation that allows books to be knocked from one’s hands,
其次,就是能够把书撞下来的足够力量。
and two, enough energy to knock the books out.
紧随其后,
Shortly after this incident,
哈里特决定告诉我他化学老师的一切。
Harriet decided to tell me, her chemistry teacher, all about it.
我注意到了一些有趣的关联
I noticed some interesting parallels
在她的故事和化学反应几率之间,
between her story and chemical reaction rates,
也就是在她学习并且发生碰撞的那个走廊上。
which happened to be what she was studying in the hallway the day of the collision.
我们决定在两个任务。
Together we decided to set out on two missions.
哈里特想帮助所有的化学系学生
Harriet wanted to help all chemistry students
和化学家们怎么加速化学反应速率,
and chemists remember how to speed up the rate of chemical reactions,
因为我是一个好人,我接受了这个使命
and I, being the nice guy that I am, decided to make it my mission
——帮助创建良好的教育环境
to help create educational environments
可以发生更多“书本落下”的碰撞
in which more book-dropping collisions can take place
增加未来化学家的数量
to increase future chemists’ chances
和得到约会。
of getting a date for the dance.
为了改善这个舞蹈/ 落书过程,
In order to facilitate this improved dance/date-getting process,
我建议所有的学校进行五项改进
I propose five changes to all schools
就像是harriet”加速化学反应的五个方法。
that parallel Harriet’s five ways to increase chemical reaction rates.
首先,我建议我们减少走廊的大小。
First, I propose that we shrink the size of the hallways.
这样就更难安全地通过走廊,
This will make it more difficult to safely navigate the hallways,
并且这样比宽敞的走廊有更多碰撞的机会
and will cause more collisions than in larger hallways.
通过增加碰撞几率,来增加碰撞的可能性
And by increasing the number of collisions, we increase the likelihood
某些碰撞可以产生足够的火花,
that some of those collisions will have the correct alignment
让女孩答应你的舞会。
and enough energy to create a date to the dance.
对化学来说,这是相似的
Now, chemically speaking, this is equivalent
降低反应容器的体积或反应混合物。
to lowering the volume of a reaction vessel or a reaction mixture.
在这一过程中,粒子更加密集,
In doing so, the individual particles are closer together,
有更多的碰撞会发生。
and more collisions will occur.
更多的碰撞意味着更大的可能性
More collisions means a greater likelihood that
与适当的能量和配置会发生碰撞。
collisions with the appropriate energy and configuration will happen.
第二,我建议增加学校的总人口。
Second, I propose increasing the overall population of the school.
更多的学生=更多的碰撞。
More students equals more collisions.
通过增加可用的粒子数量碰撞,
By increasing the number of particles available for collision,
我们创建一个环境,让更多的碰撞可以发生。
we create an environment where more collisions can take place.
第三,减少课间时间。
Third, we must reduce the time allowed between classes.
见鬼,我们先把它切成了两半。
Heck, let’s just cut it in half.
在这一过程中,学生需要更快地从一个地点到另外一个地方
In doing so, students will need to move more quickly to get from one class to the next.
这种速度的增加将有助于增加碰撞的可能性
This increase in velocity will help make sure collisions have the
产生的能量刚好能使“书本掉落”。
appropriate amount of energy necessary to ensure book-dropping.
这类似于增加
This is analogous to increasing the temperature
反应混合物的温度。
of the reaction mixture.
较高的温度意味粒子移动得更快
Higher temperature means particles are moving faster.
较快移动的粒子具有更多能量
Faster moving particles means more energy,
和一个更大的反应造成碰撞的可能性。
and a greater likelihood of the reaction causing collision.
第四,学生必须停止在背包旅行。
Fourth, students must stop traveling in packs.
在背包旅行,学生在外面的包
By traveling in packs, the students on the outside of the pack
使那些在中间发生任何碰撞。
insulate those in the middle from undergoing any collisions.
分手,每个学生有更多的暴露面积
By splitting up, each student has more area exposed
可用的碰撞从路过的学生。
that is available for a collision from a passing student.
当粒子成群结队地旅行,
When particles travel in packs,
面积很小,只有外面的粒子碰撞。
the surface area is very small, and only the outside particles can collide.
然而,通过分解成单个粒子团。
However, by breaking up the clumps into individual particles.
总表面积增加,
The total surface area is increased,
和每个粒子都有一个暴露的表面反应。
and each particle has an exposed surface that can react.
第五,最后,我们雇一个媒人。
Fifth and finally, we hire a matchmaker.
难道是碰撞和“落书”太暴力了吗?
Is this colliding and book-dropping too violent?
有一种更简单的方法得到一个约会,且需要较少的能量
Is there an easier way to get a date that requires less initial energy?
催化剂可以帮到这些
Then a matchmaker will help with this.
催化剂使它们更容易聚在一起
The matchmaker makes it easier for a couple to get together
通过协调匹配。
by coordinating the match.
我们的媒介就像一个催化剂。
Our matchmaker is like a catalyst.
化学催化剂通过降低活化能的函数。
Chemical catalysts function by lowering the activation energy.
换句话说,通过降低所需要的能量开始反应。
In other words, by lowering the energy required to start a reaction.
他们一起通过将两个粒子
They do this by bringing two particles together
在空间,正确定位,这样两个能满足
and orienting them correctly in space so that the two can meet
在正确的配置和允许发生反应。
at the correct configuration and allow a reaction to take place.
所以,总结:
So, to sum up:
如果将来的化学家要找个跳舞的日子,
If a future chemist wants a date for the dance,
他就要撞向别人,并把对方手中的书撞掉。
he must collide with another person and knock the books out of their hands.
如果一个化学家想发生化学反应,
And if a chemist wants to make a chemical reaction occur,
粒子必须在正确的方向发生碰撞
the particles must collide in the correct orientation
一个适当的能量。
with an appropriate amount of energy.
这两个过程的加速可以使用我所描述的五种方法。
And both of these processes can be accelerated using the five methods I’ve described.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OttRV5ykP7A

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