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怎样说人们爱听的话 – 译学馆
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怎样说人们爱听的话

How to speak so that people want to listen | Julian Treasure

人类的声音:
The human voice:
是我们所有人都弹奏的乐器
It’s the instrument we all play.
这可能是世界上最强大的声音
It’s the most powerful sound in the world, probably.
它绝无仅有 或能引起战争 或能说“我爱你”
It’s the only one that can start a war or say “I love you.”
然而 很多人有这种经历
And yet many people have the experience
当他们说的时候 人们并不在听
that when they speak, people don’t listen to them.
这是为什么呢?
And why is that?
我们怎样有力地说而让世界发生某种改变?
How can we speak powerfully to make change in the world?
我所提议的是
What I’d like to suggest,
我们需要改变一些习惯
there are a number of habits that we need to move away from.
在此我为你们收集整理了 说话的七宗罪
I’ve assembled for your pleasure here seven deadly sins of speaking.
我没打算假装这是一个详细的列表
I’m not pretending this is an exhaustive list,
但这七个 我以为是 我们相当容易犯的坏习惯
but these seven, I think, are pretty large habits that we can all fall into.
第一就是 流言蜚语
First, gossip.
在背后说某些人的坏话
Speaking ill of somebody who’s not present.
这不是个好习惯 我们都很明白
Not a nice habit, and we know perfectly well
那个说闲话的人 在五分钟以后
the person gossiping, five minutes later,
就会在别人跟前说我们的闲话
will be gossiping about us.
第二 评判
Second, judging.
我们知道有些人在谈话中喜欢评判他人
We know people who are like this in conversation,
如果你知道你被人评判为不合格
and it’s very hard to listen to somebody
就很难听进别人的话
if you know that you’re being judged and found wanting at the same time.
第三 消极
Third, negativity.
你可能会陷入这个消极的泥潭
You can fall into this.
我的母亲 在她生命的最后几年里 变得非常非常消极
My mother, in the last years of her life, became very negative,
让人很难继续交谈
and it’s hard to listen.
我记得有一天 我对她说 “今天是十月一号”
I remember one day, I said to her, “It’s October 1 today,”
她说 “我知道 这不可怕吗?”
and she said, “I know, isn’t it dreadful?”
[笑声]
(Laughter)
当某人那么消极的时候是很难继续交流的
It’s hard to listen when somebody’s that negative.
[笑声]
(Laughter)
另外一种消极 就是抱怨
And another form of negativity, complaining.
这是英国的全国性艺术
Well, this is the national art of the U.K.
是我们的全国性运动
It’s our national sport.
我们抱怨天气 体育和政治 几乎每件事
We complain about the weather, sport, about politics, about everything,
但实际上抱怨是病毒性的悲催
but actually, complaining is viral misery.
它不会在这个世界上传播太阳和光明
It’s not spreading sunshine and lightness in the world.
借口
Excuses.
我们都遇上过这个家伙
We’ve all met this guy.
也许我们都曾经是这个家伙
Maybe we’ve all been this guy.
有些人有指责癖好
Some people have a blamethrower.
他们怪罪任何人
They just pass it on to everybody else
而不是对自己的行为负责任
and don’t take responsibility for their actions,
所以 这又是让人难以继续交流的一种
and again, hard to listen to somebody who is being like that.
七件里面的第六件 也是倒数第二件
Penultimate, the sixth of the seven,
浮夸 吹牛
embroidery, exaggeration.
事实上 它有时贬低了我们的语言
It demeans our language, actually, sometimes.
比如 如果我看什么真的很神奇的事情
For example, if I see something that really is awesome,
那我该说什么呢?
what do I call it?
[笑声]
(Laughter)
当然这种夸大后来就变成了说谎 彻头彻尾的说谎
And then, of course, this exaggeration becomes lying,
我们就不想听这种对我们说谎的人说的话
and we don’t want to listen to people we know are lying to us.
最后是 固执己见
And finally, dogmatism.
把事实和意见混淆
The confusion of facts with opinions.
当这两件事混为一谈
When those two things get conflated,
你就像在对牛弹琴
you’re listening into the wind.
你知道 有人用他们自己的意见来强迫你
You know, somebody is bombarding you with their opinions as if they were true.
就很难让我们听取这种意见
It’s difficult to listen to that.
这就是说话的七宗罪
So here they are, seven deadly sins of speaking.
我认为这些是我们需要避免的
These are things I think we need to avoid.
但有没有比较正面的呢?
But is there a positive way to think about this?
是的 有的
Yes, there is.
如果我们想让我们的言语有力并且让世界产生变化
I’d like to suggest that there are four really powerful cornerstones, foundations,
我想建议四种我们可以依靠的
that we can stand on if we want our speech
真正强有力的基石或者基础
to be powerful and to make change in the world.
幸运的是 这些基石连起来是一个单词
Fortunately, these things spell a word.
这个词就是“hail” 它有着特别好的定义
The word is “hail,” and it has a great definition as well.
我不是讲那个天上掉下来的
I’m not talking about the stuff that falls from the sky
砸在你头上的东西
and hits you on the head.
我在谈论的是 “热情地致敬或赞扬”
I’m talking about this definition,
这个定义
to greet or acclaim enthusiastically,
如果我们坚持这四件事
which is how I think our words will be received
我认为我们的言辞就会被接受
if we stand on these four things.
那么它们到底是什么呢?
So what do they stand for?
看看你是否能猜到
See if you can guess.
H 代表了诚实(Honesty)当然
The H, honesty, of course,
说真话 直接了当并且清楚明白
being true in what you say, being straight and clear.
A 代表了真实(Authenticity) 做一个自然而然的自己
The A is authenticity, just being yourself.
我的一个朋友形容它是站在你自己的真理中
A friend of mine described it as standing in your own truth,
我觉得这是一个优美的表述
which I think is a lovely way to put it.
I 代表了正气(Integrity) 言而有信
The I is integrity, being your word,
说到做到
actually doing what you say,
成为别人能信任的人
and being somebody people can trust.
L是爱
And the L is love.
我不是指罗曼蒂克的爱情
I don’t mean romantic love,
而是指对别人有美好的祝愿 这出于两个原因
but I do mean wishing people well, for two reasons.
第一 我认为绝对的诚实也许不是我们所想要的
First of all, I think absolute honesty may not be what we want.
我的意思是 天哪 今天早上你真难看
I mean, my goodness, you look ugly this morning.
那可能不必要
Perhaps that’s not necessary.
诚实是很重要的 当然 适当地带着爱
Tempered with love, of course, honesty is a great thing.
但还有 当你真的很希望别人好
But also, if you’re really wishing somebody well,
就很难同时评判他们
it’s very hard to judge them at the same time.
我甚至不确定你可以同时做这两件事情
I’m not even sure you can do those two things simultaneously.
那么“hail”
So hail.
上面提到的是你所说的内容
Also, now that’s what you say,
另外 就像老歌里唱的 你所说的很重要
and it’s like the old song, it is what you say,
还有你的表达方式也很重要
it’s also the way that you say it.
你有一个很神奇的工具箱
You have an amazing toolbox.
里面有难以置信的工具
This instrument is incredible,
然而这个工具盒只有不多的人打开过
and yet this is a toolbox that very few people have ever opened.
我愿意跟你们在这里做一点儿探查
I’d like to have a little rummage in there with you now
并且找出几种工具
and just pull a few tools out
你也许想拿来试一下
that you might like to take away and play with,
这些将会增加你说话的力量
which will increase the power of your speaking.
比如说 音域
Register, for example.
假声大部分时候可能是没用的
Now, falsetto register may not be very useful most of the time,
但在两者之间会有一种是有用的
but there’s a register in between.
对于在座的语音教练们
I’m not going to get very technical about this
我不会在这个问题上很深入
for any of you who are voice coaches.
然而 你能控制自己的声音
You can locate your voice, however.
如果我把声音提到鼻子这儿 你可以听出不同
So if I talk up here in my nose, you can hear the difference.
如果我把声音降到嗓子这里
If I go down here in my throat,
这是我们大部分人大多数时候所做的
which is where most of us speak from most of the time.
但是如果你想有份量
But if you want weight,
你需要降到胸腔
you need to go down here to the chest.
你听出了不同吗?
You hear the difference?
我们给声音低沉的政治家投票 那是真的
We vote for politicians with lower voices, it’s true,
因为我们把深沉 和权力
because we associate depth with power
权威联系在一起
and with authority.
那是音域
That’s register.
然后我们再说音色
Then we have timbre.
那是你的声音让人感觉如何
It’s the way your voice feels.
研究显示我们喜欢那种
Again, the research shows
丰厚 平滑 温暖
that we prefer voices which are rich, smooth, warm,
像热巧克力一样的声音
like hot chocolate.
当然如果你没有那样的声音
Well if that’s not you,
这也不是世界末日
that’s not the end of the world,
因为你可以训练
because you can train.
去找到一个声音教练
Go and get a voice coach.
你可以做很神奇的事情
And there are amazing things you can do
利用呼吸 姿势 还有锻炼
with breathing, with posture, and with exercises
来提高你的声音的音色
to improve the timbre of your voice.
然后是韵律 我喜欢韵律
Then prosody. I love prosody.
那是唱歌 是元语言
This is the sing-song, the meta-language
我们用来传送意味
that we use in order to impart meaning.
在谈话中是意思的根基
It’s root one for meaning in conversation.
如果他们没有一点儿韵律
People who speak all on one note are really quite hard to listen to
在一个音符上说话 真的很难听
if they don’t have any prosody at all.
那就是单调这个词的来源
That’s where the word “monotonic” comes from,
或者说枯燥无味 一成不变
or monotonous, monotone.
我们还有重复性的韵律
Also, we have repetitive prosody now coming in,
如果一个句子不是疑问句 而是陈述句
where every sentence ends as if it were a question
却以疑问语气结尾会怎么样?
when it’s actually not a question, it’s a statement?
[笑声]
(Laughter)
如果你一遍一遍地重复某个东西
And if you repeat that one,
这实际上限制了你通过韵律交流的能力
it’s actually restricting your ability to communicate through prosody,
我认为这是一个耻辱
which I think is a shame,
因此 让我们试着打破这个习惯
so let’s try and break that habit.
语速
Pace.
我可以非常非常兴奋地飞快地说着什么
I can get very excited by saying something really quickly,
或者我能慢下来强调
or I can slow right down to emphasize,
最后当然是我们的老朋友 沉默
and at the end of that, of course, is our old friend silence.
在讲话中 有一点儿沉默 没关系 不是吗?
There’s nothing wrong with a bit of silence in a talk, is there?
我们不需要用“嗯”和“啊”来填充
We don’t have to fill it with ums and ahs.
沉默就很有力
It can be very powerful.
当然 音调常常跟语速一起来指示兴奋度
Of course, pitch often goes along with pace
但你能仅仅用音调就显示出来
to indicate arousal, but you can do it just with pitch.
那么轻微的差别在这两个表达中:
Where did you leave my keys?
你把我的钥匙放在哪儿啦?
(Higher pitch) Where did you leave my keys?
(高音)你把我的钥匙放在哪儿啦?
So, slightly different meaning in those two deliveries.
最后是 音量
And finally, volume.
我能用音量表示极端的兴奋
(Loud) I can get really excited by using volume.
如果我打扰了任何人的话 抱歉
Sorry about that, if I startled anybody.
或者 我能用很轻的声音让你认真地注意
Or, I can have you really pay attention by getting very quiet.
有人全程一直都在说话
Some people broadcast the whole time.
别那样
Try not to do that.
那叫做“公放音乐”
That’s called sodcasting,
[笑声]
(Laughter)
把你的声音不假思索 和草率地强加给别人
Imposing your sound on people around you carelessly and inconsiderately.
不好
Not nice.
当然 这些工具真正发挥作用的地方
Of course, where this all comes into play most of all
是当你有什么很重要的事情要做的时候
is when you’ve got something really important to do.
这可能是像这样站在演讲台上对着人演讲
It might be standing on a stage like this and giving a talk to people.
它可能是求婚
It might be proposing marriage,
要求加薪 或者婚礼上的讲话
asking for a raise, a wedding speech.
不管是什么 如果它非常重要
Whatever it is, if it’s really important,
你应该看着这个工具盒
you owe it to yourself to look at this toolbox
以及将要工作运行的发动机
and the engine that it’s going to work on,
没有预热的发动机不会好好工作
and no engine works well without being warmed up.
预热你自己的声音
Warm up your voice.
让我给你演示怎样做
Actually, let me show you how to do that.
你们都愿意站起来一会儿吗?
Would you all like to stand up for a moment?
我会给你演示
I’m going to show you
六个预热声音的锻炼
the six vocal warm-up exercises
在每次演讲之前我都这么做
that I do before every talk I ever do.
在跟任何重要的人谈话之前 做以下这些
Any time you’re going to talk to anybody important, do these.
第一 举起双臂 深吸一口气
First, arms up, deep breath in,
然后呼出 啊哈 就像那样
and sigh out, ahhhhh, like that.
再来一次
One more time.
啊哈 很好
Ahhhh, very good.
现在我们要预热我们的嘴唇
Now we’re going to warm up our lips,
做出吧 吧 吧 吧
and we’re going to go Ba, Ba, Ba, Ba,
吧 吧 吧 吧 很好
Ba, Ba, Ba, Ba. Very good.
现在 brrrrrrr
And now, brrrrrrrrrr,
就像你是个孩子
just like when you were a kid.
brrrrr 现在你的嘴唇应该活了
Brrrr. Now your lips should be coming alive.
下一个是舌头
We’re going to do the tongue next
夸张的啦 啦 啦 啦……
with exaggerated la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la, la.
美极了 你们做得很好
Beautiful. You’re getting really good at this.
然后 卷舌一个R Rrrrrr
And then, roll an R. Rrrrrrr.
这就像给舌头的香槟酒
That’s like champagne for the tongue.
最后 如果我只能做一个
Finally, and if I can only do one,
专业人士把这叫做警报
the pros call this the siren.
这个特别好 它开始于“we”然后转为“aw”
It’s really good. It starts with “we” and goes to “aw.”
“we”是高音 “aw”是低音
The “we” is high, the “aw” is low.
那么就是 “weeeaawww……”
So you go, weeeaawww, weeeaawww.
妙极了 给你自己来鼓个掌
Fantastic. Give yourselves a round of applause.
请坐 谢谢你们
Take a seat, thank you.
[鼓掌]
(Applause)
下次你演讲之前 提前做到这几项
Next time you speak, do those in advance.
现在让我在结束之前作个总结
Now let me just put this in context to close.
这一点是认真的
This is a serious point here.
这就是我们的所在 对吗?
This is where we are now, right?
我们说得不好
We speak not very well
人们也听不进去
to people who simply aren’t listening
在一个吵闹和喧哗的环境里
in an environment that’s all about noise and bad acoustics.
我已经在讲台上分阶段地谈到这个问题
I have talked about that on this stage in different phases.
如果我们有说服力
What would the world be like
人们有意识地听
if we were speaking powerfully
在一个量身定做的环境下
to people who were listening consciously
这个世界会是怎样?
in environments which were actually fit for purpose?
或者说得更大一些
Or to make that a bit larger,
如果我们有意识地说话
what would the world be like
有意识地倾听
if we were creating sound consciously
并且有意识地针对声音
and consuming sound consciously
来设计我们的周围环境
and designing all our environments
世界将会是怎样?
consciously for sound?
那会是一个听起来非常美丽的世界
That would be a world that does sound beautiful,
在那儿理解会是常态
and one where understanding would be the norm,
那是一个值得传播的理念
and that is an idea worth spreading.
感谢你们
Thank you.
[鼓掌]
(Applause)

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视频概述

说话是人类最常运用的沟通方式,我们每天要说不少话,那么怎样说人们爱听的话?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

林邑

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eIho2S0ZahI

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