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初学者的简笔画入门课

How to Sketch | Sketching Tips for Beginners | Art Journal Thursday Ep. 21

《周四艺术之旅》第27集
嗨 大家好
– Hey guys.
欢迎继续收看新一集《周四艺术之旅》
Welcome back to another episode of Art Journal Thursday
每周四在这个节目中我们能获得灵感
where we get creative every single Thursday here on this channel.
基于许多观众的要求
And since so many of you guys requested it,
我会分享一些适合任何初学者的
I will share some tips and tricks on how to sketch
关于学习素描的建议和技巧
that are perfect for any beginner.
让我们先从工具说起
Let’s start with the materials.
我们需要的工具之一是纸
Obviously one of the thingsyou will need is paper.
我建议使用绘画和素描专用纸
I would recommend to use paperfor drawing and sketching
因为它们质感很好
because it has a nice texture.
也可以用你现有的任何纸张 甚至是打印纸
But of course you can use any paper you have, even print paper
接着 你还需要铅笔
And you will also need pencils.
许多朋友问我铅笔之间的差别
A lot of you guys asked me about the difference
例如字母H和B的区别 以及上面的数字代表什么
between all the letters, H and B, and all their numbers.
因此我想给大家做一个简短的概述
That’s why I wanted to give you a quick overview.
对于H号铅笔 字母前面的数字越大
So for H pencils, the higher the number,
画出的颜色越淡 笔芯越硬
the lighter and harder the pencil becomes.
HB铅笔的颜色和硬度则处于H号铅笔和B号铅笔之间
An HB pencil is something in the middle of an H and a B pencil,
也是我在素描和绘画时
which I also use most of the times
最常用的铅笔型号
for quick sketches and drawings.
H号铅笔适合用来画极细 颜色单一的线条
H pencils are great for sketching thin and non-blendable lines.
大家可以看到 H号铅笔的字号越大
As you can see,the lighter the number of my H pencil is,
画出的阴影越浅
the lighter the shading becomes.
所以H号铅笔
So with these pencils,
数字越大 画出的线越浅
you can basically only get lighter and lighter.
B号铅笔恰恰相反
B pencils on the other hand are different.
B号铅笔的字号越大
The higher the number of the B pencil is,
它的颜色会更深 笔芯也会更软
the darker and softer the pencil becomes.
B号铅笔常常被用来画一些
B pencils are usually used for sketching lines
模糊以及柔和的轮廓线条
that are all blurry and smudged,
当然 我之前提到过 它的笔芯更软
and also of course for shading because, as I said earlier,
你也可以混合使用
they are softer and you can blend them
你也可以直接用它来加深画面中的阴影
and you can create darkershades with them as well.
无需备齐所有型号铅笔
You don’t need all of these pencils.
我自己就很少用到H号铅笔
I usually don’t use H pencils that much
但至少要有一支H号铅笔和几支B号铅笔
but to have one H pencil and a few B pencils
例如B2 B4和B6,这是个很好的开始。
such as two, four, andsix are a great start.
此外 如果你不想用工具又想做出混色效果
Okay, another thing you can also use is a tissue paper
你可以使用纸巾
for blending instead of any special tools.
我不建议你用手指
I wouldn’t recommend using your fingers
因为这样会将你的手油抹到纸上
as you will only add oil to the paper through your fingers
导致整幅作品受到破坏
and ruin the drawing.
由于两者都有缺点
And since no one is perfect,
所以你还需要橡皮擦
you can also use an eraser.
现在我讲些基础知识
Let’s start with the basics
当你想画一些东西时
that are so simple but really important
这些知识虽然简单但却很重要
when it comes to sketching anything you want.
在你开始画素描之前
Before you start sketching,
注意一下你握笔的姿势
pay attention to how you actually hold your pencil.
不要握得太紧也不要太靠近笔头
Make sure you don’t hold the pencil super-tightly at the very tip of the pencil.
否则不仅让你在素描时难以移动铅笔
But you will not only have difficulties moving the pencil while sketching,
还会导致只能在小范围内绘画
but you will also only be able to draw in a short distance.
当你专注于细节时 这是没问题的
It’s okay if you want to draw details
但当你在素描时 放松握笔十分重要
but when it comes to sketching, holding the pencil loosely is key.
这就是为什么握笔的时候
That’s why I try to hold it a few centimeters away
手与笔尖要相隔几厘米
from the tip between your fingers.
这样你们就能自然的移动手指
This way you will be able to move your hand more easily
和手腕 从而灵活移动手
by moving your fingers and your wrist.
众所周知 当我们开始画画时
As you all know, we sometimes get super stressed out
通常一心想画出完美无缺的作品
whenever we are about tostart drawing something
导致我们有时会觉得压力巨大
and focus so much on making it perfect,
但在素描的时候 放松身心是非常重要的
but it’s really important to just relax and loosen up when you sketch.
所以我建议你们
That’s why I would recommend
首先随意画些线条 圆圈 曲线
to start with drawing loose lines, circles, curves,
来练练手感
just to warm up your hand.
随心所欲地画
Do it very loosely.
不要总想着画出完美的线条
Don’t focus on creating a perfect line.
这并不是素描的重点
It’s not the point of sketching.
在我们开始绘画之前
Okay, now before we start,
选好你想画的物体
choose the object you want to draw.
可以画桌子上目所能及的一切
You can use anything you find on your desk
也可以找一张图片作为参考
or you can also just use a picture for a reference,
当然 也可以发挥自己的想象力
and of course you can also just draw from your imagination.
素描就是通过各种基础形状
Sketching is all about capturing what you see
来刻画你所看到的一切
by breaking it down into basic shapes.
即便你只是想画一个圆
Even if you just want to draw a circle,
从简单的线条开始画也会容易很多
it’s easier to start with simple lines
然后再朝着你最终期望的形状进行调整
and to work your way to the final shape you are going for.
素描可以是某个想法的
A sketch would be the base
底稿或草图
or a draft of an idea,
或是你想绘制的图像
an image you want to create,
它并不是最终作品
not the final piece of work.
因此 尽量让手部保持放松状态
Therefore,try to keep your hand relaxed
随意画出大量短促明快的线条
and move it lightly with lots of short, quick strokes.
构建草图时不要有太大压力
Use minimal pressure to create the foundation of your sketch.
这将大大降低素描难度
This will make sketching a lot more easier
因为这能帮你
because it will help you
画出你脑海中所浮现的物体的整体轮廓
to create the overall shape of the object you are going for
不会花过多时间担心一条线
without committing to one single line
画歪了或者很难擦掉
that, well, might be crooked andhard to erase later on.
我认为大部分人都忘了
I believe lots of us forget that
素描是探索不同的想法 试验新想法
sketching is all about exploring different ideas, trying things out,
以及在素描中探寻乐趣
and having fun while practicing drawing.
所以 不要执着于万事万物都要尽善尽美
So let go of the mentality that everything needs to be perfect.
这是根本不存在的事情
There is no such thing.
让自己感受到乐趣 随意地去画轮廓
So have fun and sketch the outlines loosely
并逐渐地去勾勒你想要的形状
and find the shape little by little.
当你最终画出整体轮廓时
And when you finally get the overall shape,
你就可以开始用B号铅笔 以深色线条
you can use a B pencil and start outlining the shape
描绘具体的轮廓
with a darker line.
这里我用的是2B铅笔
Here I’m using a 2B pencil.
所以试试这个方法
So try out this approach
从随意画些线条开始
where you start with loose lines that you create
然后用这些线条勾勒出你计划绘制的形状
and form into the shape that you plan on drawing.
当你对整体的素描效果满意时
Now once you’re happy with the overall sketch,
你可以添加阴影 使它看上去更加立体
you can now make it look more three-dimensional by shading it.
立体感塑造有很多方法
There are different ways how you can do that.
[阴影画法]
[Shading Techniques]
用排线和交叉排线法
By hatching and cross-hatching
即用简单线条 或交叉线条来添加阴影
where you either add shadows by simple lines or by crossover lines.
也可以根据物体形状 画轮廓线以及截面轮廓线
You can contour and cross-contour by following the shape of the object.
当然 你也可以随性的画一些线条表示阴影
But you can also add shadows with random lines that might not make sense.
画一些小点来添加阴影
Or you can add them bystippling
或干脆按物体的形状将这些笔画弄模糊
or simply by just smudging the pencil, following the shape of the object.
这里就不再深入探讨了
I won’t go into details here,
将会有新的视频专门讲阴影塑造
because it’s a topic for a whole new video.
我只是给你们做一个简短的介绍
I just wanted to give you a quick overview.
尽可能尝试不同技巧
Just try out different techniques
然后选择你们觉得最好的方法
and decide which technique you like best.
这也是个找到独一无二素描风格的方法
This is a great way for finding your own unique sketching style as well.
[注意光源]
[Pay attention to the light source]
开始画阴影之前
Now before you start shading,
找到光源的位置很重要
it’s important to find a light source
因为这将决定
as this is going to decide
要在哪里添加阴影
where you have to add the shadows
以及突出部分
and the highlights.
光线从哪里来
Where does the light come from?
正如一开始提到的
As I mentioned in the beginning,
关注物体的整体形状是很重要的
it’s important to pay attention to the overall shape of the object.
画阴影时 这也非常重要
This is always important when it comes to shading it.
所以要从最暗的位置
So we’ll start at the darkest spot
也就是光线最少的地方入手
that gets the least amount of light,
然后使用之前提及的画阴影的方法
and then blend it out to the brighter areas
逐渐向更亮的位置过渡
by using any of the shading techniques I showed you.
如果是方方正正的物体
If you draw something that is square,
就不要用曲线来画阴影
you don’t want to use curved lines for shading.
而应按照物体形状来画阴影
Rather follow the shape of the object while shading it.
根据需要 也可以使用混合工具或纸巾
If you want, you can also use a blending tool or a tissue paper
沿着物体的轮廓进行勾勒
and blend out the sketched-out shadows
混合出轮廓阴影
following the shape of the object.
这会让物体轮廓更柔和
This will create a smooth surface
当然 你也可以选择保持原样
but you can also just keep it the way it is,
虽然不同添加阴影的方法
as all the different shading techniques
会使你的作品更好更生动
gives sketch a really nice feel and character,
但记住 我们只是在画素描
but remember, we are just sketching here.
不是要创作出一份旷世杰作
We’re not creating a masterpiece.
不要觉得它就该是完美的
Don’t feel like it has to look perfect.
没有必要
It doesn’t have to.
这只是一份素描 一份可供参考的草图
This is only a sketch, a draft for future reference
或者说 只是练习画画的方式
or just for practicing drawing.
努力让自己摆脱这种对于完美的执念
Try to get rid of this perfectionist mentality
我之前也已经提到过这点
I was talking about earlier.
如果有些地方很糟糕 没有关系
If something looks horrible, it’s okay.
只是练习而已
You’re here to practice.
不要折磨自己 即便它看上去很丑
Don’t beat yourself up if it looks ugly.
试着去包容它
Embrace it.
我认为
I believe that
十幅难看且不完美的画作也比一幅都不画好
it’s better to create 10 ugly and unperfect art pieces than none
因为你能通过练习和绘画不同的作品
because you can use all the knowledge that you gained
来应用你所掌握的知识
by sketching and drawing all these art pieces
之后你才有可能画出让人赞叹的作品
for your next work that will look amazing.
尽你最大的努力去练习吧 不要忘记享受其中
Just give your best, practice, and remember to have fun.
希望你们喜欢这个视频且有所收获
I really hope you enjoyed this video and found it helpful.
如果喜欢 不要忘了给视频点赞
If so, don’t forget to give this video a thumbs-up
支持这个节目
to support this channel.
这对我来说意义非凡
It will mean a lot to me.
如果你初次观看 别忘了订阅
And if you’re new to this channel, don’t forget to subscribe
点击下方工具栏
and to click on the bar to get notified
无论周四周日何时发布新视频 你会收到通知
whenever I put a new video on Thursday and on Saturdays.
感谢各位收看
Thank you so much for watching, guys.
祝您愉快 我们星期六再见
Have a wonderful day, andI will see you on Saturday.
再见
Bye!

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视频概述

视频介绍了初学者练习素描所需要用到的工具以及常犯的错误,同时也介绍了基础素描的一些方法,例如构建轮廓的方法,画阴影的方法,着色的方法,画出立体感的方法等等。最后,作者也对初学者练习素描的方法提出了建议。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ohio

审核员

审核员_DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qqva-bcEnHA

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