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如何画阴影

How to Shade a Drawing

It’s the one we’ve all been waiting for!! Shading!
今天这节课我们期待已久
Shading!
画阴影
Proko画室 如何画阴影
Stan Prokopenko here, you’re watching proko.
欢迎来到Proko画室 我是主讲Stan Prokopenko
First let’s talk about forms,
我们先来了解一下形体
because form is what we are trying to indicate when we were shading.
画阴影的目的就是塑造形体
In order to effectively shade form,
为了更高效的塑造形体
you first need to understand the form you’re shading.
首先你要了解正在塑造的是什么形体
In the structure video I talked about the basic building blocks of form
在结构基础那节课 我讲过物体的基本形状
spheres, cylinders and boxes.
球体 圆柱体 立方体
Organic forms found in nature, like humans, animals and trees
诸如人体 动物 树木这些自然界中的有机物体
could and should be constructed from these simple forms to
基本都可以用这几种简单形状来造型
capture the character of the subject.
来刻画物体的主要特征
The primary form, such as a cylinder for an arm,
主要形状 比如表示胳膊的圆柱型
should be dominant over any secondary forms,
相对于次要形状应处于主导地位
such as the bicep, tricep, deltoid, forearms muscles.
次要形状包括二头肌 肱三头肌 三角肌和前臂肌肉
And these secondary forms should be dominant
相对于血管和皱纹等第三级别的形状
over tertiary forms, like a vein or wrinkles.
次要形状应处于主导地位
You don’t necessarily have to draw them in that sequence,
也不用严格按照这个顺序来画
just make sure that your shading primarily reveals the largest forms,
只要确定阴影首先在表现大的形状
and the smaller forms act as details , icing on the cake.
而小一些的形状是作为锦上添花的细节来处理
Planes
形体的面
Planes can be thought of as flat tiles,
形体的面就好比瓷砖
arranged in 3d space to create a form.
用立体排列的方式创造出形体
For example this sphere has a front plane, top plane, side planes,
比如说 这个球体是由“正面” “顶面”“侧面”
and many more between that together resemble a sphere.
以及很多“过渡面”共同组成的
They create the illusion of form.
这些面一起塑造出形体
Though really a sphere is rounded, without any flat planes,
尽管真实的球体是圆的 没有任何平面
thinking of it in this way will help
但用这种方法思考
to imagine the sphere as a 3d object
有利于理解球形的立体感
and aid in the shading process.
并在上阴影的时候有所帮助
You can think of each section
可以按区块来分析
and imagine which direction that plane faces.
想象面是对着哪个方向的
Then compare it to the direction of the light source.
考虑光源的方向对每个面的影响
The plane facing the light is the lightest
面向光源的面是最亮的
and progressively get darker as they turn away.
离光源越远的面 逐渐变得越来越暗
This gradation of tone on the planes gives
这种不同面的明暗色调渐变
a sense of light on the form
表现出物体的受光感
and helps to show the 3-dimensionality of the sphere.
有助于体现球体的立体感
If you want to round out the edges to indicate a softer form,
如果想把边缘修圆 画出更柔和的形体
then soften the edge between these planes!
可以通过柔和过度相邻面来达到目的
Though sometimes leaving the edges between the planes hard
不过有时候即便形体是圆的
even on what looks like a rounded form
保留明显的平面边缘
can help to illustrate the structure more effectively.
能更有效的表现物体结构
Consider the 3-dimensional form that you’re drawing
要从物体的立体感来考虑
rather than just blurring edges for techniques’ sake.
而不是技术上一味追求相邻平面的顺滑过渡
I also want to point out that
我还想指出的一点是
when you’re simplifying a form,
对物体形状的简化
what you’re doing is decreasing the number of planes
其实就是通过减少
which that form consists of.
物体的连续表面来达成的
This 3d model consists of millions of planes,
这个三维模型 是由上百万个连续的平面组成的
3d artists call them polygons.
三维艺术家叫这些平面“多边形”
When we lower the polygons down to a few hundred.
当多边形减少到只有数百个时
we get something like this.
看起来就是这样的
Much more manageable for our brains to process.
对我们的大脑来说 这样就容易理解多了
This is the level I’m usually thinking at when I’m observing the planes
我在观察像类似人体的形体表面时
on an organic form like a figure.
通常就是用这个标准
Shade these planes with soft edges
柔和处理这些相交平面的阴影边缘
and it gives the illusion of millions of planes.
就有了数百万平面组合的错觉
But in my mind, I’m only thinking of a few major planes for a given area.
但我只会着眼于一些特定区域的主要平面
If you lower the polycount even further,
如果将多边形数量再减少一些
basically what you have is the robo bean and the mannequin.
基本上就是机器豆和人体模特的样子了
It’s good to imagine each form as a block
把每一个形状想象成一个体块
and identify each minor plane as either being
然后将小一些的平面定义为
part of the top, bottom, front, back or side planes..
顶面 底面 正面 后面或侧面
The simple planes of a block are the most important ones.
这些体块的平面就是最重要的面
George Bridgman says
乔治·伯里曼说过
“不要让过于复杂且没必要的色调
削弱了对四大面之一的表现力”
Light on Form
形体上的光量
When an object is lit by a direct light source,
当形体被直接光源照亮时
you will get a very predictable pattern of lights and shadows.
会产生可预测的光影模式
We can make a form feel 3d by indicating all
通过将每一部分的光和影准确表达出来
the parts of the lights and shadows correctly.
就能创造出很有立体感的物体
Let’s do a little example.
来举个例子吧
An elongated rounded form with some thinner cylindrical ends.
画一个瘦长的圆形和比较细的圆柱体末端
This can be a generic muscle, similar to a bicep.
可以是肌肉类的组织 类似二头肌
You have the rounded belly of the muscle with tendons on both ends.
这样就有了鼓起的肌肉主体 以及两端的肌腱
First determine the angle of the light source.
首先决定光源的角度
Let’s say top right..
比如光源在右上方
And imagine the planes that make up this form.
想象一下组成这个形体的面
All the planes that face the light will belong to the light family.
所有面向光源的面 都属于受光面
All the planes that face away from the light will belong to the shadow family.
没有面向光源的面 都属于背光面
Core Shadow
阴暗交界线
As a divider of the two families
通常在受光面和背光面交界的地方
you’ll usually see a core shadow
会有一条阴暗交界线
a darker strip at the edge of the shadow.
也就是在阴影边缘比较暗的带状区域
This core shadow shouldn’t be the same all the way down the form.
阴暗交界线在形体上不是一成不变的
In the rounded belly part of the form,
在肌肉鼓起的部分
the core shadow will be thicker with a softer edge.
明暗交界线比较宽 边缘柔和
As the form transitions to the thinner tendon,
随着形体向较窄的肌腱过渡
the core shadow will also get thinner with a sharper edge.
明暗交界面也变得更窄 边缘更明显
Make sure you pay attention to what you’re indicating with the core shadow.
注意在画明暗交界线的时候到底要表现什么
Avoid drawing racing stripes down the form.
不要沿着形体画生硬的分界线
This usually happens when people think 2-dimensionally
这样更多是从二维角度出发
and don’t consider the 3 dimensional form they’re indicating.
而不是从三维角度去考虑要表现的形体
Is it cylindrical, cuboid,
形体是圆柱形的 还是有点方的
or somewhere between the two?
或者是介于两者之间的?
Draw a soft, firm or hard edge accordingly.
根据实际情况决定明暗交界线的处理 (深浅虚实)
Reflected Light
反光区
Fill in the shadow side with a clean dark value,
笔触整洁的在阴影区画上阴影
but lighter than the core shadow.
要比明暗交界面浅一些
This is called the reflected light.
这个区域叫做反光区
It’s lighter because of bounce light and reflections
因为受反光和环境光的影响
from the environment illuminating area.
所以这个区域的阴影会浅一些
I always start with a flat value first,
即便看到阴影区里
even if I see variations of value
有不同的明暗变化
caused by plane changes inside the shadows.
我也总是先平铺一遍调子
The most important part is to separate
最重要的是
the shadow family from the light family.
先把受光面和背光面区分开
Later in the drawing we can work on the plane changes
如果背光面里有重要的细节变化
within the shadows if they are really important.
可以在后面的步骤再进行细化
Though in this example there aren’t really important plane changes,
不过在这个例子里 并没有重要的面的变化
just a soft gradation to show the rounded form.
只有表现形体弧度的柔和明暗过渡
On a complex form like a figure,
在更复杂的形体 比如人体上
it’s usually a good idea to keep the details within the
对背光面的细节处理比受光面低调一些
shadows quieter than the details in the lights.
通常效果会比较好
Most of the story is going to be told in the lit areas.
应该把表现力集中放到受光面上
Naturally the viewer will look into the areas where the light shines,
观看者很自然的会把目光聚焦在受光面
so you want to put the interesting detail work there,
所以在受光面表现出有意思的细节
and keep the shadows as the areas of rest.
不要让背光面的部分太抢戏
This drawing by Steve Huston is a really good example of this principle.
这副史蒂夫·休斯顿的画很好的阐述了这一原则
He keeps the shading inside the shadows very simple.
他让背光面里的阴影非常的简单
Here’s another one.
再看另一幅
He kept the shading on the bottom of the feet so simple
他把脚部的阴影画的如此简单
that he completely lost it into the background.
以至于阴影已经跟背景融为一体了
Same thing with the hair.
对头发的处理也是如此
Centerlight and Halftones
亮面区和灰面区
Next, identify the point of the center light.
接下来 找到受光点
This is the point where the plane faces directly to the light.
这里就是形体表面直接被光源照射到的点
The halftones appear as a gradation darkest near the core shadow
灰面区在接近明暗交界线的地方最深
and lightest at the center light.
逐渐过渡到受光点处最浅
So, I’m thinking about how these planes
所以我要注意这些面
get lighter as they wrap around toward the center light.
在逐渐接近受光点时是怎么慢慢变浅的
Then down here, the planes start to turn downward, also getting darker.
在下方往肌腱处过渡时 要逐渐变深
Once we get to the cylinder of the tendon,
到了肌腱的圆柱体处
the planes turn back to face forward.
这个面又是受光面了
Highlight
高光区
The final element is the highlight.
最后的要说的就是高光
The highlight is different from the center light,
高光和受光点是不一样的
but sometimes appearing to fall very close to the center light.
但是有时候这两个点的位置非常接近
Remember, the center light is the plane that faces the light
要记住 受光点是直接面对光源的表面
and the highlight is the plane that reflects the light
高光受到观看者的位置影响
relative to the position of the viewer.
是光源在物体上反射所处的表面
A simple way to remember the interaction between the center light and highlight is –
受光点和高光的关系 可以用一个简单的办法来理解
When the shadow is thin the highlight will be very close to the center light.
当背光面特别窄的时候 高光和受光点就非常接近
When the shadow is large,
当背光面很宽的时候
then highlight will be farther from the centerlight, moving closer to the shadow.
高光就会离受光点远一些 更接近阴影区
So, I’ve established the shape of the highlight
这样我就画好了高光的形状
and gave it a sharp edge on the side
边缘画的比较清晰
and softer toward the top and bottom.
两端虚化处理
Cast Shadow and Occlusion Shadow
投影和闭合阴影
So far we have a center light,
至今我们已经画出了受光点
highlight, halftone, core shadow, and reflected light.
高光 灰调 阴暗交界线还有反光
There’s two more that we’re missing.
还缺两个元素
These elements occur when there’s an interaction between two forms.
在两个形状互相影响时会出现这些因素
So let’s introduce a random cylinder into the scene.
随便给这个场景里加个圆柱体
This cylinder blocks light from hitting the surface of the muscle right here.
圆柱体挡住了部分肌肉表面的光源
That’s called a cast shadow,
这部分就叫投影
because it’s cast by the cylinder.
是圆柱体的影子投射在肌肉表面形成的
When I draw the cast shadow shape,
我在画投影的形状时
I use it to describe the shape of the object it is casting on to,
通常是按照被投影物体的形状来画投影
not the object it is casting from.
而不是按投影物体的形状画
The area under the cylinder will get less bounce light
在圆柱体的下方的反光非常少
and so it will be darker.
所以会比较黑
That’s an occlusion shadow.
这就叫闭合阴影
Keep the edge at the cylinder sharp
把圆柱体的投影边缘画清晰
and the edge going away very soft.
边缘里的越远越虚化
So, those are all the parts.
这就是所有的元素
Review all these elements
复习所有元素
and practice spotting them on directly lit objects.
并练习在直接光源照射下的物体上寻找这些元素
There are 2 other things that I look for
还要注意两个也会影响
that could affect the value of the form.
物体色调表现的因素
Local Value
物体本色
The local value of the object itself shifts the value range.
物体本身的色调会影响色调范围
These 2 eggs are light exactly the same way,
这两个鸡蛋的光源是完全一样的
but you can see how the value range is different.
但它们的色调范围是不同的
On the white egg the range from darkest core
白色鸡蛋从最深的阴影到受光点
to center light is pretty wide.
色调范围跨度非常大
On the brown egg the values get compressed and pushed darker.
棕色鸡蛋的色调范围缩小而且比较深
Interestingly, the highlight isn’t affected as much.
有意思的是 高光并没有被影响多少
It still gets darker, but not as much as the other parts.
虽然也深了一些 但不像其他区域那么明显
Because of that the highlight on the brown egg appears very bright.
因此 棕色鸡蛋上的高光显得特别亮
The value of the highlight depends on the reflectivity of the material.
高光的色调受物体材质反光程度的影响
A glossy surface will have brighter highlights,
光滑表面的高光会比较亮
whereas a highlight on a matte surface
而不光滑表面的高光
might not be visible at all.
有可能几乎看不到
The effects you see on these eggs are really close to what you’d see with skin.
鸡蛋上的光线效果与皮肤的光线效果是非常接近的
Intensity of Light
光线强度
The intensity of the light also makes a big difference.
光线的强度也能造成很大区别
Intense light will create more contrast between the lights and shadows.
强光会造成受光面和背光面的强烈对比
Dim light, low contrast.
暗光则对比较弱
The intensity of the light can shift within the same object.
同一物体上的光线强度也会有变化
For example in this figure drawing,
比如说这张人体画
the light source is above the figure,
光源在人体的上方
so the light is intense at the top
所以上部光线最强
and drops off toward the bottom
越向下离光源越远
as the forms get farther from the light source.
光线也就越来越暗
And this is actually something you can cheat.
在这部分是你可以发挥的地方
You don’t have to see this on the model in order to do it.
不用非要模特身上有这种光线才这样画
You can use it as a compositional trick
可以从创造技巧的角度
to guide the viewer’s eye to the focal point.
引导观看者的视觉聚焦到关键点
In this case I’m guiding the eye to the upper back,
在这个例子里 我引导视线聚焦在肩背部
which has the interesting light and dark design pattern of the anatomy.
因为这个部位的解剖结构明暗对比很有意思
Here’s another drawing by Steve Huston,
这是史蒂文·休斯顿的另一幅画
which illustrates this very well.
同样完美诠释了这一技巧
Detailed explanation of the process
过程详解
available in the premium course…
高级课程专属
What?! I’m sorry!
怎么啦? 对不住啊!
I gotta leave something for the paying students!
我总得给付钱了的学生留点啥!
Can’t give everything away for free
不能什么都免费吧
It’s cheap anyway, just go to proko.com/figure
再说也很便宜 登陆proko.com/figure
and you can have all those figure drawing fundamentals extended lessons.
就能看到所有人体绘画基础延伸课程
And a bunch of examples and stuff from the lessons.
还有很多案例
Do it!
赶紧的!
If you’re posting your own drawings from these lessons on social networks,
用#proko在社交平台上发表这个视频的练习作品
use hashtag “proko” or tag me, @proko on facebook @stanprokopenko on instagram
在脸书和推特上@我
so I can see your drawings.
我就能看到你的作品了
If you like this video pass it on to your friends and classmates.
喜欢这个视频的话就分享给你的朋友和同学
And click this button here to subscribe to the Proko newsletter
点击订阅Proko频道
so you don’t miss any new videos. Bye-bye!
不要错过更新 再见!

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视频概述

素描的关键步骤 阴影怎么画? Proko画室分步骤详细解读阴影的细则和画法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

綝飛

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-dqGkHWC5IU

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