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如何抵制阴谋论 – 译学馆
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如何抵制阴谋论

How to Resist Conspiracy Theories

我们生活在阴谋时代
We live in conspiratorial times.
平静的表面下危机四伏
Deeply sinister motives appear to be at work everywhere beneath the surface.
无论声望多好 都无法远离嫌疑
No one, however high their reputation, is entirely beyond suspicion.
每个机构 即便是权威机构 都可能有阴谋
Every institution, even the most venerable, may be at it.
无论公开的事实如何
Whatever may publically be said, something a whole lot ghastlier
其中都可能隐藏着可怕的秘密
is probably going on in private.
秉持善意似乎就是天真和幻灭的确定途径
Taking anything on good faith seems a sure route to naivety and disillusion.
没有什么能比成为一个阴谋论者更诱人的了
It’s never been a more tempting moment to become a conspiracy theorist.
但现实并不是在傻白甜和阴谋论之间选择
But the real choice isn’t between naivety on the one hand and conspiracy theory on the other.
我们需要找出常常被忽视的
The task is to find our way to an often-elusive
第三个选择:理性怀疑
third option: intelligent scepticism.
理性怀疑和阴谋论的出发点是相同的
Both the intelligent sceptic and the conspiracytheorist start from the very same place:
即认为事实不只是看到那样
with an awareness that things may well not be what they seem,
众所周知的事可能未必为真
and that what is widely believed may be patently false.
只是其本身没有迷惑性罢了
This is, in itself, no sign of madness or delusion.
这是人类伟大发现的基础
It’s the basis of some of humanity’s greatest discoveries and insights.
1473年时 地球绕太阳转的言论听着像是弥天大谎
To claim that the earth orbits the sun wouldhave sounded the height of delusion in 1473.
在1950年代末期 有人认为
It would have sounded no less peculiar to maintain, in the late 1950s,
英国安保系统
That the UK security services
被一些苏联间谍掌握 也就不足为奇了
were largely in the hands of a group of people working for the Soviet Union.
一个猜测可能会十分稀奇古怪 非常冷门 但仍然是正确的
A hypothesis can be thoroughly outlandish, very unpopular – and still correct.
阴谋论有别于理性怀疑之处
What separates the conspiracy theorist from the intelligent sceptic
并不在于一些古怪的论调
is not the possession of some odd-sounding hypotheses;
而是他们得出这些假设的过程
it’s what they then go on to do with these hypotheses.
以下是关键的区别
Here are some of the key differences:
证据
Evidence
理性怀疑者知道没有证据的猜测不会长久
Intelligent sceptics know that hypotheses cannot be sustained
它们可以经受一时的考验
indefinitely without evidence. They can be trialled for a time,
但最终必定会在坚实的考验下刹羽而归
but eventually have to be positively backed up by concrete proof
或者被默然放弃
or else graciously and uncomplainingly abandoned.
举证责任
The Burden of Proof
理性怀疑者认为主张者
Intelligent sceptics know that the burden of proving a hypothesis
作为对现状的挑战者必须负举证责任
must invariably fall on them, as the challengers to the status quo,
而非既定观点的拥趸
and not on the upholders of the established ideology.
他们认为他们(主张者)有责任证明幽灵确实存在
They accept that it is their duty to show that ghosts really do exist;
而不是其他人来证明幽灵不存在
and not the responsibility of everyone else to prove that they don’t.
勇气
Courage
持有争论性假设会给人带来一些救赎般的精神愉悦
Upholding quarrelsome hypotheses delivers some hugely redemptive emotional pleasures.
主张者会感觉到力量
One often feels empowered and superior
从被现实蒙蔽了真相的人中产生优越感
to all those who still blindly trust in the status quo.
他们那些白痴可能天真地认为火箭可以登月
They, the idiots, may well think the rocket went to the moon;
我们知道事实是那只是在一个市中心的摄影棚里拍出的电影
we know the whole thing was filmed in a downtown studio.
也许我们的工作不够重大 我们的房子不够豪华
Our job may not be so significant nor our house very grand,
但我们不像那些傲慢的砖家
but we, unlike the stuck-up professors,
我们知道元首希特勒在战后发生了什么
know what really happened to the Fuhrer after the war.
理性怀疑者清楚地知道 如果证明那些是对的会多么完美
Intelligent sceptics certainly know how nice it would be if they were proved right;
但他们也能忍受检验出错误后的耻辱
but they can bear the humiliation of turning out to be miserably wrong.
如果他们真的发现了廉价的核裂变
It would of course be deeply emotionally convenient if they really were
发现有钱的老头确实是个性捕食者
to discover the secrets of cheap nuclear fission, if the elderly, rich man was in truth a sexual
或者发现气候变化实际上是场骗局 这当然会让人轻轻松松心满意足
predator or if climate change did turn out to be a hoax. But they are also wise enough
但他们明智地知道 他们的愿望永远无法压倒
never to let their wishes overpower the more stubborn
坚不可摧的事实
and unyielding claims of reality.
基本信任
Basic Trust
阴谋论者只会看到阴谋四伏
The conspiracy theorist sees skullduggery everywhere;
他们默认每个人都是说谎者
their default position is that everyone must be a liar
简单的事实都是掩饰
and that simply everything is a cover up.
他们十分担心被愚弄
Their fear of being taken for a dupe is so great,
以至不相信哪怕一点真相
there can be no glimmer of trust.
对他们来说 理性怀疑者因
For their part, the intelligent sceptic proceeds through the world
基本的信任和最初的善意在世间生存
with an attitude of basic credence and initial benevolence.
他们敢依据表相做出判断 源于内在的自信让他们或许很快就改变观点
They dare to take things at face value, confident in their power to alter their views, perhaps
甚至向揭露真相所需要的更阴暗的方向改变
quite quickly, in a much darker direction were the facts to demand it. They are internally
他们内心足够强大 敢于相信陌生人的善意和坦率
strong enough to take a chance to believe in the goodness and truthfulness of strangers.
阴谋论从来都不是理性的问题
Conspiracy theory is never really a problem of intelligence. It’s an emotional wound
它是一种情感伤害 会阻碍进一步思考的能力
that overpowers the higher faculties of the mind – and is therefore best treated not
而最好的解决方法不是信息轰炸 而是信任 善良和爱
with a barrage of countervailing facts, but with reassurance, kindness and love, for it’s
这才是永恒不变的主题 我们面对的不是在傻白甜和
here that the problem invariably began. The choice we face isn’t between naive credulity
阴谋论之间做选择 了解我们内心的弱点
and conspiracy theory. By understanding the fragility of our psyches, we have the option
我们便能以理性的半信半疑掌控人生危局
of navigating our perilous times with a judicious mixture of doubt and trust.

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视频概述

关于理性怀疑和阴谋论两者之间的一些区别。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

tu3535

审核员

霜霜

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WoYjIDwbzLY

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