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怎样记住读过的内容? – 译学馆
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怎样记住读过的内容?

How to Remember More of What You Read

When I was a kid,
在我小的时候
one of my favorite shows on Nickelodeon was
其中一部我最喜欢的点播节目是
Jimmy Neutron.
《天才小子吉米》
And when I watched that show,
当我看那个节目时候
one of the inventions that stuck out to me the most was book gum.
最令我印象深刻的发明之一是口香糖
These were little sticks of gum
每一小块口香糖
that each contained the entire text of a specific book.
都包含了一本特定书籍的所有内容
And as Jimmy put it, when you chew it, you know it.
正如吉米所说 当你咀嚼它 你就会知道书上的内容
And ever since I saw that episode,
自从我看了这一集
I’ve always wished that invention actually existed.
我一直希望那个发明是真实存在的
How cool would it be to be able to juest chew
那是多么的酷 只需要简单的咀嚼
a stick of gum and know
一根口香糖 你就能知道
text of Moby Dick or your math textbook?
《白鲸》或者是你的数学课本上的内容
But of course book gum does not exist sadly,
令人悲伤的是 书本口香糖并不存在
so what I wanna do today is
所以我今天想
talk about what you can do
讨论一下你该怎么做
to remember what you read better.
才能更好地记住你读过的内容
Because you can read more books, you can read them faster,
因为即便你读再多书 或读得再快
but if you are not intaking the information
但是如果你没有在汲取信息
and you’re not able to recall it
你就没办法回忆起书中的内容
and apply it later on,
和学以致用
then what are you really reading for in the first place?
那么你读书的初衷是什么?
and as I see there are two different categories of books that we need to cover.
以我之见 我们需要谈到两种不同类别的书
First there are books full of facts and concepts
第一种书充满了事实和概念
that you need to simply know.
你只需要大概地了解它们
Things like the mere exposure effect
比如说曝光效应
from Daniel Kahneman’s Thinking Fast and Slow
丹尼尔•卡内曼的《思考,快与慢》中所提到的概念
or the definition of a caravel,
或者是“轻快帆船的定义”
which you can learn in Daniel Boorstin’s history text,
一个在丹尼尔•布尔斯廷的历史书《发现者》中
The Discoverers.
所提及的定义
The information contained in books like these is of a more academic nature .
像这些书中包含的信息 都比较偏学术性
It’s less applicable to your life, you can’t use it so easily.
在你的生活中用处不大 你没法简单地使用
But you still may need to know it,
但你仍需要了解它们
be it for a test down the road
可能为了以后的考试
or simply because you want to.
或者只是你想要了解而已
So first we are going to quickly cover five specific techniques
所以首先我们会快速讲一下五个专门的技巧
that you can use to more effectively remember
这能帮助你更有效地记忆
the information from basically any book that you’re reading.
你所读的任何书上的信息
But these are gonna be especially useful
尤其是对偏学术类的书来说
for these more academic types of books.
这些技巧特别有用
After that though, we are going to talk about
在那之后 我们会讲一下
the second category of books.
第二种类型的书
These are the more actionable practical books,
这是一种更加实用的操作性的书
things like Music Theory or The Science of Cooking.
比如《音乐理论》或者《厨房科学》
These kind of books are actually trying to teach you
实际上这些书试着教会你
something that you will use and
一些你会用到的东西
as you may imagine, the most effective way
正如你所想的那样
to remember the information in these types of books
记住这种书的内容的最有效方法
is a little bit different.
和第一种书会有一些不同
But first let’s talk about those five general reading techniques
先让我们来聊聊这五个常规的阅读技巧
and the first one is called pre-reading.
第一个叫做预读
So to effectively pre-read before you dig into the actual chapter,
为了在深入研究正文前更有效地预读
first go over the book’s table of contents,
首先翻到书的目录
skim the chapter, look at the chapter subheadings,
浏览章节和副标题
maybe some bullet lists, and then go to the back of the chapter.
或者是些要点列表 然后翻到章节的末尾
If there’s a summary or review questions, review those as well.
如果有篇章总结或者是问题回顾 也需要浏览一下
Doing this before reading has the effect
在读书前先做这一步
of priming your brain to more readily pick out the most important information
它能够刺激你的大脑 以便当你真正阅读时
when you’re actually going through the text.
能更快速地挑出最重要的信息
And if you want a really great example
如果你需要一个绝佳的
of how priming can affect your brain,
关于启动效应怎么影响你的大脑的例子
just briefly close your eyes and think about a specific color.
只需要暂时闭上眼睛 然后想像一种特定的颜色
And do that for a couple of seconds.
想像几秒钟
Then once you open your eyes again,
之后一旦你再睁开眼
you’re gon na start noticing that color everywhere in your environment.
你会发现你周围到处都是那种颜色
You’ve primed your brain.
你已经启动了你的大脑
And pre-reading does the exact same thing for words on a printed page.
预读能对纸质文字起到一样的效果
Secondly,highlighting can be very effective. but only if you do it right.
第二 划重点也非常管用 但你得正确地划重点
See, a lot of people have the tendency
比如 很多人都会在读书的时候
of highlighting way too much when they read
划太多的重点
or going through the text and highlighting immediately
或者在读书的时候立刻就划重点
instead of trying to read and understand the text first.
而不是先去尝试读懂文章
So as Walter Pauk points out in his book
正如沃特•波克在他的书
How To Study In College,
《怎么在大学里学习》中指出的
read the text before you start marking it.
在你画标记前先好好读这本书
This has the dual effect of making sure that you’re focusing
这也有双重效果来确保
all of your attention on actually understanding what you’re reading
你能集中精力理解你所读的内容
instead of looking for sections to highlight,
而不是在找可以划重点的章节上
but it also prevents you from highlighting too much.
同时这也可以避免划过多的重点
And this is important because the more that you highlight,
这一点非常重要 因为你划的重点越多
the less useful those highlights are.
有用的重点就越少
I mean, imagine if you highlighted every single piece
我的意思是 想像一下如果你把书上的
of text in a book,
每一句话都划了重点
You would have essentially just changed the background color
你实际上只是换了下纸的背景颜色
of the paper and gained nothing.
却没学到任何东西
Anyway, other than that one little word of warning about highlighting,
除了关于画重点的小建议外
I do have one additional tip which is that
我还有另一个小窍门 就是你要知道
it’s good to know if you are doing your highlighting on a Kindle
如果你在Kindle
or on a digital platform of some sort,
或者其他数字平台上划重点
usually your highlights go to a specific area of the app.
通常你画的重点都会被放在这个APP里的一个特殊位置
For example in the Kindle app,
比如在Kindle软件上
you can bring up all of your highlights
你能够把一本书里所有你划了重点的内容
for a specific book in one convenient place.
汇总到一个方便查看的地方
Tip number three, take notes after you read.
技巧三 在你读书之后要记笔记
And notice that I said after you read.
要注意我说的是在你读过“之后”
Now you don’t have to wait specifically until
你不需要一定等到
you end an entire chapter, but I think
读完整个章节才记笔记
it’s good to at least read a section,
我认为 最好至少要读完一个部分
try to get into it, and then go over it again
尝试去深入了解它 之后再重温一遍
and take notes on the most important details.
然后再在最重要的内容上做笔记
Now you might be asking what are the most important details?
你可能会问什么才是最重要的内容?
How do I know what I’m supposed to take notes on?
我怎样才知道我应该在什么地方做笔记?
And hopefully your pre-reading will give you a little bit of illumination in this area
希望你的预读能给你一点这方面的启发
because you’re gonna start picking out what’s most important.
因为你要开始选出最重要的部分
But in general, some good things to look out for include key terms which are often bolded or
通常 可以关注加粗或斜体标记的重点词汇
main points, and also examples and stories that highlight those main points
关键点和强调这些关键点的例子和故事
And these can often be summarized.
这些内容在书里经常被总结了
You don’t have to take notes on them in too much detail.
你并不需要在笔记上记太多细节
Now again the length and the specific format of your notes
再说一次 你笔记的长度
is gonna be completely up to you
和笔记格式完全取决于你
and you’re gonna get better at it over time.
而且你也会越来越擅长做笔记
But if you want some examples, I can provide a few,
如果你想要我也可以提供给你一些例子
including my own notes on Charles Duhigg’s The Power of Habit
包括我自己做的关于查尔斯•杜希格的《习惯的力量》的笔记
which I published on my personal website
我把它发布在我个人网站上
and I’ll have a link in the description down below.
而且我会在视频介绍栏里放上链接
That brings us to a very related tip,
这提示我们
which is to summarize what you read after you’re done reading it.
在读完书之后要总结你所读的内容
And with summaries in particular,
尤其是总结部分
I think it’s good to finish an entire chapter
我认为最好是在读完整个章节以后
and then go back, try to pick up the main points,
然后再回到章节开始 尝试去找出重点
maybe look at your notes, and then write a summary. Again,
也可参照笔记 之后再写总结 再强调一遍
you don’t want this thing to be too long, you just want it to be
笔记不用太长 你只需要
a very distilled version of what you read
一个关于你所读内容的精简的版本
that contains the most important and salient points.
其中包含了最重要且最突出的点
Finally, seek out secondary sources of information
最后 找出二手资料
that can complement what you’re reading.
作为你所读内容的补充
This has the dual benefit
这样有两个好处
of building additional neural connections to the material
其一是建立额外神经之间的联系
that you’re forging through the book
和你在书中所提炼出的材料相连接
but it also keeps your level of interest high
它也能让你继续保持浓厚的兴趣
or could potentially boost it for topics that you’re not super interested in.
或者也会激发你对一些话题的兴趣
Because a lot of times,
因为很多时候
staring at a piece of dead tree on your desk
盯着你桌上的一张纸
isn’t the most interesting way to learn about a topic, right?
也并不是了解一个话题最有趣的方法 对吧
And make no mistake about it,
而且可以肯定的是
interest is the most important ingredient
兴趣是高效学习和长期记忆
to effective learning and long-term recall.
最重要的要素
As the author Frances Lockwood put it over 100 years ago,
正如作家弗朗西斯•洛克伍德在100年前多说的
“In the long run the secret of study resides in
“长期来看 学习的秘密在于
our ability to bathe our thought, our task,
我们能够在兴趣长河里
“our lesson in the stream of interest.”
涤荡我们的想法 我们的任务和我们的经验”
So if you can and you have time to do it,
因此 如果你可以并有时间去做的话
find other sources of information
去寻找其它的那种
that can boost the level of interest you have in the topic.
能让你对这种话题产生更浓厚兴趣的信息资源
Now this could be other books
这些资源可能是其他书籍
but it could also be a podcast episode
也可能是一段播客
or a museum tour
或者一趟博物馆之旅
or maybe even a video game.
甚至可能是一部视频游戏
The reason that I still remember what a caravel is
我仍能记得轻快帆船是什么
because I was actually using them in Civilization V
因为我在《发现者》读到他们时
as I read about them in The Discoverers.
就把他们用到《文明5》游戏中
Just want to pause for a second to point out
只是想暂停一下 声明
that I played over a hundred turns
我昨晚玩了一百多回合《文明5》
of Civ V last night to get B-roll
才玩到第二轮
for the stupid caravel section and it turns out the Portuguese civilization
发现 对于那个笨重的大篷车面葡萄牙文明甚至没有轻快帆船
doesn’t even get caravels because they get a better unit automatically.
因为他们自动得到了更好的装置
(sighs) But you get the point.
(叹气)但是你们知道就行
Alright, with my future self’s editing complaints out of the way,
好了 不要理会我的抱怨
it is now time to move on to that more practical category of books,
是时候继续谈谈那些更加具有实用性的书了
books that are actually trying to teach you something
这些书是真正地试着教你一些
that you will use in the future.
在未来能够用到的东西
So as you probably could have guessed,
你可能会猜得到
the most effective way to recall the information
回忆实用性书籍信息最有效的方法
in these kinds of books is to mix reading with doing.
就是“读”与“做”结合
Mix the academic study with practical application. I mean, that’s kind of the point of these kinds of books anyway, right?
把学术研究应用到实际操作中 我的意思是 这才是这些书的重点 不是吗
Now what I want to do with this section of
接下来我想在这个视频中
the video is just give you a few practical examples
给你们提供一些可操作的例子
of how I’m putting this concept into action.
来说明我是怎么应用这个理念的
And let’s start with Brian Boone’s book on music theory.
先从 Brian Boone的 《音乐理论》说起
One thing you learn about early on in this book is the interval patterns
你最早在书中了解到的就是“间隔模式”
that define different types of scales.
它规定了音阶的不同类型
For example there’s a specific interval pattern for minor scales and
比如 小调音阶特定的间隔模式
that differs from the one for major scales.
不同于大调音阶的间隔模式
Now I could have just read about this.
假设我刚读完这个内容
After all, it is a music theory after all
毕竟它是音乐理论
and the interval patterns aren’t too difficult to grasp and understand.
并且间隔模式也不是太难领悟和掌握
But to understand them better, after I read about them,
但是为了能更好地理解 读完之后
I went and wrote an interval pattern down on
我坐在钢琴边
a piece of paper at my piano and then
把一种间隔模式写在纸上
I spent some time picking random notes
我花一些时间随意记些笔记
and building scales from those notes using the interval pattern.
并且根据笔记用这种间隔模式创造音阶
[ piano music ]
[钢琴曲]
Doing this helped me to build a more concrete understanding
这样做有助于更具体地理解
of how these patterns worked.
这种模式如何运用
It was more solid than if I had just read and tried to memorize them.
比起只是读过并设法记住 它的记忆更加牢固
And to further solidify that mindset,
为了进一步加固这种思维
I also spent some time improving within the scales that I had built.
我也会花时间改善刚创作的音阶
[piano music]
[钢琴曲]
Now regardless of what you think of this piece, it’s obviously more fun to play than just going up and down scales.
不管你对这一小节音乐怎么看 很明显它比只是升降音阶有趣得多
And again this goes back to that quote about interest.
又回到了那句关于兴趣的名言
If you can bind what you’re learning to something that you’re more interested in
“如果你能把所学习的内容和你更感兴趣的相结合
like playing fun music, you’re gon na understand it
比如弹一首有趣的音乐 你就能更有效地
and remember and recall it a lot more effectively.
理解 记住并回顾所学内容
For another example, let’s talk about The Code Book by Simon Singh.
举另一个例子 是关于西蒙·辛格的《密码故事》
This book traces the entire history of cryptography,
这本书追溯了整个密码学的历史
starting from very simple Caesar ciphers and scytales,
从简单的凯撒密码和密码棒开始
going all the way up to theoretical quantum cryptography.
一直到量子密码学
Now while remembering the historical details in this book
那么要记住这本书里的历史细节
would mostly entail using the techniques we’ve already talked about,
需要用到我们刚谈到的技巧
the actual methods of cryptanalysis,
密码分析的真正方法
like frequency analysis, are much better understood through practice.
如频率分析 通过实践才能更好理解
And wouldn’t you know it, in the back of The Code Book,
你绝对想不到 在《密码故事》后面
there is an entire code-breaking challenge.
有一个完整的破译挑战
So while I was reading The Code Book,
所以我在读《密码故事》时
I also spent some time trying to work through those problems.
也会试着破解这些难题
And interestingly as I worked through them
有趣的是 当我破译出来
and gained more practical experience in cryptanalysis,
并获得了更多密码分析的实践经验
my interest level rose and I was able to remember the details more.
我的兴趣上升 这使我能够记住更多细节
Like that’s the only reason I can remember what a scytale is.
这也是我能记住密码棒是什么的唯一原因
Fun little side note,
有趣的小边注
that knowledge of what a scytale was actually helped me
关于密码棒的知识实际上帮助我
to beat an escape room recently.
赢了一局密室逃脱
So if you want to get better at beating escape rooms,
如果你想密室逃脱玩得更好
you may want to read The Code Book. Alright,
你可以试试读《密码故事》这本书
so we have covered a lot of information
我们在这个视频里已经谈到了好多内容
in this video but I do want to leave you with one final tip.
但我还想给你们提最后一条建议
After you’re finished reading a chapter or a section,
读完一章或一节后
go for a walk, take a break, hit the gym.
散散步 休息休息 或是去健身房
Take a little bit of time to refrain
花点时间以免摄入太多信息
from intaking more information because in this modern world,
因为在当代世界
we have access to so much of it.
我们接触了太多的信息
There are so many different sources and if we’re not careful,
各种不同的信息源 如果我们不小心
we can find ourselves spending literally all
就会发现我们几乎所有清醒的时间
of our waking hours intaking information.
都花在吸取信息上
But if you want to be able to use that information,
但如果你想能够运用信息
if you be able to recall it,
如果你想记住信息
you can’t constantly be intaking new things.
你不能一直处于接收新信息的状态
You have to give what you’ve already read,
你需要花一点时间
what you’ve already taken in, time to kind
去吸收和去建构
of marinate, time to set itself up
你所读的内容
and actually integrate itself into your existing banks of knowledge.
让它真正存在你现有的知识库中
So use these techniques to start learning more effectively
所以 用这些技巧开始高效学习
but at the same time always keep in mind the words of the great Gabe Newell.
同时要一直记得加布·纽维尔的话
– These things, they take time.
“这些事情 需要时间”
– Now earlier in the video,
在这期视频开始
we talked about how exploring topics in different mediums
我们谈到了挖掘不同材料的主题
can help you to more effectively remember what you’ve read.
能帮你更有效记住所读内容
And a very easy way to do that
一个简单的方法就是
is to go out and find a documentary
去找一部纪录片
on the same topic you’re reading about.
必须和你刚读过的主题相同
CuriosityStream has over 2,400 documentaries
CuriosityStream 有超过2400部纪录片
from some of the world’s best filmmakers, covering science, technology,
出自全球杰出的制片人 涵盖科学 技术
history, and more.
历史还有其他领域
So whether you’re reading
无论你正在读
about the history of the Apollo space program or the reign of Louie XIV,
阿波罗太空计划或是路易十四统治的历史
you’ll be able to find something there
你都能找到相关纪录片
that can further expand your knowledge and interest.
进一步扩充知识和兴趣
And if you’re looking for a place to start,
如果你想找个入门片
I’m gon na recommend the Deep Ocean series, which is narrated
我要推荐你深海系列
by the always excellent David Attenborough.
由超棒的大卫·爱登堡作旁白
Or you can dig into original series featuring Stephen Hawking,
或者可以深挖以史蒂芬·霍金 西格妮·韦佛 德里克·穆勒
Sigourney Weaver,
为专题的原创系列纪录片
and Derek Muller, and you can do it from anywhere.
你可以从任何地方开始看
I still find CuriosityStream on Roku, smart TVs, iOS,
我在Roku 智能电视 iOS
Android, Chromecast, and of course on the web.
安卓 Chromecast 还有网络上都能找到CuriosityStream
You can get unlimited access to everything on CuriosityStream
每个月只要2.99美金
for just $ 2.99 per month.
你就能在这个网站上不受限地获得一切
And if you’d like to try it out for free first,
如果你想免费试用
you can go over to curiositystream.com/thomas
你可以浏览curiositystream.com/thomas
and use the promo code Thomas
在付款时使用Thomas优惠码
at checkout to get a completely free 31 day trial.
就能得到31天的免费试用期
Huge thanks goes out to CuriosityStream as always
非常感谢CuriosityStream网站
for sponsoring this video and also supporting my
对本视频的赞助以及对本频道的支持
channel and thank you guys so much for watching as well.
也感谢你们的收看
Hopefully you found something useful in this video and if you did,
如果你们觉得这个视频有用
definitely hit that like button and also subscribe right
一定要点赞加关注
there to get new videos every single week.
每周会更新视频
You can also click right over here
你也可以直接点击这里
to get a free copy of my book on how to earn better grades.
来免费领取我的一本关于如何取得更好的成绩的书
Watch one more video
点击这里继续观看我的其他视频
on this channel right here or check out our latest podcast episode right over here.
或者点击这里了解最新的播客剧集
Thanks so much for watching
感谢观看
and I will see you in the next one (mouth pops).
我们下个视频再见

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视频概述

读过没过多久就忘记?五个技巧,没有吉米的书本口香糖,也能轻松帮你记住度过的内容。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

📎📎

审核员

审核员DY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xw8KuGD1fJ4

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