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如何记住你所学到的一切

How To Remember Everything You Learn

Here’s a situation
事情是这样的
I watch a video
我看了一个视频
its creator synthesizes all kinds of ideas
视频制作者综合各种想法
and comes to an interesting conclusion
得出了一个有趣的结论
I think wow I know all about that now
我想 “哇 我全都懂了”
then a few hours later
然后过了几个小时
I can sort of recall its main points,
我仅仅能想起几个要点
but if someone asked me to explain it in depth
但如果有人让我详细解释一下
I’d fumble for words.
我就不知道该怎么说了
This happens to me all the time.
这种事情经常发生
It happens when I finish chapters of books,
比如 在看完几章书
episodes of television, movies podcast, articles, you name it.
几集电视 电影 播客 文章 等等之后
The story I tell myself
我自己认为
is that upon completing any reading watching or listening,
每次看完或者听完什么东西之后
I feel like I know what it’s all about.
我总觉得自己了解了全部内容
But the truth is I don’t,
但其实并没有
I just felt like I knew something without actually knowing it
我以为自己明白 然而事实上并没有
I tricked myself into thinking I was competent
我只是在自欺欺人 以为自己什么都懂了
in her course learning how to learn,
在《学习如何学习》课程中
UC San Diego professor Barbara Oakley
加州大学圣地亚哥分校的芭芭拉·奥克利教授
points out many of these Illusions of competence
指出了许多“能力错觉”现象
one, seeing information in front of you such as reading a book
⒈读完面前的信息 比如读一本书
doesn’t mean you know it.
并不代表你明白了这些知识
Two, seeing or hearing someone come to a conclusion
⒉看到或听到别人得出结论
doesn’t mean you know how to get to that conclusion or explain their argument.
并不代表你明白如何得出结论或解释论点
Three, searching for something on Google gives you the illusion
⒊用谷歌搜索会让你产生一种
that the information is in your brain
以为信息存进了自己脑袋的错觉
And four, spending lots of time with Material doesn’t mean you know it
⒋在材料上花很多时间不代表你理解这些材料
philosopher Mortimer Adler once said
哲学家莫提默·阿德勒曾说过
the person who says he knows what he thinks but cannot express it
一个自认为了解却无法阐述想法的人
Usually does not know what he thinks
通常就是不了解
This is the fundamental difference between feeling informed and truly understanding something
这就是自以为了解和真正理解 最大的区别所在
I am as informed as ever
我一如既往地知而不解
I can more or less parrot opinions
我能或多或少复述观点
I read and cite random facts
我读并引用各种的事实
But when tasked with explaining what something is all about
但是要我解释什么是什么
why it is the case
为什么
What its connections are with other facts and theories and putting it in context.
它与其他事实 理论的联系 并将其与情景结合
I fall flat on my face
我就做不到了
What a Idiot!
大傻子!
Ah, what a loser!
啊 真是太失败了!
It’s dangerous when I let these illusions of competence slip into my opinions
如果你产生以上这些能力错觉 就危险了
I so often feel strongly about a position
我经常对某个立场有强烈感受
But if pressed I could hardly argue for it
但如果被追问 我却很难为之辩论
so much of media now is designed to make understanding things for ourselves obsolete
当前很多媒体的设计让独立思考变得过时
the packaging of intellectual positions and views is a booming business
包装各种思想立场和观点是一项蓬勃发展的业务
viewers and listeners get hit with persuasive audio visuals professional rhetoric
受众被有说服力的音视频 专业的修辞
And carefully selected data
以及精心挑选过的数据说服
it all amounts to a nice little package
这一切就是一个漂亮的小包装
for the viewer to make up their own mind with little difficulty
让观众轻易形成自己的观点
Except the packaging is often done So effectively
但包装通常做得如此有效
that the viewer listener or reader doesn’t make up their own mind at all
以至于受众根本没有形成自己的观点
Instead people become no better than a human Spotify playlist
相反 人们变得和播放列表差不多
that spits out other people’s neatly wrapped opinions
滔滔不绝地说别人精心包装的观点
without actually understanding any of them
实际上不理解内容
To continue with Adler,
阿德勒还说过
to regard anyone except yourself as responsible for your judgment is to be a slave
“只依附别人的判断 那就是做奴隶(to 审核员:啥意思啊?这句话不就是to regard anyone except yourself as responsible for your judgment is to be a slave, not a free man吗?)
not a free man
不是自由人
It is from this fact that the liberal arts acquire their name
文理教育之所以备受推崇 正因如此”
not being able to explain my position or parroting Someone else’s
不能解释自己的立场或者人云亦云
means I’m never thinking for myself.
就意味着不会独立思考
Now, you mean anyone is entitled to their opinion? No matter what it is
你是说每人都有权发表个人意见? 不管它是什么(to审核员:实在想不出you mean怎么改)
That’s the hallmark of democracy
这就是民主的标志
But I know that my life would be fuller
但我知道 如果我真的理解
if I actually understood everything
我的情感大脑坚信的一切
my emotional brain So adamantly believes I do
我的生活会更加充实
Charlie Munger the longtime business partner of legendary investor Warren Buffett
传奇投资家沃伦•巴菲特的长期商业伙伴查理•芒格
is famously disciplined when it comes to this idea
在这方面的自律是出了名的
I never allow myself to have an opinion on anything that
我只有在比对方更了解他们的主张时
I don’t know the other side’s argument better than they do
才允许自己形成观点
So like any conclusion on getting better at something
就像任何追求卓越的主张一样
there’s a lot of work involved
(真正理解)有很多工作要做
I have to do a lot of active reading
我必须积极阅读海量内容
Listen to as many arguments as I can
尽可能地多听辩论
argue with people smarter than me
和比我聪明的人辩论
fight against my own emotional bias
和自己的情感偏差认知斗争
Think about as many variables as possible
考虑尽可能多的变量
It’s not the easiest thing to do
这件事并不简单
and there’s also my problem at the beginning of the video
正如视频开始时的问题
How am I supposed to form an opinion or understand something
当我一直遗忘信息时
when I keep forgetting all the information I digest?
我怎么能形成自己的观点 理解事物?
One of the many reasons why people have trouble explaining videos or books or articles
人们错误解读视频 书籍和文章的诸多原因之一
is because they simply don’t remember what was said
仅仅是因为他们不记得内容
it’s worth then understanding how the memory works
(因此)我们有必要了解记忆是怎样运作的
There’s two main parts short-term and long-term
记忆主要分为长期和短期两部分
in recent years. We’ve discovered that long-term memory is the seat of understanding,
近年研究发现 长期记忆是理解的基础
it stores not just facts but complex concepts or schemas
它不仅存储事实 还存储复杂概念和纲要
”by organizing scattered bits of information into patterns of knowledge” Nicholas Carr
尼古拉斯·卡尔:“通过将分散的信息片段组织成知识模式(to审核员:音频中就有这个名字。)
”schemas give depth and richness to our thinking
纲要让我们思考得更深刻 更丰富
understanding and Intelligence
理解和智慧
is derived largely from the scheme as we have acquired over long periods of time”
大多源自我们长时间积累的纲要”
think of the long-term memory like an investment portfolio
你可以把长期记忆比作投资组合
As you gather more and more schemas you gain intellectual compound interest over time
随着越来越多的纲要积累 你会获得智力复利
They all begin to connect to each other
它们开始相互联结
increasing your understanding of the world Exponentially over time
让你对世界的理解随着时间指数型增加
but and here’s the key
但是关键在于
for information to get to your long-term memory in the first place
想要把信息存储进长期记忆 首先要做的
It has to go through a part of the short-term memory called working memory
是将信息转化成名为工作记忆的短期记忆
working memory has about two to four slots where we process information
工作记忆大约有两到四个处理信息的槽
it acts as a bottleneck for the infinite amount of information around us
它成为我们周围无限量信息的瓶颈
The problem is what we hold there can quickly vanish
问题是如果我们不继续思考 演练它们
If we don’t keep thinking about them or rehearse them in our heads
存在工作记忆里的东西会很快消失
in other words
换言之
if we don’t Grapple with the ideas in our working memory for an extended period of time
如果我们长时间不处理工作记忆中的想法
they never get sent to the long-term memory
它们不会进入长期记忆
They just disappear
只会消失
our current culture makes this process challenging
当下的文化使这一过程充满挑战
We’re blasted with new stimuli and information at the rate of a firehose.
我们不断被新的刺激和信息猛烈冲击着
This couldn’t be worse for our memories
这对我们的记忆来说不能再糟糕
Once we surpass these two to four slots in our working memory
一旦我们的工作记忆超过了这两到四个槽
once we overload with information
一旦我们承载了太多信息
We begin to get distracted
我们的注意力就会被分散
our ability to process and retain information begins to plummet
处理和存储信息的能力会开始下降
this is in part why I feel like I know so much but understand so little
这就是为什么我觉得自己知道的多 理解的少
why I can scroll down my twitter feed and barely Remember any of it
为什么我浏览推特却几乎不记得任何事情
info jumps in to my working memory only to be replaced by the next thing
信息进入我的工作记忆却被下一条取代
and the next thing very little of it if any Makes it into my long-term memory
下一条 如果有的话 也很少变成长期记忆
as Nicholas Carr writes
正如尼古拉斯·卡尔所写:
”as we reach the limits of our working memory
“当我们的工作记忆达到极限时
It becomes harder to distinguish
区分相关与无关信息
relevant information from irrelevant information signal from noise
信号与噪声变得越来越困难
We become mindless consumers of data”
我们变成了数据的盲目消费者
but it’s not just information overload that affects our ability to remember things
但影响我们记忆能力的不仅是信息过载”
Multitasking is just as bad.
一心多用同样不好
Our brains are designed to focus on one thing at a time
我们的大脑生来一次只专注于一件事
when we multitask All we’re really doing is
同时处理多任务其实就是
quickly switching from one task to another
从一个任务快速切换到另一个
and our brain struggles to commit anything to long-term memory
大脑很难将所有东西存入长期记忆(to审核员:改成任何很怪啊 我把任何改成了所有。)
when we’re constantly Task switching tab shifting and notification checking
当我们不停地切换任务 跳转标签 查看通知时
every switch is like hitting the reset button
每个开关都像是按下了重启键
It gives no time for deeper processing.
它没有时间进行更深层次的处理
So what’s the fix
那该怎么办呢?
The first is to eliminate multitasking, distractions and information streams that cause overload
首先消除导致超负荷的多任务 分心和信息流
easier said than done I know
我知道 说着简单做着难
We are all well aware at this point that these services exploit our psychology
我们很清楚这个时候这些服务在利用我们的心理
and it’s hard to resist the addicting dopamine surge that comes from checking them
我们很难抗拒浏览时成瘾性多巴胺的激增
But once you have that one source of information
但是一旦你有了唯一的信息来源
a book, for example
拿看书举例
And it’s the only thing you’re paying attention to
这是你唯一关注的事情
how do you remember that?
你怎么记住它?
How do you get the book’s arguments into your long-term memory
你如何将书中的论点融入长期记忆
to the point where you could explain them back to someone
到你可以向其他人解释的程度
there aren’t a lot of methods that help commit things to long-term memory and
没有太多的方法可以帮我们长期记忆事物
I’m going to go through the three big ones
我要讲三个要点
Recall the Fineman technique and spaced repetition
回忆 费曼技巧和间隔重复
recall
回忆
after you’ve read or watched any Material
当你读完或看完任何材料
simply look away and
把目光移开
see what you can recall from the material you’ve just taken in
看看你能从刚学到的材料中回忆起什么
in one experiment
在一次实验中
students who studied a text and then practiced it by recalling as much information as they could
学习某文本 通过回忆尽可能多的内容来练习
and Repeated that process learn far more
并重复这个过程的学生学的更多
than their peers who either went on to something else or reread the text over and over again
比继续学习其他内容或反复阅读的同龄人
Practicing recall is counterintuitive to most consumers of content
对大多数内容消费者来说 实践回忆是违反直觉的
you finish a chapter and you go to the next one
读完一章 接着读下一章
or you finish a video and move on to something else
或看完一段视频后继续看别的
but spending as Little as 30 seconds
但看完一章或一段视频后
after finishing a chapter or video and recalling its key points
仅需花30秒回顾要点
vastly improves your understanding Of a topic
就可大幅提高你对一个主题的理解
and commitment of it to long-term memory
对长期记忆也有帮助
Then there’s the Fineman technique
然后是费曼技巧
world-renowned physicist and teacher Richard Fineman
世界著名物理学家和教师理查德·费曼
codified this method of learning
把这种学习方法编成体系
It’s probably the best if you want to understand something
如果你想理解某事 这可能是最好的方法
But it’s also the most work intensive
但也是工作强度最大的
one take something you want to understand
1 拿出你想要理解的东西
Two, write out an explanation
2 写出解释
as if you were teaching it to someone who didn’t understand the Subject
就好像你在教一个不懂它的人
Three, whenever you get stuck, go back to the material and re-learn
3 当你感到困难时 回顾材料 重新学习
eventually you’ll fill in the gaps in your knowledge
最终你会填补上你的知识空白
until you can write an explanation without needing the source material.
直到你能不看原始材料写出解释
Four, finally attempt to simplify our Explanation
4 最后尝试简化解释
getting rid of technical terms and convoluted Language
省略术语和晦涩难懂的语言
simplify it to the point that a kid could get what you are saying
简化到孩子都明白你在说什么
to do this find Minh recommended the use of analogies
要做到这一点 费曼建议使用类比
Analogies connect complex ideas to something more relatable
类比将复杂的想法与引起共鸣的东西联系起来
making easier to understand
使内容更容易理解
I used to earlier understanding and intelligence is like an investment portfolio
我曾经将理解和智慧比作投资组合
it gains compound interest as complex schemas connect with each other
随着复杂模式的相互连接 获得复利
and the other Working memory acts like a bottleneck to long-term memory
而工作记忆就像是长期记忆的瓶颈(to审核员:我感觉除了瓶颈其他也不怎么合适 上一句你说限制不合适也让我改成瓶颈了 或许大家可以理解瓶颈是啥意思。)
and finally, there’s spaced repetition
最后 间隔重复
LeBron James has undoubtedly
毫无疑问
put in tens of thousands of hours shooting hoops over many years
过去数年詹姆斯用成千上万个小时投篮
The Beatles practiced music for years before they became masters of the craft.
披头士在成为音乐大师之前练习了多年音乐
Why don’t we do that with information and arguments?
为什么我们不能套用在信息和主张上呢?
There are a lot of reasons but one of the big ones is
原因有很多 但其中一个重要的原因是
that people assume the brain is a computer
人们假定大脑是一台电脑
Once you get the information, it’s there forever
信息一旦得到 就永久储存
But the brain functions much more like a muscle
但大脑更像肌肉
and like any muscle it needs to be exercised
像任何肌肉一样 它需要锻炼
its neural connection strengthened
它的神经连接需要加强
There’s the famous saying
有句名言这样描述
neurons that fire together wire together
一起放电的神经元串连在一起
in other words
换句话说
the more often you use the neurons
你越频繁地使用神经元
grappling with the information you want to commit to memory
处理你想要记忆的信息
the stronger those connection will get and
这些联系就会越强
stronger your memory and understanding of that Information will get
你对信息的记忆和理解也会越强
spaced repetition does this by firing the neurons over a long period of time
间隔重复通过在长时间内刺激神经元来实现这一点
if you read recall
如果你读 回忆
or do the Fineman technique on the key concepts from say Kant’s Philosophy
或者对康德哲学中的关键概念使用费曼技巧
and spaced them out by three days over the course of a couple weeks
每三天使用一次 持续几周
It results in the highest amount of memory retention
这样做会比你一次做完所有事情
much better than if you were to do it all at once
记忆得更多更好
You may be thinking
你可能在想
read the same thing again
再读一遍同样的东西?
recall the same thing again
再回忆一遍同样的东西?
do the Fineman technique again
再做一次费曼技巧?
over a long period of time
还要保持很长一段时间?
Unfortunately, that’s the reality
如果你想要长久理解某件事
if you want to understand something long-term
不幸的是 这就是现实
We are strapped for time most days of our lives
我们生活中的大部分时间都被时间束缚着
doing all this work outside of our jobs or other responsibilities of daily life
在工作和日常生活之外 完成以上这些
sounds like an awful task.
听起来很可怕
So we turn to others to do it for us
所以我们会求助别人做这件事
It makes plenty of sense and I’ll also add that
这很有道理 我还要补充一点
life isn’t the book report
生活不是报告
You don’t need to be memorizing and understanding everything that comes your way.
你不需要记住和理解遇到的每一件事
That’s absurd
那是荒谬的
what I wish I did more often, however,
然而 我希望自己做的更多的是
is spent more time thinking about one important thing at a time
一次花更多的时间思考一件重要的事情
instead of trying to absorb as much information as possible
而不是试图吸收尽可能多的信息
only to forget most of it
结果忘记大部分
as Charlie Munger has said
正如查理芒格所说
”our job Is to find a few intelligent things to do
“我们的工作是找一些智能的事去做
not keep up with every damn thing in the world”
而不是掌握世界上的每一个东西”
It’s a call to increase the quality of the information you receive rather than the quantity
这是在呼吁提高信息质量而不是数量
and to spend more time with it
并给高质量信息更多时间
Union College Psychologist and Nobel Prize winner Christopher Sabri says
联合学院心理学家和诺贝尔奖获得者克里斯托弗·萨布里说
”the internet plays to our natural tendency
“互联网放大了我们的自然趋势
to vastly over value what happens to us right now”
即人们极大地高估了我们现在发生的一切”
Our bias towards novelty is strong
我们十分偏好新颖
and forces us towards the trivial rather than the essential
它使我们朝着琐碎而不是重要的方向迈进
no matter what amount of work anyone does people will continue to hold different opinions
无论做多少工作 人们还是会持有不同的观点
and that’s when intellectual humility becomes important
这时谦逊就显得十分重要
to recognize the limits of your knowledge and to appreciate others Intellectual strengths
认识到自己知识的局限性并欣赏他人的聪颖
is one of the best things a person can do
是一个人所能做的最好的事情之一
It’s not only where learning happens
这不仅是学习发生的地方
but it’s also where disagreements become more constructive
也是分歧变得更有建设性的地方
I think Cal Turnbull founder of the change my view subreddit sums it up well
我认为The Change My View Subreddit的创始人Cal Turnbull很好地总结了这一点
”It seems to be in our nature to focus on how we were wrong
“我们的天性似乎聚焦于我们是如何错的
over the fact that we’re now Smarter
忽视我们变聪明的事实
(as if we can’t be works in progress)
(好像我们不能进步一样)
and we often attach our egos to what we believe
我们经常自负于已知
A view is just how you see something
(而)观点仅是你看待事物的方式
It doesn’t have to define you
它不一定要定义你
and trying to detach from it to gain understanding
试着超脱它 理解它
can be a very good thing”
可能是一件非常好的事情”
”Real knowledge”, as Confucius once said
正如孔子曾经说过的
”is to know the extent of one’s ignorance”
“真正的知识是知道自己无知的程度”
The trick is not to be fooled by illusions of superiority
诀窍是不要被优越错觉所愚弄
and to learn to accurately reevaluate our competence each day
并学会每天准确地重新评估我们的能力
because in Adler’s words
因为用阿德勒的话说
”true freedom is impossible
“没有经过纪律约束而获得自由的心
without a mind made free by discipline”
就不可能有真正的自由”
what’s on trial is not just the weight of our opinions
受考验的不仅是我们观点的份量
but our entire understanding of the world
还有我们对世界的全部理解
This video has been brought to you by audible
这个视频由Audible为您呈现
and if you’re as interested as I am in how our brains interface with the internet
如果你和我同样对大脑如何与互联网交互感兴趣
how prone we are to know a large breadth of information
我们是多么倾向于了解大量信息
But understand very little of it
却知之甚少
then I highly recommend the shallows by nicholas carr.
那么我强烈推荐尼古拉斯·卡尔的《浅滩》
He goes into philosophy neuroscience history and media theory
他研究哲学 神经科学 历史和媒体理论
I love this book
我爱这本书
go to audible.com slash will
登录 audible.com/will
or if you live in the u.s
或者如果你住在美国
Text will to five hundred five hundred for a free 30-day trial
发送短信到500-500免费试用30天
your first audio book is free
第一本有声读物是免费的
I’ve had audible for two years
我使用Audible两年了
and it’s been my companion on countless road trips and runs
它是我无数次公路旅行和跑步
and days when I just do this
还有赖床时的伙伴
you get a free audiobook every month
每月都能得到一本免费的有声读物
which in my opinion makes the subscription worth it on its own
在我看来 这就使订阅很有价值
as well as 30% off all regularly priced audiobooks.
更何况所有正常定价的有声读物打7折
I encourage you to join me
快来加入我
by going to audible.com/will
(可以)登录audible.com/will
or you live in U.S
或者如果你在美国
text will to five hundred five hundred
发送短信至500-500
happy listening everyone.
收听愉快
We’ll see you in the comments
评论区见

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视频概述

介绍长期记忆的几个方法

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Aiva 刘文畅

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V-UvSKe8jW4

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