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如何使人体再生:听力丧失,秃顶,烧伤| 克里斯松散 – 译学馆
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如何使人体再生:听力丧失,秃顶,烧伤| 克里斯松散

How to Regenerate the Human Body: Hearing Loss, Baldness, Burn Wounds | Chris Loose

你的身体如何才能恢复如初
How Your Body Can Turn Back Time
失聪人越来越多 这种现象也越来越普遍
Hearing loss is a growing problem with increased prevalence,
因为 在进化的过程中
and the reason for this is because
人类的身体结构并没有能力阻挡现代社会的冲击
evolutionarily, humans are not designed to withstand the assaults of modern society. 
有趣的是 如果你有留意复活节岛这个地方
Interestingly, if you look at places like Easter Island,
你会发现那里的人 年老的时候 听力还是正常的
people maintain normal hearing into old age,
但仅仅是生活在现代社会里
but it’s just by living in the modern society
我们周边就有地铁 有车辆 有城市 有音乐
where we have subways and cars and cities and iPods,
我们听到的声音太多了 也导致了许多人失聪
that we are overburdening our hearing, and causing a great deal of hearing loss. 
失聪的起因通常是
The origin of hearing loss is often the loss of
耳蜗里的感知毛细胞受到损坏
what are called sensory hair cells in the cochlea.
这些毛细胞能传播声音和对声音做出反应
And these hair cells move and response to sound,
能产生将声音传送到你大脑的信号 这是才真正是听力的根本所在
and create a signal that gets sent to your brain, and that’s really the origin of hearing. 
失聪是因为
Now what happens with hearing loss
随着时间的推移 那些脆弱的毛细胞会相继死去
is those delicate hair cells start to die off over time,
也是因为受到一些外部伤害——噪音或某种药物的伤害
due to external insults from loud noise, or certain types of drugs.
当永久性伤害发生时
When that happens,
哺乳类动物没有新生的能力
they are not naturally regenerated in mammals. 
有趣的是 许多像鸟类和爬行类的生物
Interestingly, many species like birds and reptiles,
如果你将它们的毛细胞破坏掉 一段时间后 可能一个月后
if you knock out their hair cells, and wait a period of time, a month,
它们的毛细胞又会重新长出来 它们的听力又恢复了
their hair cells come back naturally, and they can start hearing again. 
对于它们来说 这种本领是天生的
So this process is hardwired into nature,
但哺乳类动物却没有新生的能力
but mammals just haven’t found a way to turn on the system. 
许多医疗方案都是都是针对治疗失聪的
With many technologies designed to address hearing loss,
但他们只是治标不治本
they really just treat symptoms rather than the root cause of the disease,
失聪的根本原因是毛细胞的损害
which is the loss of the hair cell.
他们的思路就跟下面的事例一样
And the way to think about this is like
比如 你有一台电视
if you have a TV screen,
电视屏幕的像素坏掉了
and you start losing the pixels on the TV screen.
实际上 这些辅助设备的功能是让电视屏幕更亮些
Essentially, what these aid devices do is they make the screen brighter,
但它们没能从根本上替换掉所有坏掉的像素
but they don’t fundamentally replace all the pixels that are lost. 
所以 一些治疗方案只能在某种程度上帮助你接收到外界的信息
So it does help you pick up some degree of signal,
但无论如何都取代不了最初的听觉
but it doesn’t in any way replace that native function of hearing,
我们的目标是要促使毛细胞再生
which is really our goal of re-growing hair cells,
跟恢复像素的位置一样 让你恢复最初的听力
and putting those pixels back in the place, and giving you that natural hearing. 
我们正在集中研发一种新型药品
At Frequency, we’re focused on an entirely new mode of medicine,
希望借助药物来让体内的自然干细胞和
and the objective of this is to make your body’s natural stem or progenitor cells
祖细胞适当更新受损的细胞组织
regenerate damaged tissue in place.
这样才能真正将药物用于
And this could really transform medicine
各种疾病和患病器官的治疗上
across a whole variety of diseases and organs.
通过观察 我们了解到人类身体的某些部分的
And where we’ve learned this from is actually looking at the portions of the human body
再生能力是非常强的
that are very regenerative. 
比如 如果你去观察人类的肠部
And for instance, if you look at the human intestine,  
就会发现它每隔五天就会自我再生一遍
it re-creates itself every five days entirely.
直到你100多岁时 这个过程还在继续
And that will actually last until you’re well over 100 years old,
所以 你的身体知道如何修复某些组织
so your body knows how to re-create certain tissues.
我们的目的是为了辨认出那些细胞从它们
Our objective is to identify what are the local signals
所处的生态位上接收到的局部信号是什么
that cells get from their niche environment
这些信号能让这些细胞再生并修复修复细胞组织
that tells them to start to regrow, and start to repair tissue,
这样我们才能激活身体里沉睡的祖细胞和干细胞
so we can start turning on the dormant progenitor and stem cells that exist throughout the body. 
为了能生产出有效的药物
In order to make good medicines out of that,
我们将精力放在试验上
we focus on applications
通过试验 我们可以在短期内 有选择性地
where those cells can be activated very selectively
激活局部的祖细胞
and very locally for a short period of time.
这会给你带来极大的好处
That gives you tremendous benefits
从激活这些生理体系的安全性和可控性来看
in terms of the safety and controllability of reactivating these systems. 
在一起失聪的病例上 我们第一次使用了这种方法
And our first application is to do this in hearing loss,
在这个过程中 我们发现耳蜗里有一些沉睡的祖细胞
where we found that there are dormant progenitors that exist within the cochlea,
而某些生物身体里沉睡的祖细胞有再生的能力
that in some species have the capacity to regenerate,
但哺乳类动物体内沉睡的祖细胞是处于隔绝状态的
but in mammals are locked in an off position,
我们只是在寻找一些能够
and we are simply finding small molecule drugs,
被祖细胞吸收 并能激活祖细胞的
traditional drugs that can go in,
分子药物和传统药物 如果耳蜗里的毛细胞能够再生
turn on those progenitors and re-create hair cells, in this case in the cochlea,
那么耳朵的听力功能就能恢复
to restore the hearing function.
经常会有人问我们 干细胞和祖细胞之间的区别
We frequently get asked about the difference between between stem cells and progenitor cells
关于如何才能准确区分它们 在医学领域上 这是个有争议的话题
Well there’s debate in the field as how to exactly define them.
重要的是 要能够区分出身体内祖细胞和
I think what’s very important is to recognize the distinction
干细胞它们之间的不同之处
between your body’s progenitor cells and a pluripotent stem cell.
如今 一个多功能干细胞能进入身体任意一个细胞里
Now, a pluripotent stem cell can turn into any cell in your body.
它的功能和灵活性都十分强大
It’s really powerful and really flexible.
激活体内祖细胞的好处是
The advantage of just activating progenitors in your body
与形成身体任何组织的多功能干细胞相比
is they’re generally most of the way differentiated
它们通常在一定程度上能被区别出来
from that pluripotent stem cell that can become anything into the final tissue.
因为它们几乎是沉睡的
’cause they’re really almost locked into their fate.
将祖细胞激活时
So when you activate them,
它们通常只能制造出一种或两种类型的细胞
they generally only know how to make cells of one or two types.
所以可控性是非常高的
So this gives you a highly controlled system
反之 如果你利用多功能细胞再生
as opposed to if you are working with a pluripotent system.
要考虑到 在医疗试验中 制造出的细胞类型可能不符合你的要求
There’s more concern about creating cell types that you don’t desire in the given application.
整个身体里的祖细胞通常会旁边细胞的控制
Throughout the body, progenitor cells are often controlled by their neighbouring cells.
通常 旁边的细胞在祖细胞的右边
And what tends to happen is there is a neighboring cell sitting right next to progenitor
旁边的细胞会不断地向祖细胞传递信号
which is constantly sending signals over the progenitor.
这个过程被称为“持续分裂”
And this could be saying “continuously divide”
肠部通常都会有这种持续分裂过程
which is commonly going on in the intestine.
或者在耳蜗里也有这个过程 但耳蜗的祖细胞可能接收到的信号是“沉睡”
or in the cochlea it could be giving a signal that saying “stay asleep”.
科学家能真正掌握那些先信号传播的方向
Our science is really to understand what are those signals that are being pasted.
知道那些信号传播的位置
What specific pathways are being activated by those signals.
然后我们要讨论的是 我们怎样才能够准确
And then we say, how can we go in with chemicals,
找到使用化学药物 抑制剂 催化剂的位置
inhibitors or activators to those pathways
所以我们可以选择激活这些信号的位置和时间
so we can selectively turn on the signals to drive growth where and when we want it.
我们非常重视加快失聪治疗的进程
We’re very focused on advancing our hearing loss therapy,
失聪治疗是“祖细胞激活” 即PCA 这个广阔医疗平台中的一个分支
and this is part of a broader platform we think of as “progenitor cell activation,” or PCA.
我们觉得祖细胞激活这个方法在治疗过程中 可以运用到许多细胞组织上
And with PCA, we think this can be applied to many tissues,
可以知道哪种祖细胞需要被激活
where you can understand what progenitor needs to be activated,
在正确的位置使用合适的能激活祖细胞的分子药物
and define molecules that can activate that progenitor in the right spot.
所以跟你所想的一样 许多皮肤病都是可以治疗的
So you can think of many skin diseases that this could address,
从伤后留下的伤口到秃顶 烧伤都是可以治疗的
everything from wounding to balding to burns,
以及某些需要激活祖细胞的皮肤病都是可以治疗的
other types of skin pathologies where regeneration is needed.
由于能够控制肠道内部的生长和变异情况
And by being able to control the growth and differentiation in the intestinal environment,
也为GI疾病提供了治愈的机会
also opens up opportunities to address GI diseases.
我们也能够为治疗耳疾 眼疾以及其他
We see opportunities, as with the ear, in the eye,
一些受到疾病折磨而导致退化的感知器官找到治愈的机会
another sensory organ that’s plaguedwith a number of degenerative diseases
我们已经在这些器官中找到了祖细胞 可以治疗这些疾病
where known progenitor cells have been found that could address many of these maladies as well.

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视频概述

祖细胞再生就可以治疗多种感官疾病

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8DsbZvXekjk

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