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反乌托邦是什么样的 – 译学馆
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反乌托邦是什么样的

How to recognize a dystopia - Alex Gendler

Light up the world【启点字幕组】
反乌托邦是什么样的
你有没有想象过一个理想的世界
Have you ever tried to picture an ideal world?
没有战争 贫穷 或者犯罪
One without war, poverty, or crime?
如果你有过 你不是一个人
If so, you’re not alone.
柏拉图想象过一个文明进步的共和国 由贤明的国王统治
Plato imagined an enlightened republic ruled by philosopher kings,
许多宗教都宣扬死后的极乐世界
many religions promise bliss in the afterlife,
在历史的漫漫长河中
and throughout history,
许多文明都尝试过在地球上建造天堂般的地方
various groups have tried to build paradise on Earth.
托马斯·莫尔在1516年写的书“乌托邦”给这种想象加上了一个名字【英格兰政治家、作家、社会哲学家与空想社会主义者 为北方文艺复兴的代表人物之一】
Thomas More’s 1516 book “Utopia” gave this concept a name,
希腊语中的意思是“不存在的地方”
Greek for “no place.”
尽管这个名字代表着不可能
Though the name suggested impossibility,
现代科学和政治的发展
modern scientific and political progress
让这些想象终于可能成为现实
raised hopes of these dreams finally becoming reality.
但一次又一次 这些尝试变成了噩梦
But time and time again, they instead turned into nightmares
结果是战争 饥荒 和压迫
of war, famine, and oppression.
当艺术家们开始质疑乌托邦思想时
And as artists began to question utopian thinking,
反乌托邦流派诞生了 代表着不那么好的地方
the genre of dystopia, the not good place, was born.
最早的反乌托邦作品之一 是乔纳森·斯威夫特的”格列佛游记”【英国-爱尔兰作家 是一名讽刺文学大师】
One of the earliest dystopian works is Jonathan Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels.”
在他的旅行中 格列佛遇见了各种虚构的社会
Throughout his journey, Gulliver encounters fictional societies,
有一些社会乍看很美好 但其实漏洞百出
some of which at first seem impressive, but turn out to be seriously flawed.
在一个叫做勒皮他的飞行岛上
On the flying island of Laputa,
科学家和社会规划者追求缥缈无用 挥霍无度的设计
scientists and social planners pursue extravagant and useless schemes
无视生活在下层的人民实际的需求
while neglecting the practical needs of the people below.
而生活在绝对理性社会里的慧骃人
And the Houyhnhnm who live in perfectly logical harmony
无法忍受真实人类的不完美
have no tolerance for the imperfections of actual human beings.
斯威夫特在这本书里构建了反乌托邦的蓝图
With his novel, Swift established a blueprint for dystopia,
他想象的世界里 一些现代社会的思想
imagining a world where certain trends in contemporary society
被运用到了极致
are taken to extremes,
反而暴露出了它们潜藏的瑕疵
exposing their underlying flaws.
接下来的几个世纪提供了大量的资料
And the next few centuries would provide plenty of material.
工业技术的本意是取代人力
Industrial technology that promised to free laborers
反而将工人禁锢在贫民窟和工厂里
imprisoned them in slums and factories, instead,
同时企业巨头变得比国王还富有
while tycoons grew richer than kings.
在19世纪末以前 许多人担心这种情况将会继续
By the late 1800’s, many feared where such conditions might lead.
在赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯的小说”时间旅行”中【英国著名小说家、新闻记者、政治家、社会学家和历史学家 他创作的科幻小说对该领域影响深远】
H. G. Wells’s “The Time Machine” imagined upper classes and workers
上层阶级和工人进化成了不同的种族
evolving into separate species,
而杰克·伦敦的小说”铁蹄”【美国20世纪著名现实主义作家】
while Jack London’s “The Iron Heel” portrayed a tyrannical oligarchy
描绘了一个暴君统治着大量的贫穷人民
ruling over impoverished masses.
新的世纪带来了更多令人兴奋却又害怕的改变
The new century brought more exciting and terrifying changes.
医学的进步让人们可以突破生物学的限制
Medical advances made it possible to transcend biological limits
而大众媒体让领导者和人民
while mass media allowed instant communication
可以实时交流
between leaders and the public.
在阿道司·赫胥黎的小说”美丽新世界”里人们被基因改造和调整【英格兰作家,以小说和大量散文作品闻名于世,也出版短篇小说、游记、电影故事和剧本】
In Aldous Huxley’s “Brave New World”, citizens are genetically engineered
让每个人在社会中各司其职
and conditioned to perform their social roles.
宣传教育和致幻剂保持社会和谐稳定
While propaganda and drugs keep the society happy,
很显然 一些重要的人类因素缺失了
it’s clear some crucial human element is lost.
但最出名的反乌托邦社会 并不是虚构的
But the best known dystopias were not imaginary at all.
欧洲经历了前所未有的工业战争
As Europe suffered unprecedented industrial warfare,
与此同时 新的政治运动开始风起云涌
new political movements took power.
有些承诺除去社会中的所有不平等
Some promised to erase all social distinctions,
有些借用神话的力量来团结人民
while others sought to unite people around a mythical heritage.
结果就是现实世界中的反乌托邦社会
The results were real-world dystopias
人们在政府的严密监管下生活
where life passed under the watchful eye of the State
越轨者会被高效而冷酷地处决
and death came with ruthless efficiency to any who didn’t belong.
生活在那个时代的许多作家不仅观察到了这种恐怖的景象
Many writers of the time didn’t just observe these horrors,
也亲身经历了这种生活
but lived through them.
俄罗斯作家叶夫根尼·扎米亚京的小说”我们”【俄罗斯小说家】
In his novel “We”, Soviet writer Yevgeny Zamyatin described a future
描绘了一种未来 自由意志和个性都被抹杀
where free will and individuality were eliminated.
这本书在苏联被禁 却启发了像乔治·奥威尔这样的作家【英国左翼作家,新闻记者和社会评论家】
Banned in the U.S.S.R., the book inspired authors like George Orwell
他奋斗在反抗法西斯主义和共产主义的前线
who fought on the front lines against both fascism and communism.
他的小说”动物农场”直接地讽刺了苏联政权
While his novel “Animal Farm” directly mocked the Soviet regime,
经典的”1984″则更宽泛地对极权主义 媒体和语言进行剖析
the classic “1984” was a broader critique of totalitarianism, media, and language.
在美国 辛克莱·刘易斯的小说”不可能在这里发生”【美国小说家、短篇故事作家、剧作家,1930年获得诺贝尔文学奖,是第一个获得该奖项的美国人】
And in the U.S.A., Sinclair Lewis’s “It Can’t Happen Here”
设想了民主是如何屈服于法西斯主义之下的
envisioned how easily democracy gave way to fascism.
在二战后的几十年里
In the decades after World War II,
作家们思考新的科技
writers wondered what new technologies
比如原子能 人工智能 和太空旅行
like atomic energy, artificial intelligence, and space travel
对人类来说意味着什么
meant for humanity’s future.
与广为接受的 科技带来进步的观点相反
Contrasting with popular visions of shining progress,
反乌托邦科幻作品衍生出电影 漫画 和游戏
dystopian science fiction expanded to films, comics, and games.
机器人攻击创造它们的人类
Robots turned against their creators
电视屏幕播放致死的大众娱乐
while TV screens broadcast deadly mass entertainment.
地球上资源匮乏 城市里人口过剩 犯罪滋生
Workers toiled in space colonies above an Earth of depleted resources
工人们在太空殖民地里辛勤劳作
and overpopulated, crime-plagued cities.
但政治仍然存在
Yet politics was never far away.
“奇爱博士”和”守望者”这样的作品 探索了核战争的真实威胁
Works like “Dr. Strangelove” and “Watchmen” explored the real threat of nuclear war,
而”V字仇杀队”和”侍女的故事”
while “V for Vendetta” and “The Handmaid’s Tale”
则警告我们 在危机关头 权利可以轻易地被剥夺
warned how easily our rights could disappear in a crisis.
当代的反乌托邦作品继续影射现今的问题
And today’s dystopian fiction continues to reflect modern anxieties
比如不平等
about inequality,
气候变化
climate change,
政府权力
government power,
和全球性的流行病
and global epidemics.
我们为什么要关注这些消极负面的东西呢
So why bother with all this pessimism?
因为归根究底 反乌托邦社会其实是带有警示性的故事
Because at their heart, dystopias are cautionary tales,
它们并不是关于某些特定的组织 或者科技
not about some particular government or technology,
而是反映出了一种思想 即人类可以被建模成完美的样子
but the very idea that humanity can be molded into an ideal shape.
现在回想你想象的那个完美世界
Think back to the perfect world you imagined.
你有没有想过建成这样的世界 需要付出什么代价
Did you also imagine what it would take to achieve?
你怎么让人们配合
How would you make people cooperate?
又怎么确保社会可以持续运转
And how would you make sure it lasted?
再想一想
Now take another look.
那个世界还是完美的吗
Does that world still seem perfect?

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