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五线谱也可以很简单

How to read music - Tim Hansen

当我们看电影或是表演时
When we watch a film or a play,
我们知道大概演员从剧本里学习台词。
we know that the actors probably learned their lines from a script,
剧本基本上告诉他们说什么以及什么时候说
which essentially tells them what to say and when to say it.
一段乐谱的运作原理在本质上恰恰也是如此
A piece of written musicoperates on exactly the same principle.
最基本的的
In a very basic sense,
它告诉演奏者演奏什么及什么时候演奏
it tells a performer what to play and when to play it.
从美学角度来说 贝多芬和贾斯汀•比伯的
Aesthetically speaking,there’s a world of difference between,
音乐完全不同
say, Beethoven and Justin Bieber,
但是这两位大师创造音乐用的是一样的材料:音符
but both artists have used the same building blocks to create their music: notes.
虽然最终的成果听起来相当复杂
And although the end resultcan sound quite complicated,
但实际上音符背后的逻辑相当简单
the logic behind musical notesis actually pretty straightforward.
我们来看看音乐记谱的基本要素
Let’s take a look at the foundationalelements to music notation
以及它们如何相互作用并创造出艺术作品
and how they interactto create a work of art.
乐曲被谱写在横穿纸张的五条平行线上
Music is written on five parallel lines that go across the page.
这5条线被称为五线谱
These five lines are called a staff,
五线谱有两个轴向:
and a staff operates on two axes:
从上到下和从左到右
up and down and left to right.
从上到下的轴告诉演奏者音符的音调
The up-and-down axis tells the performer the pitch
也就是演奏什么音符
of the note or what note to play,
从左到右的轴告诉演奏者
and the left-to-right axis tells the
音符的节奏
performer the rhythm of the note
也就是什么时候演奏
or when to play it.
我们先来看下音调
Let’s start with pitch.
为帮助理解 我们用钢琴做解释
To help us out,we’re going to use a piano,
但这套方法对于你能想到的任何乐器都适用
but this system works for pretty much any instrument you can think of.
在西方音乐传统中
In the Western music tradition,
音调由字母表的前7个字母表示
pitches are named after the first seven letters of the alphabet,
即 A B C D E F和 G
A, B, C, D, E, F, and G.
这之后 循环往复:
After that, the cycle repeats itself:
A B C D E F G
A, B, C, D, E, F, G,
A B C D E F G 诸如此类
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, and so on.
但这些音调是怎么命名的呢?
But how do these pitches get their names?
比如 你弹奏F音
Well, for example, if you played an F
之后在钢琴上弹奏另一个高或是低的F音
and then played another F higher or lower on the piano,
你会注意到它们听起来
you’d notice that they sound pretty similar
和B音非常相似
compared to, say, a B.
回到五线谱上来
Going back to the staff,
每条线以及每两条线之间的间隙
every line and every space between two lines
代表不同的音调
represents a separate pitch.
如果我们把音符
If we put a note
放在一条线上或是一个间隙上
on one of these lines or one of these spaces,
我们是在告诉演奏者 演奏这个音调
we’re telling a performerto play that pitch.
五线谱上的音符位置越高
The higher up on the staffa note is placed,
音调也越高
the higher the pitch.
但比起这些线和间隙给我们的9个音调
But there are obviouslymany, many more pitches
显然音调还多得多
than the nine that theselines and spaces gives us.
比如 一架大钢琴 就能演奏出88个不同音符
A grand piano, for example, can play 88 separate notes.
所以我们怎样将这88个音符浓缩进一个简单的五线谱里呢?
So how do we condense88 notes onto a single staff?
我们使用一种叫谱号的东西
We use something called a clef,
一个放在五线谱的开头的奇怪图案
a weird-looking figureplaced at the beginning of the staff,
它的作用像是个参照点
which acts like a reference point,
告诉你对应你乐器上特定音符
telling you that a particular line or space
的特定的线或间隙
corresponds to a specific noteon your instrument.
如果我们想演奏的音符没在五线谱上
If we want to play notesthat aren’t on the staff,
那么我们会另外画一条短线
we kind of cheat and drawextra little lines
称作附加线 然后在上面放上音符
called ledger lines and place the notes on them.
如果我们要画很多附加线
If we have to draw so
足以让人困惑的时候
many ledger lines that it gets confusing,
我们需要换成一个不同的谱号
then we need to changeto a different clef.
至于告诉演奏者什么时候演奏音符
As for telling a performerwhen to play the notes,
有两个主要因素控制这点:节拍和节奏
two main elements control this: the beat and the rhythm.
一段音乐的节拍
The beat of a piece of music is,
自身有点枯燥
by itself, kind of boring.
听起来是这样的
It sounds like this.
(敲打声)
(Ticking)
你会发现它不会变化 只是那样愉快地敲打
Notice that it doesn’t change, it just plugs along quite happily.
实际上 它能按你的意愿快些或是慢些
It can go slow or fast or whatever you like, really.
重点是 正如钟表上的秒针
The point is that just like the second hand on a clock
将一分钟分成了60秒
divides one minute into sixty seconds,
每一秒的时间都是一样长的
with each second just as longas every other second,
节拍也是如此 将一段乐曲分成了
the beat divides a piece of music into little fragments
许多长度一样的小时段:节拍
of time that are all the same length: beats.
以一个稳定的节拍为基础
With a steady beat as a foundation, we
我们可以把节奏加进我们的音调里
can add rhythm to our pitches, and that
而这就是音乐真正开始的时候
‘s when music really starts to happen.
这是四分之一音符
This is a quarter note.
是节奏里最基本的单元
It’s the most basic unit of rhythm,
它相当于是一个节拍
and it’s worth one beat.
这是二分之一音符 相当于两个节拍
This is a half note,and it’s worth two beats.
这个全音符是4个节拍
This whole note here is worth four beats,
这些小家伙是八分之一音符 相当于1/2节拍
and these little guys are eighth notes, worth half a beat each.
“很好” 你会说 “什么意思呢?”
“Great,” you say,”what does that mean?”
你可能已经注意到在五线谱的长度上
You might have noticedthat across the length of a staff,
有短线将五线谱分成了小部分
there are little lines dividing itinto small sections.
这些是小节线 我们把每个部分称为一小节
These are bar lines and we refer to each section as a bar.
在一段乐曲开头 即谱号后面
At the beginning of a piece of music, just after the clef,
有个符号被称为拍子记号
is something called the time signature,
它告诉演奏者每个小节有多少个节拍
which tells a performerhow many beats are in each bar.
就是说 每个小节有2个节拍
This says there are two beats in each bar,
这个是3个 这个是4个 以此类推
this says there are three, this one four, and so on.
底部的数字告诉我们作为
The bottom number tellsus what kind of note
节拍的基本单元使用的是什么音符
is to be used as the basicunit for the beat.
1对应的是全音符
One corresponds to a whole note, two to a
2 对应的是1/2音符 4对应1/4音符
half note, four to a quarter note, and
8对应1/8音符 等等
eight to an eighth note, and so on.
所以这里的拍子记号告诉我们
So this time signature here tells us
每小节有4个1/4音符
that there are four quarter notes in each bar, one,
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4等等
two, three, four; one, two, three, four, and so on.
但是正如我先前说的 如果我们只是拘泥于节拍
But like I said before, if we just stick to
它会有点无趣 所以我们
the beat, it gets kind of boring, so we’ll
要用不同的节奏代替一些1/4音符
replace some quarter notes with different rhythms.
你会发现 即使每个小节的音符数量变化了
Notice that even though the number of notes in
但是每个小节的节拍
each bar has changed, the total number of
数量没有变 所以
beats in each bar hasn’t. So,
我们的音乐创作听起来怎样呢?
what does our musicalcreation sound like?

Eh,
听起来还不错 但可能有点单薄 对吧?
sounds okay, but maybea bit thin, right?
我们加点儿其它乐器的音调和节奏
Let’s add another instrumentwith its own pitch and rhythm.
现在听起来像音乐了吧
Now it’s sounding like music.
当然 要多做些练习
Sure, it takes some practice
才能快速读谱
to get used to reading it quickly
并边看边演奏我们的乐器
and playing what we see on our instrument.
但是 只要有一点时间和耐心
But, with a bit of time and patience,
你就可能成为下一个贝多芬或贾斯汀•比伯了
you could be the next Beethoven or Justin Bieber.

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视频概述

五线谱上的符号意义

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

kayra

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZN41d7Txcq0

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