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如何准备演讲 – 译学馆
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如何准备演讲

How to Prepare a Speech

I really like to give speeches
我真的很喜欢演讲
less so spontaneous raise-your-glass speeches
但不是那种即兴祝酒似的
but rather well-prepared speeches
而是精心准备的演讲
ideally accompanied by a well-prepared presentation.
并有准备充分的报告
Whenever there is a group project at university or a presentation required for the startup I co-founded
无论是大学里的小组课题 还是我和他人新创立的公司要求做报告
somebody needs to give their presentation
都需要有人给大家做报告展示
and usually that guy is me
而通常情况下 那个人就是我
I enjoy doing it and like everyone l like to improve upon my hobbies
我喜欢做这件事 和每个人一样 我喜欢提高我的兴趣爱好
over the years I’ve taught myself a few things about
这些年 我已经自学了许多关于
how to prepare good speech
如何准备好的演讲的知识
so despite of all the seminars and books and videos that exists on this topic already.
所以尽管已经有众多关于这个话题的各种研讨会 书籍和视频
I would like to give you my personal take on it.
但我想说一下我的个人见解
whenever I prepare speech there are two crucial things that I really pay attention to.
无论什么时候 我准备演讲都会关注两件重要的事
I call them focus and toolbox.
我称他们为中心点和工具箱
let’s start with focus
让我们从中心点开始说起
Focus asks the question out of the 1 billion things want to say about this topic
中心点是从想要说的关于这个话题的十亿点中 问出一个关键问题
what are the most important ones which I want the audience to know
即我想让大家知道的最重要的一点
To achieve a strong message,
想要信息强有力
you need to choose very carefully what information to include in your speech
你需要非常仔细的选择你演讲所需要的信息
not fall to the tempting trap of trying to include everything
不要落入想要包揽所有事情的诱人陷阱
Steve Jobs was the master of focusing on clear messages
史蒂夫·乔布斯是注重信息清楚明确的大师
take for example his introduction of the iPod Nano in the Year 2005
以2005年他对iPod Nsno的介绍为例
a remarkable piece of consumer tech at its time
这是当时一件了不起的科技消费品
rather than going through every single feature he chose one message
他并非每个特点都面面俱到 而是选择了一点
that determined the tone for the entire presentation
这一点决定了整个报告会的基调
it’s the thinnest piece of consumer electronics in the world that was his message
它是这个世界上最薄的电子消费品 这就是他的信息
and he was using remarkably few words to communicate it
并且他在介绍时用了几个让人印象深刻的词
sure he prepared some nice slides to go along with that
当然 他准备了精美的幻灯片搭配他的介绍
but if you think about it the slides weren’t all that important
但是如果你仔细想一想 幻灯片没那么重要
they simply reinforced whatever you will saying in that moment
它们仅仅强调了你那时要说的话
the starting point of every presentation should be a speech
每个人报告的起点应该是应该是一个演讲
and every speech needs a clear focus
而每个演讲都需要一个清晰的中心点
only when you’re very clear about what the few things are that you want the audience to know you can make them care
只有你清楚的知道哪些事情是你想让观众知道的 他们才会去关注
if you don’t know what exactly it is that you want them to remember
如果你根本不知道你想让他们记住什么
then they won’t know either and nothing cries I don’t care louder then losing the train of thought of the audience
那么他们也不会知道 他们可不会大声喊我不在乎 然后你便失去听你演讲的观众
The moment I’ve set a tight focus for my speech, I automatically find myself talking with much better intonation
当我聚精会神的演讲时 我发现我讲话的语调自然而然地变好了
and ultimately see the audience paying attention
然后发现观众在认真听我说话
the most recent speech I gave was at an event of the International academic salon,
我最新的一次演讲是在一个国际学术沙龙上
a club which organizes debating events all around the world and was
这是一个在世界各地组织辩论活动的俱乐部
thought founded by an ILM night
由IE商学院创立
the topic I chose to talk about was the automated economy
我选择讨论的话题是自动化经济
what is the automated economy you might ask
你也许会问什么是自动化经济
it is a concept that envisions the future in which most laborers replace by Bots
它的概念是展望一下未来 大多数的劳动力会被机器人取代
and much of society will in my opinion live off a healthy universal basic income
社会上大部分人都会靠稳定的基本工资
as well as something called micro payments
和一个叫微支付的东西生活
I’ve been reading literature on this topic for years out of sheer interest
出于兴趣 我曾经读过关于这个话题的著作
and developed some of my own ideas in that time.
并在那时提出了些我自己的观点
the things I would have loved to include in my speech were the AI tech behind automated factories
我想要加进演讲里的主题有自动化工厂背后人工智能技术
social systems new political structures
社会系统 新的政治格局
all things that didn’t make it into my speech
所有的这些并没有成功地加入我的演讲中
instead I focused on mass unemployment which is a challenging side effect of an all automated economy
反而 我聚焦于大规模失业的人群 这是自动化经济中所面临的一项挑战
this not only helped me stick to the timeframe of around 20 minutes
这不仅让我坚持说完了20分钟的演讲
and people’s attention span of well let’s say potentially less than that
并吸引了观众的注意力 嗯 有可能不到20分钟
but it also helped me to make the audience care about what I had to say
而且也帮我让观众更关注我要说的话
unemployment is a concept that everybody knows
失业是一个所有人都知道的概念
it is something that you can get everyone on board with
它是一个你可以获得所有人的认同的话题
with that foundation as my focus
有这个论点作为我的中心
I had the opportunity to either make my speech incredibly interesting for the audience
我可能会让观众觉得我的演讲非常有趣
or fail horribly a trying which brings us to the second point the tool box
也可能它会是一次失败的尝试 这时我们就需要进行第二点 工具箱
a box full of elements which I always make sure to weave into my speech every note then
一个充满了各种素材的箱子 而且我确信这些素材可以编入我演讲里的每一条
these include quotes and facts that help underpin like credibility
包括可以增强说服力的引用和事实
real-world examples which help to make something abstract more concrete
例如使抽象的事物看起来更加具体的真实例子
and little jokes to lighten up the mood and keep the audience’s attention
以及一些可以放松心情的小玩笑 使观众保持注意力
for example coming back to my speech about the automated economy
例如 回到我的关于自动化经济的演讲
I pointed out historical records that show how under the reign of Henry the eighth
我指出历史记载表明在亨利八世的统治下
around 72,000 unemployed people were execute
大约72000名失业者被处死
I then jokingly remarked that it was unlucky for them
接着我开玩笑的说他们可真不幸
because just four centuries later they would have gotten away with unemployment benefits instead
因为仅仅四个世纪后 他们反而会逃脱处刑 获得失业救济金
it’s important to note that every funny remark I ever make in my speech
重要的是 每个我曾在演讲中提到的有趣的事
is always tied to some factual piece of information
都和一些真实的信息有关
so that in case the joke part of it isn’t received as I hope
以防笑话部分达不到我预期的效果
the audience can always read the informative part instead
然而他们总是能明白信息部分
never ever include a joke into your speech
永远不要在你的演讲中讲出一个
which has the sole purpose of being funny
只是为了搞笑而说的笑话
unless you are a comedian with focus and toolbox in mind
除非你是一个脑子里有中心点的和工具箱的喜剧演员
I work on the script for my speech
我会为自己的演讲打草稿
and writing the script goes hand in hand
并且亲手写草稿
with practicing very often I read sentences out loud immediately after I wrote them down
我经常练习 并且会在写下它们后立即大声读出那些句子
just to see what they sound like when spoke most of the time
只是为了感受下念出来时它们听起来怎么样 通常来说
they sound rather different than what I imagined them to sound like in my head
与其说它们听起来不一样 倒不如说是和我脑海中想象的声音不一样
ultimately I end up going over every word multiple times
最后 我不再每个单词重复多次
and create thousands of iterations of my speech in the process
也不在此过程中无数次修改我的演讲
the very last iteration I’m working on is the one that ends up in my speech
我最后修改的是结束我演讲的那句
just like this one you just heard
也就是你刚刚听到的那句

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视频概述

演讲必备两个要点,知道就再也不怕演讲啦~

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFrk5PajXeE

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